James Atkins.

The coins and tokens of the possessions and colonies of the British empire online

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THE



COINS AND TOKENS



OF THE



Possessions and Colonies



OF THE



BEITISH EMPIEE.



BY



JAMES ATKINS.




LONDON :

BERNARD QUARITCH, 16 PICCADILLY.

1889.



LONDON:

G. NORMAN AND SON, PRINTERS, HART STREET,

COVENT nARDEV,



cj



25bO

A t 'lO c
PREFACE.



-$-H.



The great and ever-increasing- interest wliicli is mauifusted
in all that appertains to the Colonies and Dependencies of
the British Empire, is a quite sufficient justification for the
production, at this time, of a work devoted to a consideration
of the Coins and Tokens which have, from time to time,
been struck for, or been current in, these places.

In addition to this, all who at any time may have acquired
any such coins (and most persons who are collectors must
have done so), as well as systematic seekers after them,
have felt the want of some work of reference, to which to
turn for guidance and direction. Yet, notwithstanding the
importance of the subject, to the best of ray belief no
attempt has, up to the present, been made to give as a whole,
anything approaching a complete or comprehensive list of
our Colonial Coins and Tokens. And so it has come to
pass ; whilst every other branch of Numismatic lore has
been written upon, over and over again, this large and
important section of the coins of our own Empire has been
almost entirely neglected.

It is true that piecemeal attempts have been made to
remedy this state of things. The Rev. H. Christmas, in
articles contributed to the Numismatic Chronicle, has
dealt with the copper coins of several of our Colonies and
Dependencies. Boyne also, in his " Silver Tokens,"
notices a number of the silver pieces of this series ; Clay's
pamphlet (now so difficult to obtain), gives a considerable
amount of information concerning the early American and
Manx Coins, and several other contributors to the Numis-
matic press have touched on some portion of the ground



IV PREFACE.

which 1 am now endeavouring to cover entirely. Nor must
I omit to mention Mr. C. Staiusfield^ whose book on the
*' Australian Tokens " is so thorough and painstaking that
I have no corrections to make in it, but only to supply
notices of some ten or twelve pieces, unknown to the author
at the time.

American writers have contributed several works upon
the coinage of their own country; amongst others it will
not be invidious to mention Dr. Crosby's " Early American
Coins/^ and Sandham's "Coins and Tokens of the Dominion
of Canada." Then again we have in German the excellent
catalogues of Neumann and Weyl, the former relating to
copper coins only ; in addition to which, the cost of these
works, and the fact of their being in a foreign tongue,
prevent them being readily accessible to most collectors.

Having personally experienced the inconvenience of being
compelled to consult so many dijBFerent works, whilst
endeavouring to make a collection of Colonial Coins, I
determined, so far as I might be able, to remedy this
deficiency by gathering into one volume the information
scattered in so many forms and directions, supplementing
with such additional knowledge as I have acquired during a
collecting experience of thirty years.

In preparing this list I would seek altogether to disarm
criticism by disclaiming at once any pretension to finality
or completeness. The vastness of the subject, embracing
as it does the British possessions scattered over the habit-
able world, together with the fact that no previous effort
has ever been made in this direction, are quite sufficient
grounds, if any such were requisite, for offering no apology
for any incompleteness in this the first attempt to produce
an entire view of the Coins and Tokens of our Colonial
Empire. Whatever the sins of omission or commission
may be, of the latter I trust there will be but few, as I have
carefully abstained, with rare exceptions, from describing
any coins but those I have myself seen.



PREFACE.



Should, however, any such errors be discovered, I should
be most obliged for such corrections or additions as might
make a future edition (should one ever be called for) more
perfect than the first.

Neither do I make any claim to literary style in the
following pages, as this would be quite out of place in a
work professing simply to give a plain, and, so far as may
be, a reliable list of these pieces.

The making of this book has been a labour of love to me
for several years past, and until recently no thought of its
ever being published had occurred to me ; but encouraged
by the advice and assistance of many friends, I have at
last brought it out. I do so in the hope that there may
be some brother collectors to whom it will prove of
assistance, and who may be spared by my research some of
the difficulties and labours which I experienced during my
early years as a collector.

Amongst so many who have kindly rendered me aid in
this endeavour, it would perhaps be invidious to mention
any in particular, but I cannot refrain from returning my
thanks to J. B. Caldecott, Esq., for many valuable
suggestions, especially in the East India section; to W.
Carew Hazlitt, Esq., and R. A. Hoblyn, Esq. ; to H.
Montagu, Esq., for ready access to his unrivalled collection
of proofs and patterns; and to J. G. Murdoch, Esq. I
have also to thank Messrs. Lincoln & Son, Messrs. Spink &
Sons, and Mr. F. E. Whelan, of London, and Messrs. R.
Heaton & Sons, of The Mint, Birmingham, for the invariable
kindness shown in giving me' any information in their
power; and last, but not least, to the authorities at the
British Museum and the Royal Mint, for much assistance
during the course of my researches in the National Collec-
tions at those places.

In conclusion, I have only to add that a short historical
notice is prefaced to each section ; that each division of the
globe — Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australasia — is



VI PREFACE.

treated separately ; and that an effort has been made, as
far as possible, to. arrange the colonies and dependencies of
each division, and also the coins and tokens issued by them,
in chronological as well as in geographical order. It may
not be altogether out of place here also to state that to the
European section I have added, what I believe to be the only
attempt in this country to give, a complete account of the
coins struck during the reign of the four Georges and
William IV. for their German possessions, and which,
although they cannot be strictly classed as Colonial Coins,
have yet too intimate a relationship to them to be left out
of a work of this kind.

JAMES ATKINS.
Beomley, Kent,

October, 1888.



NOTE.

The only abbreviations used in tliis work are— O : for obverse, and
It : for reverse.

In many cases the distinctive application of obverse, or reverse, are
purely arbitrary, and simply intended to distiuguisli one side from the
other.

In the illustrations the obverse of the coin is usually found to the
left, with the reverse to the right ; but I am sorry to say that the artist
in drawing some of the illustrations was pleased to take a difierent
view of the subject to myself, and so it has come to pass in a i'eyr
instances that the O : and S : of the description does not agree with
those of the illustration. This was not discovered until it was too late
to correct it.

I may also add that the illustrations will be found to immediately
follow the description of the coin to which they refer.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

— .^-i —



PACE



EUEOPE.— Comprising The Channel Islands. The Isle
of Man, Gibraltar, Malta, The Ionian Islands, and
Cyprus. And including the Anglo-Hanoverian
coinage of Hanover with Brunswick Luneburg, East
Friesland, and Brunswick Wolfenbuttel . . 3-128

ASIA. — Embracing the Presidencies of Bombay, Bengal,
and Madras. The Indian Empire, Ceylon, Sumatra,
Malacca, Pulu-Pcnang, and the Straits Settlements,
together with Java, Hong-Kong, Labuan, Borneo,
Sarawak, and Mauritius ..... 129-235

AFEICA. — Consisting of the Gold Coast, Sierra Leone,
St. Helena, The Cape Colony, Griqua Town, and
Natal 237-246

AMEEICA.— Comprising the Early American Coinages
and Newfoundland. The Dominion of Canada, which
includes New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince
Edward's Island, Magdalen Island, British Columbia,
and Upper and Lower Canada. Together with the
West Indies, British Honduras, and British Guiana . 249-331

A rSTKAL ASIA.— Embracing in Australia the provinces
of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South
Australia, and Western Australia. And including the
islands of Van Dieman's Land, or Tasmania, and New
Zealand 333-381

INDEX 383



COINS AND TOKENS



OF THE BRITISH POSSESSIONS



IN



EUEOPE.



The Channel Islands.


Isle of Man.


GiBKALTAE.


Malta.


Ionian Islands.


Cyprus.



And Including

Hanovek with Bbunswick-Lunebeeg.

East Fkiesland and Beunswick-Wolfenbuttel,



K



THE CHANNEL ISLANDS.

These islands were captured by Rollo, and thus became
an appanage of the Ducliy of Normandy, and afterwards
united to the Crown of England by his descendant William
the Conqueror. The inhabitants preferred to remain sub-
jects of John at the period of the invasion of Normandy by
Philip Augustus, and, while retaining the laws, customs,
and (until lately) the language of their continental ancestors,
have always remained firm in their allegiance to England.
The only coins struck for these islands have been copper
and bronze, which will first be described, and afterwards
the tokens, both silver and copper.



1.


0:




B:


2.




3.


0:



R



4.



GUERNSEY.

Goiter Coins.

Shield of arms, GUERNESEY above, and a
laurel wreath below.

3 I DOUBLES 1 1831, in three lines, within a
wreath of laurel.

Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1858.
Shield as before, GUERNESEY under it, no
wreath.

4 I DOUBLES 1 1830 | in three lines.




Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1858.

1 ^



4 CHANNEL ISLANDS.

5. : As No. 3.

R: Q I DOUBLES I 1858, iu three lines.
G. : Similar to last.

R: 1 I DOUBLE | 1830, iu three lines.

There are bronzed and copper proofs of
Nos. 1, 'S, and Q, of this series.
Bronze Coins.
Shield of arms, GUERNESEY above, and a
laurel wreath below.

3 I DOUBLES I 1861, iu three lines, within a
wreath of laurel.

Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1864.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1868.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1874.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1885.
Shield as before, GUERNESEY under it, no
wreath.

4 I DOUBLES I 1864, in three lines.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1868.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1874.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1885.
Similar to No. 12.

2 I DOUBLES I 1868, iu three lines.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1874.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1885.
Similar to No. 12.

1 I DOUBLE I 1868, in three lines.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1885.

JERSEY.

Copper Coins.

21. 0: Bust to left, the hair filleted. VICTORIA D : G :

BRITANNIAR:REGINA F:D: 1841.
B : Shield of arms, STATES OF JERSEY, above,
1/13 OF A SHILLING, below.

22. Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1844,



7.


0:




R:


8.




9.




10.




11.




12.


0:




B


13.




14.




15.




16.







R


17.




18.




19.







B


20.





JERSEY.



23.

24.
25.
26.

27.



28.
29.
30.
31.






33.




B



0:
B



34.







B


35.




36.




37.







B



Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1851.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1858.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1861.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1865.

There are proofs of Nos. 21, 24, 25, and 26.
Bust as before, see No. 21, date 1841.
Shield of arms as before, STATES OF JERSEY

above, 1/26 OF A SHILLING below.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1844.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1851.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1858.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1861.

Proofs occur of Nos. 27, 30, and 31.
Similar to No. 21, excepting in size, date 1841.
Shield as before . STATES OF JERSEY. above,
1/52 OF A SHILLING below.




Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1861.
Proofs exist of both these pieces, the latter

rarely occurs in any other condition.
Bronze Coins.
Coroneted bust to left, VICTORIA D.G.

BRITANNIAR.REGINA F.D. 1866.
Shield of arms, STATES OF JERSEY above,

ONE THIRTEEKTH OF A SHILLING

below.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1870.
Similar to last, excepting date, which is 1871.
Similar to No. 34, excepting in size, date 1866.
Shield as before, STATES OF JERSEY above,

ONE TWENTY-SIXTH OF A SHILLING

below.



CHANNEL ISLANDS.



38.
39.

40.



41.
42.



43.



Similar to last^ excepting date, wliicli is 1870.
Similar to last, excepting date, whicli is 1871.

All these pieces are found as proofs.

Coroneted bust to left, a seven-pointed star
under, and a small h (for Heaton,) VICTORIA
D . G . BRITANNIAR . REGINA F. D.

A pointed shield of arms divides the date 18 —
77, STATES OF JERSEY above, ONE
TWELFTH OF A SHILLING below.

Similar to last, excepting in size and value, ONE
TWENTY-FOURTH OF A SHILLING.

Similar to last, excepting in size and value, ONE

48th of a SHILLING.

These three also occur as proofs without the

initial h. on obverse.
Similar to No. 40, excepting date, which is

18-81.



44.







R


45.







B



SiLVEK Tokens.

Arms of Jersey within a double circle, BISHOP

DE JERSEY & Co. ^
TOKEN OF FIVE SHILLINGS in three lines

within a wreath, BANK OF GUERNESEY.

1809.
Shield of arms, STATES OF JERSEY, 1813.
THREE SHILLINGS TOKEN, in three lines,

within a wreath.




CHANNEL ISLANDS.



46.
li



47.







n


48.







R


■10.







R


50.







R


51.







R


52.







R



As last.

EIGHTEEN PENCE TOKEN, in three linos,

witliin a wreath.

All these tokens arc found as proofs, No.

44 being exceedingly rare.

Copper Tokens.
All Fenny size.

Laurcated bust of George III. JERSEY BANK

TOKEN, 1812.
ELIAS NEEL, JERSEY. A BANK OF

ENGLAND NOTE FOR 240 TOKENS.
Draped bust of George III. JERSEY BANK,

1813.
Female seated, holding scales and cornucopia,

ONE PENNY TOKEN.
JERSEY. GUERNESEY AND ALDERNEY.

ONE PENNY TOKEN.
Prince of Wales' plume and motto. TO

FACILITATE TRADE. 1813.
As last.

Bust of George III. in a thick wreath of oak.
As last.

ONE PENNY TOKEN. ^Yithin a wreath.
As last.
Druid's head. PURE COPPER PREFERABLE

TO PAPER. PENNY TOKEN.



^






|e$«^*






ISLE OF MAN.

The Isle of Man was owned by the Earls of Derby from
the year 1406 to 1735, who exercised all the rights of a
sovereign even to the coining of money. The first issue of
copper coins took place in 1709, and consisted of pennies
and halfpennies. These coins are cast. There had been an
issue of private tokens prior to this in 1668. In 1735 the
island fell by inheritance to the Duke of Atholl who also
exercised sovereign rights, and who in 1 758 issued pennies
and halfpennies. His rights were in 1 765 purchased by the
English Parliament for the sum of £70,000, and a further
sum of £132,944 was given in January, 1829, for the
purchase of his remaining interest in the revenues of the
island. Copper pennies and halfpennies were issued in 1786,
1798 and 1813, and again, with the addition of farthings, in
1839. There are no silver coins, and in 1840 the separate
issue for the island was stopped; since that time they
have the ordinary coins such as are current in other parts of
the kingdom. In addition to the seventeenth century token
already mentioned, a considerable number of tokens, both
silver and copper, were issued early in this present century.

Coins op the Isle op Man.
Penny.

1. 0: The Stanley crest, upon a cap of maintenance.

^ SANS ^ CHANGER ^ 1709.
E: The triune. QVOCVNQYE ^ GESSERIS ^
STABIT ^
Kalfpenny.

2. Similar to last. Both these coins are cast.
Penny.

3. : The Stanley crest, &c., as before. SANS .

CHANGER. 1723.
B: The triune. QVOCVNQVE . GESSERIS .
STABIT :•:



ISLE OP MAN. 9

4. Similar to last excepting date, which is 1724.

Halfpenny.

5 Similar to No. 4.

There are silver proofs of Nos. 3, 4 and 6,
and these, as well as the copper pieces, are all
very rare.



Penny



?



6. : The Stanley crest, &c., as before. SANS .
CHANGER . 1725.
B: The triune. QUOCUNQUE . GESSERIS .
STABIT :•:

This piece is in silver and may be a pattern
for a penny, but much more probably is a
medal, as it is much larger than any of the
pennies of this period. It is exceedingly rare.
Clay in his work on the Manx coinage
erroneously gave the date as 1705. This was
due to the fact that the specimen described
by him, had the date so low down, that the
bottom part of the figure 2 cannot be seen.
The specimen in the British Museum is in the
same condition.

7. : Similar to No. 4, excepting that the eagle has a

sprie- in its mouth, date 1732.

.ID
B: The triune dividing the mitials j

QUOCUNQUE . lECERIS . STABIT.

8. Similar to last but with a diflference in the sprig.

These also are patterns and very rare.
>/f 9. 0: The Stanley crest. SANS. CHANGER. 1733.

B : Triune dividing initials j Legend as before.

This occurs in copper and in brass. There
are also patterns in silver, and there are
several minor variations of die.



10

Halfpenny.



ISLE OF MAX.



I D



10. Similar l,to last , . Also in silver, copper

a / "2

and brass.




Venny.
^ ^ 11. 0: 64.^. — the monogram of tlie Duke of Atlioll, a

crown above, and tbe date below, 1758.
B : The triune. QUOCUNQUE . JECERIS .STABIT.
There are silver and bronzed proofs of this,
and there are several slight variations of die,
as also of No. 12.




I£a/fj)en7ty.

12. Similar to No. 11_, excepting in size and value.
Penny.

13. : Laureated bust to right . GEORGIVS III DEI

GRATIA. 1786.
R : The triune . QYOCVNQUE lECERIS . STABIT.




JStE OF MATJ.



11



Halfpenny.

14.



Penny.
\y' 15. :

n-.

16.

Halfpenny .

s/17.
18.



Penny.
y/ 19. :

Halfpenny.



Farthing.

21.



Similar to last, excepting in size and value.

Proofs occur of Nos. 13 and 14 with both
plain and milled edges.

Laureated bust to right. GEORGIANS III.

D : G . REX, 1 798.
The triune QVOCVNQVE lECERIS STABIT.
Similar to last excepting date, which is 1813.

Similar to No. 15, excepting in size and value, n*^^
Ilalfpcnny similar to No. 16^ excepting in size
and value.

These are broad rim coins with the legends
in incuse letters on the rim.

There are bronzed proofs of Nos. 15-18;
also gilt bronze of Nos. 15 and 16.

Bust to left . VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1839
The triune. QVOCVNQVE lECERIS STABIT

Similar to last, excepting in size and value.




Similar to last, excepting in size and value.

There are bronzed and copper proofs of
the last three pieces. Patterns also occur
of No. 19 dated 1841, and 1859; of No. 20
dated 1841, and 1800; and of No. 21, dated
18G0, and 1864. These, however, were never
issued as coins.



23.







B


24.







R


25.







R



12 ISLE or MAN.

Silver Tokens.

22. 0: View of Peel Castle and harbour. PEEL
CASTLE above, ISLE OF MAN below.
R: PROMISE I TO PAY | THE BEARER | ON
DEMAND I 5 SHILLINGS | BRITISH 1
1811, in seven lines. THE DOUGLAS
BANK Co. ^ AT THEIR BANK, DOUG-
LAS ^ in an outer circle.

Similar to the last.

Similar to the last, excepting that the fifth line
of i^ : is 2s 6d.

View of Peel Castle and harbour, no legend.

DOUGLAS I BANK TOKEN | ONE SHIL-
LING I BRITISH I 1811 in five lines.

I have seen a small copper token as follows.

As last.

S . ASH . in centre of the field of the coin.

Copper Tokens.

26. 0: View of Peel Castle and harbour, PEEL

CASTLE above, ISLE OF MAN below.
R : DOUGLAS | BANK TOKEN | ONE PENNY
I 1811. in four lines.

27. Similar to preceding, excepting that the word

BANK is omitted on the reverse.

28. Halfpenny similar to No. 26, excepting in size

and value.

29. : Atlas supporting a globe, PAYABLE AT THE

OFFICE DOUGLAS.
R: The triune, MANKS TOKEN ONE PENNY.
1811.

30. Halfpenny similar, excepting in size and value.

31. 0: BANK I PENNY in two lines in centre within

a circle, ISLE OF MAN • 1811 •
R : The triune, QVOCVNQVE lECERIS STABIT.
\/ 32. Halfpenny similar, excepting in size and value.



ISLE OF MAN.



13



Penny.
33. 0:



/



Bust to right, GOD : SAVE : THE : KING 1830.
(George III. ?)

FOR ^—^ PUBLICK ACCOMODATION,
displayed in three lines. This is struck in
copper and brass, there is a variety in brass
which has a square top to the figure 5.



Halfpenny
34.



35.



Similar excepting in size and value.
: HALF | PENNY | TOKEN in three lines in
the centre, PRO BONO PUBLICO 1831.
n : The triune. QUOCUNQUE . lECERIS . STABIT,
The legend on both sides is incuse on a broad
v^ thick rim. This also occurs in copper and

brass.
To make our list as complete as possible we add a
description of the only 1 7th Century token known to exist.
36. : HIS I PENNY | I ^ M in three lines within a
circle. lOHN * MVRRAY * 1668.
R : The triune, QVOCVNQVE . GESSERIS • STA-
BIT *.



GIBEALTAK.

The ancient Calpe^ a town on a rock in South Spain, on
which is placed a fortress considered impregnable. It was
attacked by the British, and taken on July 24th, 1704.
The Spaniards attempted to retake it in 1705, and again in
1727, but were repulsed with great loss on both occasions.

Again in 1779 it was besieged by an immense force of
French and Spaniards combined, and kept in a state of
siege for upwards of three years, but the English garrison,
under General Eliott, were successful in withstanding all
their efforts, and the blockade ceased on February 5th,
1783.

The only coins are copper, struck in 1842, and are for
two, one, and half quarts respectively.

The tokens are not numerous, and are of copper only.

Coins.

'^'^l. 0: Bust to left. VICTORIA D : G: BEITAN-
NIAR : REGINA F : D : 1842.
R: A castle with a key under it, GIBRALTAR
above, TWO QUARTS below.

\/ 2. ' ONE QUART. Similar, excepting in size and

value.

3. HALF QUART. Similar.

There are bronzed and copper proofs of
each of these, and I have also seen a set dated
1861. These latter were never issued, but
are only patterns.

Tokens.

4. : View of Gibraltar, PAYABLE AT R. KEEL-

INGS above, GIBRALTER below.
R : Castle and key VALUE TWO QUARTS 1802.



GIBRALTAK.




5. ONE QUART. Similar to lust, excepting ia size

and value.
^6. 0: A lion holding, a key. PAYABLE AT ROBERT
KEELING & SON'S. GIBRALTAR.
B: A castle. VALUE TWO QUARTS above,
1810 below.

7. ONE QUARTO. Similar to last, excepting in

size and value.

8. : Similar to No. C, excepting that there is no dot

before or after Gibraltar.
B : Similar to last, excepting that the figures of date
are smaller.

9. ONE QUARTO. Similar to No. 8, excepting

in size and value.
10. 0: Lion and key, PAYABLE AT RICHARD
CATTONS GOLDSMITH. GIBRALTAR
1813.

B : 2. QUARTOS within a wreath, a crown over.
AGENTE PARA LA FABRICA DE DIA-
MANTES PATENTES. DE DUDDELL.
HOLBORN. LONDRES.
n. 1 QUARTO. Similar, but without the legend

on reverse.

12. 0: Lion and key. PAY^ABLE AT JAMES

SPITTLE'S above, GIBRALTAR below.
B : View of fortifications. VALUE TWO QUARTOS
1818.

13. : Same as last.

B : Similar view, VALE DOS QUARTOS 1820.



IG



GIBRALTAR.



14. UN QUARTO. Similar to last^ excepting in

size and value.
There are Spanish Dollars with their various divisions
found, which are countermarked on both sides with the
floriated capitals <^3S in a circular indent. These are
mentioned by Boyne in his work on Silver Tokens, and
supposed by him to have been so marked for use in some
of the Colonies. I have been informed, on pretty good
authority, that they were used early in the present century
for the payment of the troops at Gibraltar. I have, there-


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Online LibraryJames AtkinsThe coins and tokens of the possessions and colonies of the British empire → online text (page 1 of 20)