James A Sharp.

A new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) online

. (page 92 of 293)
Online LibraryJames A SharpA new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 92 of 293)
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pop. 81 ; poor r. 231. (Tiver. U.) ; real prop. 942Z. ;
charities 2/. Living, a Rect. (Exet.) val. 161/.,
patr. G. W. Owen, Esq. of C. Hall.

CALVERLEY par. ( ) Morley wap. W. R. York.
4 m. NE. of Bradford-196, near R. Aire, and N.
Midld. rail., contains Bolton, and Calverley-with-
Farsley, Idle, and Pudsey curs. Acres 8390 ; pop.
21,039 + 485, in the woollen and worsted mills ;
poor r. 739Z. (Bradf. U.)-, real prop. 14,1 99Z. ;
charities 54/. of which Q. Elizabeth's " dole " 4/.
St. Wilfrid Vic. (Rip.) val. 230/., patr. Lord Chan-
cellor. C. Hall, was the seat of W. Calverley,
the hero of the ' Yorkshire Tragedy.'

CALVERLEY-WITH-FARSLEY tnshp. in the above
par. contains C.-Mooii vil. Woodhall Hill, Wo-
mersley Row, Bagley, and Rodlev. Acres 3640 ;
pop. 4142 + 211. St" John Evangelist Cur. (Rip.)
val. 1501., patr. Vicar.

CALVERT HOUSE hmlt. ( ) Muker chplry.
N. R. York, near Muker-252.

CALVERTON par. (46) Newport hund. N. Sucks.
1 m. S. of Stony Stratford-52, near Bucks canal.
Acres 1980 ; pop. 262, lace makers and lime bur-
ners ; poor r. 270Z. (Potterspury U.) ; real prop.
3241/. ; charities 17Z. All Saints Rect. (Oxon.)
val. 346Z., patr. Earl Egmont ; church b. by Lord
Arden 1818, on the site of a camp where roman
remains have been found.

P. CALVERTON par. (71) S. Thurgaton wap. &
Notts. 6 m. NNE. of Nottingham- 124, contains
Salterford. Acres 3320, with roofing stone ; pop.
1339 + 24,lace and stocking makers on 404 frames ;
poor r. 447Z. (Batford U.); real prop. 4166/. ;
charities 24Z., of which Labray's school 12/. St.
Wilfrid Vic. (Lin.) val. 127/., patr. Prebendaries
of Oxton, Southwell. Lee, the inventor of the
stocking -frame, was a native and some time
curate here. He made love to a lady who was


always knitting, and in revenge, it is said, for
her inattention, he invented the frame; but
another account states he was expelled from
Cambridge (1589) for marrying, and to support
his family discovered the frame, which he tried
here, and afterwards carried into France, where
he died.

Calrertstown (32) 4 m. SW. of Kilcullen, S.
Kerry, R. Burrowes, Esq. Fairs, 1 May, 21 Sept.

CAIA-EY ( ) 8 m. NW. of Wigton-303, If W.
Cumbrld. on Solway Frith. |gp Calvey ( ) 3 in.
ESE. of Workington, W. Cumbrld.

Calwar Hill, near Forbes, W. Aberdeen, rises
about 1200 ft. over R. Don.

CALWICK tnshp. (72) Ellastone par. NE. Staf-
ford. 7 m. NNE. of Uttoxeter-135, on R. Dove,
had a black priory found, before 1148 by Fitz-
Nigell, afterwards given to Merton, Surrey. Pop.
131. C. Abbey, seat of C. Granville, Esq. has a
fine collection of the dutch masters, besides many
family portraits, including ' Sir Bevil Granville '
the cavalier, ' Lord Lansdowne,' ' Mrs. Delany '
and ' B. D'Ewes ' by Opie, and others by Law-

CAM par. (35) Upper Berkeley hund S. Glou-
cest. 1m. N. of Dursley-110, on C. River, which
runs to R. Severn, produces excellent cheese.
Acres 3430, pasture ; pop. 1851, in the cloth mills ;
poor r. 7571. (Dursl. U.) ; real prop. 8344/. ; cha-
rities 223/., of which Hopton's school. St. George
Vic. (Gl. and Br.) val. with Low CAM Cur. 150i,
patr. Bishop. igP CAM par. (44-5, 47-8) Ath-
lone bar. S. Roscommon, 9 m. N VV. of Athlone-76,
contains Curraghboy, an old seat of the Dillons,
now of J. Byrne, Esq. Acres 12,403, cultivated,
with limestone; pop. 3830, decreasing. Living
a Vic. with Kiltoom.

Cam Fell( ) 4 m. SS W. of Hawes, N. R. York,
1925ft. high. i^ CAM-HOUSES hmlt. ( )Hel-
beck Lunds chplry. N. R. York. 5 m. N W. of
Hawes-249, under the above. fi5" Cam, or Cama,
Loch, SW. of Assyntpar. W. Sutlirld. U3T Cam,
or lihee, River, rises at Ashwell, SW. Cambridge.
and passing Granchester (where it receives the
Cam or Granta, and becomes navigable) and
Cambridge, joins R. Ouse near Thetford, after a
course of about 30 m.

Camagh Lough (13) near Killeshandra, W". Cavan.

CAMAGH-BRIDGE hmlt. (2) Fore bar. N. West-
meath. 6 m. NVV. of Castlepollard^59.

CAMAGHTAGH hmlt. (4) Innishowen bar. N.
Donegal, near Malin-169.

Camalet camp, at S. Cadbury, SE. Somerset, a
roman camp on the hills cut out of the blue lias,
of about 30 acres, with four trenches, remains of
a prcEtorium, and of buildings. Coins, camp uten-
sils, etc. have been found. Leland calls it a
' wonder of nature and art.' " K. Arthur on Ca-
melot kept his court royall " see ' K. Ryence's
Challenge' in Percy's 'Reliques.'

Camalodunum, or Colonia, of the Romans, is

CAMAKOSS hmlt, (36) W. Shelmaliere bar. 8.
Wexford, 4 m. NW. of Taghmon-94, near C.Hill,
598 ft. high.

Camas (31) near Bruff, Mid. Limerick.

Camcuil (11) near Dromore, W. Sligo.

Cambeck River ( ) runs into R. Irthing, W.

CAMBERFOHD hmlt. (C2) Tamworth par. SE.
Stafford. 2 m. N. of Tarn worth- 11 5, on Derby
rail. ; pop. 122. C. Hall, W. Tonge, Esq.

P. CAMBERWELL-ST. GILES, par. (1,7) E.Brix-
ton hund. Lambeth boro', NE. Surrey, 2 m. S. of
St. Paul's, London, a polling place, containing
Dulwich (beyond the boro'), Herne Hill, and



Peckham curs., is the CambreweU of ' Domesdy.,
; lies between the Albany, Camberwell, and Dover
roads, extends as far as the Nun Head, Oak of
i Honour Forest, Knight's, Champion, Red Post,
1 and Denmark hills, and is crossed by the head
of the Gd. Surrey canal. Acres 4570, much open
field; pop. 39,868 + 1163; houses 6843, mostly
new, with 9 churches, many dissenting chapels,
P-police stations, savings bk. (43,7241. from 2455
depositors), Wilson's gram, school where Tyrrell
the historian was educated, green-coat sch.
Surrey Lit. Institution, aged pilgrims' almsh. for
60, Union p. house; poor r. 881 71. on 184,742*. ;
real prop. 209,641/. ; charities 295Z. of which poor's
land S7L besides a right to Dulwich college. St.
Giles' Vic. (Win.) sometime held by R. Parr,
chaplain to Usher, val. 1820t, patr. Rev. J. Wil-
liams, church reb. 1842-4 (on site of the old
one burnt 1841, with 8 brasses of the Skynners,
Scotts etc. from 1847), by Scott and Moflatt, is
large and cruciform, in later eng. style, with a
tall spire; Camden church Cur. 7001., Trustees;
St. George Cur. 500/., Sir E. B. Smyth, Bt., eh.
b. 1824 by Beckford ; Emmanuel cur. 3001., Sir
E. B. Smyth, Bt. ; St. M. Magdalen cur. I., Rev.
J. G. Storie ; Christ Church cur. Kent Road, I.
Hyndman's Trustees. Near Grove Hill, seat of
C. Baldwin, Esq., formerly of Dr. Lettsom, and
commanding a wide prospect, at the spot where
George Barnwell murdered his uncle, runs the
spring or well which gives name to the town ; in
C. Road t is Sir C. Wren's house (of neat brick)
while he was building St. Paul's. The Manor
Ho., now a school near Denmark hill, is a curious
old building, with large oak-panelled hall, on
each side of which are 2 rooms ; those on the N.
side wainscotted with oak on S. with cedar, and
panel paintings, antique chimney-pieces, etc.
The Ermine Street, of which traces were found in
cutting the canal, went by Oak of Honour Hill
(so called, they say, because Q. Eliz. dined there
under an oak), near St. Thomas's Watering, where
the Canterbury pilgrims stopped to refresh, and
here was found a marble head of Janus, thought
by some to be a Deus Terminus, which stood at
Lambeth ferry, where the Stane and Ermine
streets parted. Denmark Hill, Sir J. Key, Bt. ;
Champion Hill, Lady de Crespigny. Camberw.
P. L. Union consists of the above par. Sup. Re-
gistry comprises the same ; pop. 39,868 + 1163;
births (1845) 1266 (648 being females, 39 ille-
git.) deaths 975 marriages 298, of which 55
persons signed with marks; 333 deaths from
cholera 1849. It belongs to Lambeth New County
Court district. Fair, in Aug. on C. Green.

CAMBLESFOKTH tnshp. (88) Drax par. W. R.
York. 2 m. N. of Snaith-173, near Lane, and
Tksh. rail. Acres 1970; pop. 321 + 6; poor r.
109/.(SelbyU.); real prop. 1570/.; charities Al-
lanson's school 61. C. Hall, Sir C. Blois, Bt.

CAMBO tnshp. ( ) Hartburn par. Mid. North-
umbrld. 11 in. W. of Morpeth-289. Pop. 99.
Living, a Cur. (Durh.) val. 35/., patr. Vicar.

Combo House* at King's Barns, E. Fife. Sir T.
Erskine, Bt.

CAMBOIS tnshp. ( ) with N. Blyth, Bedlington
par. Durham, locally Northmbrld. 7 m. E. by S.
of Morpeth, on R. Wansbeck's mouth.

Camboricvm of the Romans, is CAMBRIDGE.

P. M. CAMBRONE par. (31-3) Penwith hund.
SW. Cornwall, 11 m. WSVV. of Truro, 266 from
London, on Redruth rail, is a petty sess. town,
containing Penpouds, Tuckingmill and Treslo-
than Curt. Acres 6900 (or 5933), granite and
slate alternately, with copper (purple, at C.
Vean), lead, and tin, including Cambrea

328 CAM

Down; pop. 10,061 + 237, miners, in the E.
Wheel Crofty (cop.), Gt. Wheel Prosper (tin and
china-clay), the Cook's Kitchen, and in Dolcoath
Coppermine, which extends a mile underground
at a depth of 1080 ft. ; houses 1872, with church
and 2 chapels, market house, bank, Mrs. Per-
ceval's free school (217.) ; poor r. 16487. on 13,2337.
(Redruth U.); real prop. 20,3227. of which 45867.
on mines ; charities 707. St. Martin Rect. (Exet.)
val. 7907., patr. Baroness Bassett of Tehidy ; ch.
later eng. with carved pulpit, a stone inscription
as old as the 10th cent, and tombs of the Pen-
darveses of Pendarves. Mendarva, once the Arun-
dells', is the Bassetts' seat ; Rosewarne, W.
Hartley, Esq. thro' the Harrises. At Carwynen
is a small cromlech, and there is a holy well.
Mkt. D. Sat. Fairs, 1 Mar. Whit Tu. 29 June,
11 Nov. cattle, etc.

Cambretonum of the Romans, is somewhere near


Cambria of the Romans, is Wales, and the bor-
der lands beyond R. Severn, so called from the
Cimbri, Cymri, etc. and constituted Britannia
Secunda which Ostorius Scapula conquered, in-
cluding the tribes of the Ordovices (N. Wales
and Salop), Silures (SE. Wales, Herefd. Monmo'.~),
Demetce (SW. Wales). The Saxons called them
' Brit-wealas ' and other names, as they called the
Cimbri settled in Devon etc. the ' Corn-wealas,'
both from Gael or Gaul (another name of the
Cimbri) with the g softened down.

CAMBRIDGESHIRE (46-7, 51-2, 64-5) an in-
land county, E. England, the seat of the bri-
tish Cenomanni, (a tribe of the Iceni), part of
the roman Flavia Ccesariensis, and of the saxon
E. Anglia and Mercia, and called Grentebrige-
scire in ' Domesdy.' is traversed by the E. Count,
rail. (30J m.) watered by Rs. Cam (34 m.),
Rere (30 m.), and Nen (34 m.), and bordered by
Norf. (NE.), Suffk. (SE.), Essex, and Herts. (S.),
Beds, and Hunt's. (SW.), Nhamptn. (NW.), and
Lincoln. (N.). Extent from below Gt. Chester-
ford to Tydd St. Mary, 50 m., greatest breadth
25, av. breath 16^ m ; circuit about 200 m. ; re-
lative size 148-10,000ths. It contains 857 sq. m.,
or 548,480 acres (536,313 by addition of pars.), of
which 242,830 belong to the Isle of Ely, above
500,000 are arable, meadow, and pasture, and
about one-third fenny ; 164,459 + 2050 persons, of
whom 41,363 are in Cambridge, Wisbeach, Whit-
tlesca, Ely, March, Chatteris, and Soham, 82,848
are females, 78,616 under 20 yrs. of age, 136,337
country-born, 14,744 or 8'9 per cent, live by
trade, manufact. etc., 22,918 by agricult. (3341
being farmers and graziers), 1440 educated pro-
fessions, 3826 are independent, 32,016 labourers
and servants, etc. ; 33,095 houses, besides 1463
empty and building ; 18 hundreds (17 in ' Domes-
dy. '), of which Ely, N. and S. Witchford, and
Wisbeach (including the libs, of Whittlesea
and Thorney), constitute the /. of Ely, form-
ing the N. end of the county beyond the
Ouse, under the bishop's jurisdiction, with Ar-
mingford (SW.), Chesterton (Mid.), Cheveley
"SE.), Chilford (SE.), Fiendish (S.), Long Stow
SW.), Papworth (E.), Radfield (SE.), Staine
Mid.), Staploe (E.), Stow or N. Stow (Mid.),
Priplow (S.), Wetherley (SW.), Whitlesford
(S.) ; 150 parishes, besides part of another, 2
ext. par. places, and the pars, of Ely and Cam-
bridge; 10 mkt. towns, Cambridge the co. town,
etc., as below, Ely city and seat of a diocese,
Newmarket (partly in Sufk.') Wisbeach, Whit-
tlesea (mkt. disused.), March, Caxton (disused),
Linton, Thorney, Soham (disused) the first 8,
with Chesterton being poor law Unions, the first


5 with Royston (part in Herts."), polling places,
the first 4 with March and Soham, new County
Courts ; returns seven members to parl., viz. 3 for
the county (elect. 7090), 2 each for Cambridge
town and Univ. (below) ; is in the home military
district, and in Norfolk circuit, as the assizes
and sessions for co. being at Cambridge, for
I. of Ely at Ely and Wisbeach ; is governed by a
lord lieut. and deputy, high sheriff, and about
48 magistrates, and constitutes the archdea-
conry of Ely in that diocese, province of Can-
terbury, except the deanery of Fordham round
Newmarket, which belongs to archdy. of Sudbury
in the same diocese. Real prop. (1815) 705,372/.
('43) 1,102,4157. ; ditto rentals, 487, 1927. or 17s. 9rf.
per acre (when wheat was 77s.) and 774,6587. or
28s. 3d. per acre (wheat 55s.). County income
('48) 17,7497., of which 98927. from co. rate (on a
val. of 310,9967. for co. made 1827, and 380, 1957.
for I. of Ely made 1841), 29427. from police r.
Poor r. (yr. 1846-7) for 9 unions 81,3347. on
922,5907., or Is. 9d. in the (wheat being 59s.);
cases relieved 21,314 (out-door 17,061) in esti-
mated pop. of 186,538. Total charities 16,1637. of
which 26117. for schools, and education; savings
bks. ('49) 4, with 182,1127. from 5421 depositors ;
in yr. '38-9, 1138 m. of road (225 m. being turn-
pike) were maintained for 20897. In '46-7, out
of 171 pars. 165 had 283 church schools, sup-
ported by 65657. with 13,318 children attending,
and 362 paid teachers (53 being monitors), whose
salaries were 48987., and who had 117 teachers'
houses : out of these 4 were free schools, and 68
Sunday sch. (exclusively, with 498 teachers and
8484 child.) ; and 105 in union with the National
Soc. had 8458 children, and total grants of
27677. Offenders in '48, 244 (or 262, av. of 5.
yrs.) of whom 185 were convicted, 32 were fe-
males, under 15 years of age, 81 could not read
or write. Following the Sup. Registry districts
of '45 (total pop. 169,638 + 2130) the 'births'
were 62737. of whom 3003 were females, 355 or 7
per cent, illegit. ; ' deaths ' 3685 or 1 in 46, the
av. being 46 ; ' marriages ' 1459 (at church 1352)
of which 1471 persons, or 48'8 per cent, signed
with marks. The chalk hills, which belong to
the Chiltern range, run across the S. corner, from
Royston to Newmarket heath, the highest point
being Gogmagog, near Cambridge ; clunch, of
which Ely cathedral is partly built, appears
about Burwell; a strip of blue clay or gault,
with iron sand, passes down the basin of the Cam
to Ely, where it rises into a moderate swell, on
which the city stands, and is there used for
white bricks and earthenware; another strip of
Portland oolite lies between this one and the
Bedford cuts. All the rest, indeed from Cam-
bridge northwards, is one dead flat of fenny land,
forming the S. part of the Gt. Bedford Level
intersected by numberless canals and ditches
(partly navigable) for draining, with steam-en-
gines and windmills for lifting the water, and osier
beds and lines of dwarf willows to complete the
prospect. Wheat, beans, turnips, and sanfoin
are grown on the uplands, where the soil is a
mixture of chalk, clay, loam, gravel, while the
rich, black, spongy soil of the fens, when once re-
claimed, is usually sown with cole seed, to be
eaten off by sheep, and then, besides turf for fuel,
produces very heavy crops of wheat, barley, oats
(which was the prevailing corn before the land
was improved), potatoes, and hay. Hemp and
flax are raised about Wisbeach, Upwell, etc., and
saffron is grown at Cherry Hinton, which takes
its name from that fruit having been grown there
once. The dairy lands in the middle are famous


for Cambridge butter; and fine cream cheese is
made at Cottenham and Soham. Great numbers
of cart-horses, cattle, pigeons, and long-woolled
sheep are bred in the fens, which abound with
wild fowl ; short woolled sheep are pastured on
the heaths to the SE. The farms are mostly
small and held at will, but some at 4 or 5 yrs.
lease; farm buildings middling. The only ma-
nufactures are baskets and matting from reeds.
Native plants are very numerous, among which
are varieties of toadflax, chickweed, maidenhair,
bellflower, carex, sunflower, clematis (at Cherry
Hinton), heath, ladies' bed-straw, gentian (Ch.
Hinton), hypnum, vetch, flax (Ch. Hinton),
mint, dutch myrtle (Ely fens) water-lily, orchis,
marjoram, saxifrage, crowfoot, woad or dyers' weed
(Ch. Hiuton), sweet briar (Gogmagog hills),
thyme, trefoil, valerian, speedwell, periwinkle;
the neighbourhood of Cherry Hinton, Cambridge,
Gamlingley, Madingley, Gogmagog, being places
where they most abound. Principal seats, etc. are :
Duke of Jutland Cheveley PL, Earl Hardwicke
Wimpole Hall, E. Delawarr, Bourne Ho., E. Kilmo-
rey Waresley Ph., Lord Godolphin Gogmagog Hill,
Cotton, Bt., Madingley Pit. Watson, Bt. Wratting
Ph. Mrs. Pigott ofAbingtonHa., Adeane ofJBabra-
Jiam, Jenyns of Bottisham, Usborne of Branches
Pk., Tharpe of Chippenham Ph., Newton of Croxton
Ph., Mrs. Gardner of Fordham Ab., Townley of
Futtourne Ho., Quinton of Hatley Pk., Batson of
Horseheath Lo. Knight of Milton, Mrs. Cheere of
Papworth, Huddlestone of Sawston Ha. Dayrell,
of Shudy Camps Pk. Eaton of Stetchworth Ho., Allix
of Swaffham. The Cambr. hounds are kennelled
at Stratton Beds. The Icknield St. went across
from Newmarket to Royston, where the Ermine
St. crossed to Godmanchester ; remains of the Via
Devana are seen between Balsham and Cam-
bridge, where another way crossed from Ely into
Beds. ; the Soham causeway was part of the
great road through the fens into Lincoln, Traces
of british earthworks are found at the Devil's
Ditch, near Newmarket racecourse, which was the
boundary of E. Anglia and Mercia, and at Fleam
Dyke not far from it, near Balsham ; and coins,
urns, and other roman antiques have been turned
up at Arbury, near Cambridge (the only station, see
below), at Vandlebury camp on Gogmagog hill
(so called from the Vandals whom Probus brought
over), Chatteris, Ely, March, Soham, Wilney, and
other places. Of the 36 religious houses, including
4 abbeys and 11 priories, besides 9 hospitals,
founded here, there are remains of Thorney and
Denny abbeys, and Isleham and Barham priories.
Downham was an old seat of the bishops. Spe-
cimens of saxon or norman styles are to be seen
at Ely Cathedral, Duxford, Ickleton, Stuntney,
many other churches having norman doorways ;
of later styles at Ely, especially the beautiful
Lady Chapel, at Sutton, a very regular example,
the Sepulchre church and the glorious chapel of
King's Coll. Cambridge, and Swaffham. Jso re-
mains are found of y castles, except the gate of
that at Cambridge ; Catledge or Kirtling hall is
an ancient seat of the Norths ; Balsham was the
residence of Sutton, who bought the old scat of
the De Veres at Castle camps to give to the
Charter House, Stuntney of Cromwell before he
got into parl. ; and at Spinney his son Richard
received Ch. II. after the Restoration. At the Con-
quest the I. of Ely became remarkable for the yrs.
defence made by Hereward and others aic:iiu*t
William; it was afterwards fortified by Hen. III.'s
rebellious barons, and by Cromwell against Ch. I.
Roads are : 1. Cambridge to Hauxton 4 m.,
Melborne 10, Royston 13, thence to Baldock 23, or



to Hereford and London. 2. To Barton 3, Onvell
hill and Wimpole Pk. 8, Wrestlingworth 14,
Biggleswade 20. 3. To Madingley 4, Caxton 8,
Croxton 12, St. Neot's 17. 4. Dry Drayton 4,
Fenny Stanton 11, St. Ives 14, Huntingdon 1C ; or
by rail through St. Ives 10. 5. To St. Ives 14,
Old Hurst 18, Ramsey 27, Whittlesea 35, Peter-
boro' 41. 6. To Waterbeach 5, Denny Abbey 7,
Steelham on the old Roman way 11, Ely 15 (by
rail 14|) ; or by Stretham to Sutton 17, Chatteris
23, March 31, Boat Inn ferry on R. Nen 36,
Wisbeach 42, thence to Holbeach and Boston.
7. To Ely as above 15 (by rail to Peterboro' 30 ; or
to Brandon 16), Littleport 19, Downham Mkt. 30,
thence to Lynn 42. 8. To Bottisham 6, New-
market 12, Kentford 17 ; thence to Bury 26, or
to Mildenhall past Chippenham Pk. 21. 9. To
Gogmagog 4, Linton 10, Haverhill 17, thence to
Clare. About 32 m. of E. Count, rail, passes
Chesterford (18 m. branch to Newmarket), Cam-
bridge ("20 m. branch to St. Ives and Hunting-
don), Ely, Mildenhall road (towards Brandon) ;
from Ely 31 m. branch goes to Manch. and
Peterboro', and 9 m. of E. Anglian past Littleport,
etc. (towards Lynn) ; a cross line of 24 m. goes
from St. Ives to Manch. and Wisbeach. Gt.
Northern touches the W. side, between Potton
and Huntingdon.

#*P. M. CAMBRIDGE (51) a hund. of itself,
locally in Chesterton hund. S. Cambridge. 50 m.
N. by E. of London, or 57 J by E. Count, rail, on R.
Cam, the county, assize, session, and election town,
a polling place, head of an excise district, and
seat of a university, the roman Camboricum on the
Via Devana, and Granta bricge of the Saxons,
was burnt by the Danes 870, and 1010 and made
the site of a castle built by the Conqueror on the
site of a former station, to overawe the I. of Ely ;
suffered from both parties during the wars of the
barons and Roses, especially in 1216 and 1267 ;
was the scene of a rising 1281 and 1381, of the
townspeople against the University, when they
burnt the records and charters, and for which
they were mulcted of their privileges, and made
subordinate to it ; was occupied by Dudley, who
was chancellor and proclaimed Mary here (after
his failure at Bury in behalf of Lady Jane Grey)
without avail to him ; and was seized for parl. by
Cromwell, who represented it ; is a borough by-
prescription, returning two members from the
time of Edw. I. the bounds being those of the
old boro' including the 14 pars, below, no. of
electors 1946 (of 10Z. houses 5461) ; was incorpo-
rated by Hen. I. and by the Municipal act is
divided into 5 wards (10 at 'Domesdy.' and 4 at
a later time), governed by a mayor, 10 aid. 30
council, with the style of " mayor, bailiffs, and
burgesses of boro' of C." and a revenue of 6457
Size of boro' 3 m. by 1, or 3195 acres; pop.
23,455 + 253, in a general and carrying trade by
the river, some basket makers. Houses 4797, in
narrow streets, with 17 colleges or halls, and other
university buildings as below ; 14 churches, 5 cha-
pels ; townhall (b. 1747), and boro' gaol in the mkt.
place (where they sell butter by the yard of a
pound weight) ; shire hall and gaol near t he ruined
gateway of the castle, on Castle hill, which has a
fine view ; Foster's and 3 other banks, savings bk.
(124,1677. from 3194 depositors); corn, hog, and
hay markets ; Dr. Perse's gram, school (lately re-
built), Whiston's (64/.), and new free schools ; Ad-
denbrooke's hosp. or infirmary (939/.) found. 1719,
enlarged 1813 with BowteH's bequest ; spinning
ho. found, by Hobson the carrier, who built the
mkt. conduit (87A), and whose picture hangs in
the old Norwich waggon -office ; Storey's a bus-



houses for clergymen's widows (813Z.), Wray's
(215Z.), Spital (25Z.), and Knight's almsh. (94Z.) ;
new cemetery, laid out by Loudon, with a good
chapel by E. Lamb ; and Union p. house. Assd.
taxes 77517. ; poor r. 10,545Z. ; real prop, for boro'
113,468Z. for colleges 37,8367, ; charities 32211., of
which besides the above, Forrester's 124Z. and
Holy Trinity church estate 166Z. Livings, in
dioc. (Ely) are : All Saints Vic. val. 130/., patr.
Jesus Coll., church has Booth's mon. to Kirk
White, by Chantrey ; St. Andrew the Great Vic.
120Z., Dean and Chap., ch. reb. 1643, and again
lately, has mon. to Cook the great navigator,
whose widow (who died 1835) is buried here;
St Andrew the Less Cur. 48Z. patr. of this (and
of St Paul's Cur. in this par. val. 120Z.), Trus-
tees of Rev. C. Perry, to whom Barnwell priory
belonged, of which church was partly built ; St.
Benedict or Bene't Cur. 1511., Corp. Chr. Coll.
ch. has saxon tower, brass of Dr. Billingford
(1442) and the remains of old Hobson, whose
" wain," according to Milton, " was his increase,"
and whose rule in letting horses gave rise to the
proverb ' Hobson's choice, this or none ; ' St. Bo-
tolph Rect. 122/., Queen's Coll. ch. lately restored,
has many mons. ; St. Clement Vic. 56Z., Jesus
Coll. ch. lately restored, has an 8-sided font,
good early eng. door, and mon. of J. de Helsyng-
ham (1329); St. Edward (disused) Cur. 66Z.,
Trinity Hall, ch. where Latimer preached, has a
good font; St. Giles Vic. with St. Peter Cur.

Online LibraryJames A SharpA new gazetteer, or, Topographical dictionary of the British Islands and narrow seas : comprising concise descriptions of about sixty thousand places, seats, natural features, and objects of note ... and an appendix ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 92 of 293)