James Augustus Hessey.

Sunday, its origin, history and present obligation : considered in eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLX .. online

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OCT 6 19i,q




Division A

BR 45 .B35 1860
Bampton lectures




SUNDAY.

ITS ORIGIN, HISTORY, AND PRESENT OBLIGATION,

CONSIDERED IN

EIGHT LECTURES

PREACHED BEFORE THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

IN THE YEAR MDCCCLX.

ON THE FOUNDATION OF
THE LATE REY JOHN BAMPTON, M.A.

CANON OP SALISBURY.



BY JAMES AUGUSTUS HESSEY, D.C.L.

HEAD MASTER OF MERCHANT TAYLORS' SCHOOL ;

PREACHER TO THE HONORABLE SOCIETY OF GRAY'S INN ;

SOMETIME FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, AND SELECT PREACHER

IN THE UNIVERSITY.



LONDON :
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1860.



&jtm-bajtts.



Brigfjt stiatJotos of true ftest! some sfioots of blfssc;

®eaben once a toectt ;
JTfjc mxt toorlb's glabncss prcpossest infills;

3 bag to seeft
IStcrnftp in time; tbe steps tig toiifcfi
affile climti abobc ail ages ; lamps Hjat ligfit
fBan tfirougfi fits fjcap of barfc nags; ana ti)e rfcf)
3no full rebemption of the toljolc toecks flight.

The milttg map cljalfet out toltfj Suns, a clue
That guibes tfirougt) erring flours; anb in full storp
3 taste of $caben on eartb; tfie plcbge anb cue
©f a full feast; anb tfjc out=courts of glorg.

Henry Vaughan, \7th Century.



DIES RESURRECTIONIS DOMINICA . . . QVM TANTIS DIVINARUM DIS-
POSITIONUM MYSTERIIS EST CONSECRATA, UT QUICQUID EST A DOMINO
INSIGNIUS CONSTITUTUM, IN HUJUS DIEI DIGNITATE SIT GESTUM. IN
HAC MUNDUS SUMSIT EXORDIUM. IN HAC PER RESURRECTIONEM CHRISTI
ET MORS INTERITUM, ET VITA ACCEPIT INITIUM. IN HAC APOSTOLI A
DOMINO PR/EDICANDI OMNIBUS GENTIBUS EVANGELII TUBAM SUMUNT,
ET INFERENDUM UNIVERSO MUNDO SACRAMENTUM REGENERATIONS
ACCIPIUNT. IN HAC SICUT BEATUS JOANNES EVANGELISTA TESTATUR,
JANUIS CLAUSIS, CUM AD EOS DOMINUS INTROISSET, INSUFFLAVIT, ET

dixit: "accipite spiritum sanctum; QUORUM REMISERITIS peccata,

REMITTUNTUR EIS, ET QUORUM DETINUERITIS, DETENTA ERUNT." IN
HAC DENIQUE PROMISSUS A DOMINO APOSTOLIS SPIRITUS SANCTUS
ADVENIT : UT CCELESTI QUADAM REGULA INSINUATUM ET TRADITUM
NOVERIMUS IN ILLA DIE CELEBRANDA NOBIS ESSE MYSTERIA SACER-
DOTALIUM BENEDICTIONUM, IN QUA COLLATA SUNT OMNIA DONA
GRATIARUM.

LEON, epist. 9, oliiu ii. c. i. torn. 1. col. 630. Fol. Venet. 1753.



K. CLAY, PRINTER, BREAD STREET HILL.



TO

CHARLES WILLIAMS, D.D.

PRINCIPAL OF JESUS COLLEGE, OXFORD,

HON. CANON OF BANGOR,

AND PROCTOR IN CONVOCATION,

WITH THE PREACHER'S SINCERE REGARDS.



EXTRACT



THE LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT



OF THE LATE



REV. JOHN BAMPTON, M.A.

CANON OF SALISBURY.



" I give and bequeath my Lands and Estates to the

" Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of
" Oxford for ever, to have and to hold all and singular the
" said Lands or Estates upon trust, and to the intents and
" purposes hereinafter mentioned ; that is to say, I will and
" appoint that the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford
" for the time being shall take and receive all the rents, issues,
" and profits thereof, and (after all taxes, reparations, and
" necessary deductions made) that he pay all the remainder
" to the endowment of eight Divinity Lecture Sermons, -to be
" established for ever in the said University, and to be per-
" formed in the manner following :

" I direct and appoint, that, upon the first Tuesday in
" Easter Term, a Lecturer be yearly chosen by the Heads of
" Colleges only, and by no others, in the room adjoining to
" the Printing-House, between the hours of ten ha the morning
" and two in the afternoon, to preach eight Divinity Lecture
" Sermons, the year folio whig, at St. Mary's in Oxford, between



vi EXTRACT FROM WILL.

" the commencement of the last month in Lent Term, and the
" end of the third week in Act Term.

"Also I direct and appoint, that the eight Divinity Lecture
" Sermons shall be preached upon either of the following
" Subjects — to confirm and establish the Christian Faith, and
" to confute all heretics and schismatics — upon the divine
" authority of the holy Scriptures— upon the authority of the
" writings of the primitive Fathers, as to the faith and practice
" of the primitive Church — upon the Divinity of our Lord
•' and Saviour Jesus Christ— upon the Divinity of the Holy
" Ghost — upon the Articles of the Christian Faith, as compre-
" hended in the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds.

" Also I direct, that thirty copies of the eight Divinity
" Lecture Sermons shall be always printed, within two months
" after they are preached, and one copy shall be given to the
" Chancellor of the University, and one copy to the Head of
" every College, and one copy to the Mayor of the city of
" Oxford, and one copy to be put into the Bodleian Library ;
" and the expense of printing them shall be paid out of the
" revenue of the Land or Estates given for establishing the
" Divinity Lecture Sermons ; and the Preacher shall not be
" paid, nor be entitled to the revenue before they are printed.

" Also I direct and appoint, that no person shall be qualified
" to preach the Divinity Lecture Sermons, Unless he hath
" taken the degree of Master of Arts at least, in one of the
" two Universities of Oxford or Cambridge ; and that the
" same person shall never preach the Divinity Lecture Sermons
" twice."



PREFACE.



The Lectures which are now presented to the
reader, though preached before a learned audi-
ence, are arranged somewhat in a popular form,
because the subject, at any rate, is one of general
interest. Accordingly, with very few exceptions
indeed, the quotations which appear in the
text, from any but English documents, are so
parenthetically inserted as to be capable of
omission in perusal without injury to the
passages in which they occur. They were of
course omitted in delivery. They are inserted
now, because many persons desire to have before
them whatever is immediately wanted to eluci-
date the matter in hand, without the distracting
formality of a note. A good many notes are
attached to the end of the Lectures, and the
writer believes that he has in no case withheld



Vlll PREFACE .

any necessary explanation of his statements.
But having himself felt the annoyance of con-
stantly occurring figures of reference, he has left
the text totally unencumbered. If the reader
requires further assistance than the text itself
supplies, he has only to turn to the appendix,
and, under the page and line, he will generally
find something to the purpose. The passages
marked thus [ ] were also omitted in delivery ;
several other passages Avere much condensed,
in order to bring the Lectures into a more
moderate compass ; but no statement has been
materially varied, nor has anything of import-
ance been withdrawn or added.

Thus much for the mere form of the Lectures.
Why the subject of the Lord's Day should have
been chosen by the writer for discussion, and
chosen at this particular time, is explained at
sufficient length in the First and Eighth of the
series. The great indulgence, or rather the
respectful attention which the Lectures have
received from the University, and which the
writer very thankfully acknoAvledges, at least
proves the existence of a desire for information
upon it. He has endeavoured to treat all the
opinions which have come under review with



PREFACE. IX

candour, and to abstain from any thing like
censure of individuals. If lie has been com-
pelled, for clearness' sake, to use such terms as
Sabbatarian, or Dominical, or the like, he has
done so, not to cast a slur upon any particular
school, but to indicate what he conceives to be
its prevailing tendency. It may be, that with
all his care, he has offended or may offend some.
If so, he has only to request that dislike of
certain historical facts may not lead to con-
demnation of him whose duty it was to bring
them forward. His statements must be either
correct or incorrect. If the latter, the obvious
method is to refute them : but if the former,
then, however much they may be opposed to
prevailing notions, he should scarcely be made
responsible for them.

The writer, however, is not by any means so
anxious about any personal misconception, as
he is for the destiny of that great and divinely

APPOINTED RELIGIOUS INSTITUTION of which he

has ventured to treat. Christ, he believes, will
effectually defend His own Day, and preserve it,
as hitherto, for His Church. But the present
is a time of trial for it, partly from the over-
statements and over-strictness of those who look



X PREFACE.

at it solely on its Divine side, partly from the
under- statements or laxity of those who look
at it solely on its human side. And then there
is another difficulty. The Clergy are much
divided as to the main points treated of in the
Lectures. They are at issue as to the origin of
the Lord's Day. The books generally current
present them with most incorrect and varying
accounts of its history. And it is scarcely too
much to say, that cases of conscience brought
before them as to what may or may not be done
upon it, receive answers perplexingly contra-
dictory. This diversity of opinion among the
Clergy tells most unhappily upon the Laity.
Even statesmen know not what to do with the
Lord's Day — as various abortive attempts at
legislation upon it during the last ten or twelve
years abundantly testify.

The present Lectures claim but to be a con-
tribution to a fuller and deeper consideration of
the subject than it lias recently obtained. They
have not been thrown together hastily, or with-
out much thought and prayer. And the number
of the books which have been consulted, and of
the opinions which have been weighed, will at
any rate show that the writer's task has been



PREFACE. XI

one of no small labour. He has indeed had the
subject before him for years, and has been in
the habit of noting down whatever he found
bearing upon it in the course of his reading.
His view was formed, and his materials were
accumulated, for the most part, before his name
was proposed to the electors. If he has ren-
dered scanty justice to his great theme, it has
not been for lack of industry, or from precipi-
tancy. He has done what he could in a work
which every one desired to see attempted, but
which every one shrunk from attempting.

The obligations of the writer to those who
have preceded him, he has acknowledged by
copious references. But he desires here to render
especial thanks to Mr. Dyce, R.A. for the perusal
of an unpublished paper upon "The Ecclesiastical
Sabbatarianism of the Church of Rome, anterior
to the Reformation. " This afforded him a valu-
able clew to one of the most difficult portions of
the subject. It is stated in the body of the
Sixth Lecture, that Hengstenberg on the Lord's
Day (Martin's translation, pp. 69 — 75), has been
consulted for the Continental history of the
controversies in the seventeenth century. It
may be added here, that in some cases the



Xll PREFACE.

very words of his learned and judicious summary
of the events of that period have heen adopted.
In the Third Lecture two or three passages are
taken from Mr. E. V. Neale's " Feasts and Pasts,"
an erudite and laborious work, of which some
use has heen made.

Having now completed his task to the best
of his ability, the writer commends it to the
judgment of his fellow - Churchmen, humbly
hoping that, however deficient in itself, it may
lead some to inquire into and value the Lord's
Day, and to glorify Him who is the Lord of it.



CONTENTS.



LECTURE I.

(Delivered March 11, 1860.)

■GENERAL STATEMENT OF THE SABBATH AND LORD'S DAY QUESTION.

Mark XVI. 1, 2, 5, 6.

AND WHEN THE SABBATH WAS PAST, MART MAGDALENE, AND MART THE
MOTHER OF JAMES, AND SALOME, HAD BOUGHT SWEET SPICES, THAT
THEY MIGHT COME AND ANOINT HIM. AND VERT EARLT IN THE MORNING
THE FIRST DAT OP THE WEEK, THEY CAME UNTO THE SEPULCHRE AT THE
RISING OP THE SUN. AND ENTERING INTO THE SEPULCHRE, THET SAW
A YOUNG MAN SITTING ON THE RIGHT SIDE, CLOTHED IN A LONG WHITE
GARMENT, AND THET WERE AFFRIGHTED. AND HE SAID UNTO THEM, BE
NOT AFFRIGHTED : YE SEEK JESUS OF NAZARETH WHICH WAS CRUCIFIED :
HE IS RTSEN.

Km 8ia.yevop.evov tov cra/3/3urov, Mapi'u r) MaydaXrjvi) kul Mapia tj tov

'laKcoftov KO.I 2aXo)/x?; ijyopaaav apw/xara, 'iva eXdovaai dXefywaiv

ai/TOV.
Koi Xluv Trpcot rrjs ptds (ra/3j3urcoy ep^ovTai eVri to p.vqp.e'iov, dvareX-

Xovtos (c. I. dvareiXavTOs) tov rjXiov.
Kat elaeXdovcrcu els to [ivijfielov, el8ov veavio~Kov K.a6r}p.eVov ev rols

8e£-iols, Trepi(3e(3Xr)p.evov o~ToXrjv XevKt'jv ' Kat e£ t e6ap.fir)6r)o~av.
' O be Xeyet civtciIs, Mr) eKdaplBelade' 'irjaovv ^reCre tov Na£apr)v6v tov

eoTavpoopevov' rjyepdrf.



XIV CONTENTS.



LECTURE II.

{Delivered April 22, 1860.)

THE HISTORY OP THE LORD'S DAY TO THE END OF THE THIRD CENTURY.

Mark XVI. 1, 2, 5, 6.

AND WHEN THE SABBATH WAS PAST, MARY MAGDALENE, AND MARY THE
MOTHER OF JAMES, AND SALOME, HAD BOUGHT SWEET SPICES, THAT
THEY MIGHT COME AND ANOINT HIM. AND VERY EARLY IN THE MORNING
THE FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK, THE? CAME UNTO THE SEPULCHRE AT THE
RISING OF THE SUN. AND ENTERING INTO THE SEPULCHRE, THEY SAW
A YOUNG MAN SITTING ON THE RIGHT SIDE, CLOTHED IN A LONG WHITE
GARMENT, AND THEY WERE AFFRIGHTED. AND HE SAID UNTO THEM, BE
NOT AFFRIGHTED : YE SEEK JESUS OF NAZARETH WHICH WAS CRUCIFIED :
HE IS RISEN.

Kal Biayevopevov roil (Yafifiarov, Mapia rj MaydaXyjufj kcl\ Mapia rj rov

'laKo>(3ov Kal 2aXa>prj rjyopaaav apdopara, iva ZXOovaai dXfl\j/-a>cnv

avrov.
Kal Xlav Tvpal ttjs pias (ra/3/3ara)z/ ep^ovrai enl to pvrjpeiov, dvareX-

Xovtos (v. 1. dvareikavTos) tov rjXiov.
Kal elaekOovaai els to pvqpeiov, eidov veavlcncov Kadrjuevov iv rois

8e£iols, 7rept/3e/3X?7/i6i>oz' o-toXtjv XevKTjv' /cat e^e6ap.^r)3r]o-av.
'O Se Xeyei avrals, Mi) e/c#a/i/3ei(r#e' '1i)<tovi> fijreire tov Na£aprjvov top

eo-Tavpa>ptvoV rjytpdr].



LECTURE III.

(Delivered April 29, 1860.)

THE HISTORY OF THE LORD'S DAY TO THE END OF THE FIFTH CENTURY

—AND THE GROWTH OF ECCLESIASTICAL SABBATARIANISM

IN THE CHURCH OF ROME.

Gal. II. 18.

FOR TF I BUILD AGAIN THE THINGS WHICH I DESTROYED, I MAKE MYSELF
A TRANSGRESSOR.

Ei yap a naTeXvaa, Tavra ndXip oikoSo/xco, Trapu^aTrjv epavTov avpi-
trrai/o).



CONTENTS. XV

LECTURE IV.

{Delivered May 6, 1860.)
THE HISTORY OF THE SABBATH TO OUR LORD'S RESURRECTION.

Coloss. II. 16, 17.

LET NO MAN THEREFORE JUDGE YOU" IN MEAT OR IN DRINK, OR IN RESPECT

OP AN HOLY-DAT, OR OF THE NEW MOON, OR OF THE SABBATH DAYS,
WHICH ARE A SHADOW OF THINGS TO COME : BUT THE BODY IS OF CHRIST.

Mr) ovv tis vfids Kpivera ev ftpaaei r) ev "novel rj ev /if pel eoprrjs r]

vovpr]vias r] o"o/3/3aTO)i/,
'A eemv (TKid Ttov psXX6i>Ta>v, rb t)e aaifxa Xpiarov.

LECTURE V.

(Delivered May 13, 1860.)

WHAT THE SABBATH IS SINCE OUR LORD'S RESURRECTION.

Hebrews IV. 8, 9.

FOR IF JESUS (JOSHUA) HAD GIVEN THEM REST, THEN WOULD HE NOT

AFTERWARDS HAVE SPOKEN OF ANOTHER DAY.
THERE REMAINETH THEREFORE A REST, (A KEEPING OF SABBATH,) FOR THE

PEOPLE OF GOD.

El yap avrovs '\tjo~ovs KaTeivavaev, ovk dv TtepX tiXXrjs eXdXei pera ravra

rjpepas.
' Apa airoXeiTrerai o~afi(3aTio~p.6s T<a Xaa> tov Qeov.

LECTURE VI.

(Delivered May 20, 1860.)
THE LORD'S DAY ON THE CONTINENT SINCE THE REFORMATION.

Jeremiah V. 10.

GO YE UP UPON HER WALLS, AND DESTROY ; BUT MAKE NOT A FULL END ;
TAKE AWAY HER BATTLEMENTS J FOR THEY A-RE NOT THE LORD'S.

Aj>a/3rire eiri tovs npopaxcovas avTrjs, nai KaTao-Ka\j/aTe, avvreXeiav 8e ov
prj noirjaeTe' VTroX'nreo-de rd vTj-oaTrjpiypara avTtjs, on tov Kvpiov
elo-iv. Ex Vers. LXX.

GO YE UP UPON HER BATTLEMENTS, AND DESTROY ; BUT MAKE NOT A FULL
END ; LEAVE HER UNDERWORKS; FOR THEY ARE THE LORD'S.



XVI CONTENTS.

LECTURE VII.

(Delivered June 10, I860.)
THE LORD'S DAY IN ENGLAND SINCE THE REFORMATION.
Jeremiah VI. 16.

STAND YE IN THE WATS, AND SEE, AND ASK FOR THE OLD PATHS, WHERE IS
THE GOOD WAY, AND WALK THEREIN, AND YE SHALL FIND REST FOR YOUR
SOULS.

'S.rfJTe eni rais 68ois nai 'idere, Kai ipcoTrjaare rpifiovs Kvpiov alavtovs' Kai
t'Sere noia £o~tiv 17 686s i] dyadf], Kai jSa8io~aTe ii> avrr], nai evprjatTe
ayviaphv (v. I. ayLa.o~p.6v) rais i/fi^ais vpwv. Ex Vers. LXX.

(Conf. Matt. ii. 29, Ka\ evpijo-fre avairavo-iv rals i^tv^als vp-a-v.)



LECTUEE VIII.

[Delivered June 17, 1860.)
THE LORD'S DAY VIEWED PRACTICAL LY.

Ps. CXVIII. 24.

THIS IS THE DAY WHICH THE LORD HATH MADE; WE WILL REJOICE AND
BE GLAD IN IT.

Avrrj l) t)p.epa rjv enoLTjaev 6 Kvpios' uyaXktao'ap.fda Kai ev(ppavda>p.fi>

iv avrfi. Ex Vers. LXX.



• ERRATUM.

Page 282, line ult. for as read which.



V




LECTURE I.



MARK XVI. 1, 2, 5, 6.

AND WHEN THE SABBATH WAS PAST, MARY MAGDALENE, AND MART THE
MOTHER OP JAMES, AND SALOME, HAD BOUGHT SWEET SPICES, THAT
THEY MIGHT COME AND ANOINT HIM. AND VERY EARLY IN THE MORNING
THE FIRST DAT OP THE WEEK, THEY CAME UNTO THE SEPULCHRE AT THE
RISING OP THE SUN. AND ENTERING INTO THE SEPULCHRE, THEY SAW
A YOUNG MAN SITTING ON THE RIGHT SIDE, CLOTHED IN A LONG WHITE
GARMENT, AND THEY WERE AFFRIGHTED. AND HE SAID UNTO THEM, BE
NOT AFFRIGHTED : YE SEEK JESDS OF NAZARETH WHICH WAS CRUCIFIED :
HE IS RISEN.

Kal diayevopevov tov <ra/3/3ai-oi>, Mapia rj MaySaXrjvrj Kal Mapla ■q tov

'laKcofSov Kal 'EaXcopj] -qyopacrav dpcipara, Iva eXQovorai dXfiyp-axriv

avrov.
Kal Xlav Trpcot rfjs p.ias aafiftaTcov ep^ovrai enl to p.vqp,ziov, dvareX-

Xovros (». /. avareiXaVTOs) tov yXlov.
Kal elo-eXdovaai els to pvrjp.flov, eldov vtaviaKov Kadijp.evov iv toIs

Se^iois, irepifie(iXrjpevov crToXr)v XevKtjv' Kal e£e6afif3r]0T)o-av.
'O 5e Aeyei avrals, Mr) 6K#a/xj3eio-#e' 'Irjcrovv (^retre tov 'Na£apr)vbv tov

io~Tavpcop.evov m rjyepOr].

The intelligent visitor of a cathedral, whether
in England or on the Continent, is often sur-
prised and puzzled by the traditions which he
finds attached to it. He is assured with great
earnestness, or at any rate with sufficient gravity
by his attendant, that this or that part of the
structure is due to such a person's piety, that
at such a shrine some notable worthy paid his

B



Z LECTURE I.

devotions, or that it was through that pictured
window, now perhaps illumined by a glorious
sunset, that the same sun looked down mournfully
on the passion of such a martyr. And here, adds
the narrator, is the pillar before which he fell.
Our visitor, we say, is perplexed — he is unwilling
entirely to disbelieve the account — he has a sort
of general notion that some building, which may
have resembled this in many respects, existed on
this site or near to it from a very remote date.
The names of which he is told are those of his-
torical personages connected more or less with
the scene. But then he has some architectural
knowledge, and this more than half convinces
him that his informant is either mistaken in his
facts or incorrect in his chronology. On con-
sulting his books he discovers, that though the
facts have a foundation in truth, they are con-
nected with an older edifice whose associations
have been transferred to one of a later age,
perhaps through mere inadvertence, perhaps
through a not unnatural wish to advance pre-
tensions to antiquity for what one admires and
reverences, perhaps through other motives not
altogether so excusable.

As it is with particular buildings, so it is
with cities. Rome was " the City of Seven Hills,"
even when more were taken into its circuit
than the Festival Septimontwm indicated. The
line,

" Septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces,"



LECTURE I. 3

how true soever of the infant settlement, was
true only by accommodation of Home in its
maturer days. Still piety, or poetry, or both,
tenaciously clung to the old name.

But I speak not of edifices or cities, except
so far as the popular handling of their legends
may illustrate certain points which are my more
immediate concern. I dismiss them with the
further remarks, that inquiry into the real state
of their case is never objected to in the archaeo-
logist ; that he is allowed, if he does it with
candour, to sift their annals to the uttermost ;
and that nothing of real value is ever destroyed
by his investigations.

And now I pass on to observe that this ten-
dency of the human mind to invest compara-
tively modern things with the sanctions and
associations of the past, is discoverable in its
treatment of institutions ; in its treatment espe-
cially of that Divine and Apostolical Institu-
tion, I mean "the Lord's Day," which (I trust
not rashly, but rather as one treading on holy
ground) I have undertaken to examine in such
a place and before such an assembly. My excuse
for doing so will be found in the following con-
siderations. I believe that great confusion of
thought exists on this deeply important subject,
and that the institution in question, though suffi-
ciently venerable in itself, has been regarded as
identical with, instead of at the most analogous
to, one of greater antiquity indeed, but of more

b 2



4 LECTURE I.

limited application, the Sabbath of the Fourth
Commandment. I believe that from this con-
fusion have arisen not merely misapprehensions
of a speculative nature, but errors affecting prac-
tice, and productive of misunderstandings among
brethren. I see that the result has been, on the
part of the more learned Clergy, an avoidance of
a topic which they cannot treat of logically and
historically without being exposed to obloquy,
and which they cannot treat of popularly with-
out apologizing to their self-respect and sense of
duty : on the part of the better informed Laity,
a distaste for a doctrine, which, treated (as it
generally is) illogically and with want of histo-
rical precision, they condemn together with its
advocates, and dismiss summarily, either as a
clumsy artifice or as a burthen too heavy to be
borne. But I see, further, that this was not
always so ; that there was a time when Kvpia/cy
and Ha/3/3aTov respectively had their meanings
accurately and sharply defined. Hence I ven-
ture to hope that an attempt to re-state those
meanings, and to clear up certain difficulties con-
nected with them, may not be altogether in vain.
I will only make two requests ; the first, that
the liberty of candid enquiry, so readily allowed
in other matters, may be as readily allowed
here ; the second, that my audience will care-
fully discriminate between two things, which,
though essentially distinct, are often confounded
in popular nomenclature, a respectful desire to



LECTURE I. 5

set an institution on its true basis, and a dis-
respectful desire to undermine it. I hold this
institution to be, in a spiritual sense of the
words, "The day which the Lord hath made;"
" I rejoice and am glad in it :" and I believe the
way in which it is regarded to be no uncertain
index of Christian steadfastness or decline, " sig-
num aut stcmtis aut caclentis Christiani."

The terms of my subject are these : " The
" origin, history, and present obligation of the
" Lord's Day or Sunday." Philosophically
speaking, these terms embrace the whole reason
of that day, its past history, its present state,
its transition to that state, its destination.
Of the method in which I shall treat of it,
and of the date to be assumed for its com-
mencement, I shall speak presently. But, before
doing so, as controversy on the subject has
existed chiefly in, and on the borders of, the
English Church, I would mention a few of the
theories which have been propounded in England
concerning it since the Reformation, an ac-
quaintance with which may be useful to us in
the discussion which is to follow. Their diver-
sity will at any rate justify an attempt to ex-
hibit some view which shall bind the conscience
as scriptural, and satisfy the historical enquirer
as consistent with early antiquity ; which shall
leave a law under Christianity, and yet involve
no Jewish legality. I do not at this moment
enter at length on their comparative merits or



6 LECTURE I.

defects. These will appear as we proceed. I do
little more than state the theories themselves as
concisely but as fairly as I can, giving not the
exact words, hut what appears to he the spirit of
the several theorists.

Here then is the first mew.

" Christianity admits of no distinction of days.
" The whole Mosaic Law, call it what you will,
" ceremonial, political, moral, has been fulfilled
" and has past away. Christ did not Himself
" institute, He did not give authority to others
" to institute, nor may others institute without
" His authority, any especial day of worship or
" rest in lieu of or in succession to the Sabbath.
" Therefore, the Sunday is altogether a fiction ;
" there is now either no Sabbath at all, or, if the



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