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Melrose Chart., 'ad burnam de fauhope.' See CAMHUS.

BURXBAXK (Lanarksh.) and I>URXBRAE (Methven and Fal-
kirk). See above, and BRAEHEAD.

BURXESS (X. of Orkney). Prob. X. lory-nacs, 'castle point.'

See BORGUE, and cf. BURWICK.
BURXIIERVIE (Kemnay, Aberdeen). Perh. ' Harvey's burn.'

Cf. HALLRULE.
BURX MOUTH ( Berwick).
BURXSWARK, Hill of (Lockerbie). Sec BIRREXSWORK.

Roman camp here.
BURXTISLAXD (Fife). 1538-1710, Brim tisland. Said to be

fr. the burning (burnt, in Sc. brunt, O.K. and O.X.



48 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

brinnan, to burn) of a few fishermen's huts on islet to
west of present harbour, leading them to settle on the
mainland. Name a. 1 500, Wester Kingornc.

BURRA (Shetland). 1299, Borgarfiord, X. for 'castle frith'
or bay, fr. borr/, fort.

BURRAVOE (Shetland). As above, + Icel. vb'r, a little bay or
inlet.

BURRAY (Orkney), c. 1260, Borgar ; 1529, 'vulgo Burye
and Burray ' = BURRA. Cf. Burradon, Northumber-
land.

BURRELTOX (Ccmpar-Angus). 1 ' Birrell's town,' possibly fr.
O.Fr. burel (now bureau), coarse, woollen cloth, baize,
frieze; found in Eng. fr. c. 1300 till last century, e.f/.,
1600 in Xichol's Progress of Queen Elizabeth, iii. 511,
' Towe remnants of blacke burrell.'

BUR(S)WICK (S. of Orkney), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Bardvik.
Prob. X. bar$ vik, ' the edge or brim of the bay.

BUSBY (Glasgow). 1542, Busbie ; 1787, I>ushby. 'Bush
town;' O.X. busier ', Dan. busk, Sc. buen, a bush, + Dan.
by, place, village. See p. Ixiii.

BUSTA (Shetland). Corruption of X. bolsfaftr, place. Cf.
Bosta, Lewis, and BOUST.

BUTE. Xorse chron., c. 1093, Bot ; 1204, Bote ; 1292, Boot ;
in G. Boite. Some think G. lot, the hut or bothy (of
St Brendan) ; but Dr M'Lauchlan says fr. Bcete of
Bute, son of Kenneth III., who lived early in llth
century.

BUTT OF LEWIS. (1716, Bowling-head.) Dr Murray says
fr. verb butt, 'to jut out' (O.Fr. buh-r). The only
quot. fr. butt = cape, which he gives, is fr. Florio's Hal.

Dictionary, 1598, ' capo , a cape or but of any

lands end.' More likely to be fr. Dan. int, short, blunt,
stumpy. Butt occurs in Eng. = buttock as early as c.
1450.

BUTTERGASK (Dunkeld). Sic 1461. Prob. G. botliar crasg,
' causeway-pass ' (cf. ARNGASK) ; fr. Ir. both or come four
Batterstowns. On Mr W. J. LiddelPs probably wrong
theory, see p. liii.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 49

BUTTERSTOXE (Dunkelcl). Peril. 'Buthar's town ' or village ;
but see p. liii, and cf. BALDERXOCK.

BUXBURX (Old Machar). ' Buck's burn.' See BUCCLEUCH.

BYRECLEUGH (Lammermuirs). ' Cowhouse glen ; ' O.E. and
Sc. byre, cowhouse, shed, lit. dwelling; same root as
BOWER, + deugh. See BUCCLEUCH.

BYRES (on Borders). 1294, Byrys. See above.

BYTH (Turrifl). Sic 1654; y pron. as in by; Heel, vithja,
vitli, a withy, willow, osier. Cf. bijtliwind, spelling of
the plant withwind, in Lilly, 1647.



c

CABRACH (Jura), and Buck of (Rhynie, Aberdeen). The
latter a tautology ; G. cabar-achadh, deer-field. Cf.
BUCCLEUCH.

CADBOLL (E. Ross-sh.). 1281, Kattepoll ; 1478, Catbollis ;
1529, Cathabul ; c. 1560, Catboll. Prob. 'battle-place ;'
G. catli, gen. catlia, \V. cad, cat, a battle, + X. poll or
bol, place (see bolstafir, p. Ixiv). Might be 'place of
the Cat or Cataibh ; ' see CAITHNESS.

C ADDER (Glasgow), a. 1300, Chaders, Ivader. Prob. =
CALDER and CAWUOR.

CADDOXFOOT (Selkirk). Prob. G. catli or \V. cad, battle, +
G. dim, hill. Cf. Cadclen Castle, Kinneff.

CADELAW and -MUIR, and CADEMUIR WHAUM or WHYM
(Peebles). Old, Cadmore, ' big battle ; ' "NV. cad, G. catli,
a battle. On law, see p. Ixxvi. Wliaum is Icel. Jtvammr,
grassy slope, vale.

CADESLEA (Earlston). c. 1150, Cadesley. As above, + O.E.
leak, fallow land, pasture.

CADZOW (Hamilton), c. 1150, Cadihou, Cadyhow ; c. 1360,
Cadyow. Looks as if = cad-y-hoice, ' battle of the hollow '
or valley, but this would be an abnormal combination
of the \V. cad, G. ra^ + O.E. Iwllt, holy, a hollow,
Sc. liotc.



50 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

CAERDON (Tweeddale). 'Fort on the hill;' "W. caer, IT.
cahcr, G. cathair (pron. car), a fort, + W. din, G. and Ir.
dun, a hill, cognate with 'Downs' and dune. The
Brythonic form caer, Armor, cear, her, predominates in
this region ; prob. origin of names Carr and Kerr.

CAILLEACH HEAD (W. Ross-sh.). G. 'old wife's head.'

CAIPLIE COVES (Crail). Wyntoun, c, 1420, Caplawchy.
Perh. 'horse-field;' G. capall (L. caballus) achad/i,
which last so often occurs as auch or achy.

CAIBNAQUHEBN (Balmoral). 'Cairn of memory or recol-
lection;' G. carn-na-cuimlme. It Avas the rendezvous of
the countryside.

CAIRNBAWN, L. (W. Sutherland). G. ram ban, ' white cairn
or heap.' Cf. Ir. ' colleen baAvn.'

CAIRNBEDDIE (Perthsh.). G. 'cairn of Beth' or Macbeth.
For interchange of th and d, cf. BRODIE and BUDDON ;
-ie is Eng. climin. Tradition points to the ruins of
M.'s fort (now ploughed over) betAveen Birnam and
Dunsinane.

CAIRNESS (Lonmay, Aberdeen). G. earn cas, ' cairn at the
Avaterfall.'

CAIRNGORM MOUNTAIN. 'Green cairn or hill;' G. gorm,
green, as grass, or blue.

CAIRNGRASSIE (Stonehaven). 'Cairn of the blessing;' G.
graise, gen. of grds, grace, prosperity, a divine blessing.

CAIRNIE or -EY (Huntly). G. cairn-each, 'stony ground,' fr.
earn, a loose heap of stones.

CAIRNIEBRIDGE (Kinross). See above.

CAIRNNORRIE (Methlie, Aberdeen). Prob. 'east cairn or
hill ;' G. noir, the east.

CAIRNRYAN (Wigton). See RYAN.

CAIRNTABLE (Muirkirk). Prob. G. earn tabliail, ' cairn of the
sling.'

CAIRN TOUL (Aberdeen). G. cam, tuatheal (pron. tooal),
'northern cairn,' fr. tuath, north (cf. CAIRNNORRIE); but
Carrantual, Killarney, is fr. Ir. tuatliail, left-handed,
meaning ' hill like a reverted sickle ' (carran).



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 51

CAITHNESS. Irish Nennius, Cat; also Old Ir. Caith ; c. 970,
Pii't. Chron., Kathenessia; c. 1205, Layamon, Catenes;
1232, Kataness; 1329, Cathanesia. In O.X. Catanes,
but iu Orkmij. Sag. simply Ness ; Xaze, nose or ' ness of
the Cataibh,' Old G. locative of Cat, also called Gait,
Gatt, Got, legendary son of the eponymous Cruithne,
'father of the Picts.' Rhys thinks Gait or Gatt may be
connected with Bede's Urbs Giudi or INCHKEITH. Gaels
call it Gallaibh, 'strangers' land.'

CALDALE (Kirkwall). Prob. fr. Icel. and Sw. koJ, coal ;
abundance of peat found there. Otherwise, fr. Icel.
kaldr, Sw. kail, cold.

CALDER (loch, &c., near Thurso ; East, Mid, and West
Calder, Midlothian ; and Water, near Airdrie). Thurso
C., c. 1225, Orkney. Say., Kalfadal (? ' calf 's glen,' fr.
Icel. Mlfr, Sw. kalf); but Midi. C., 1250, Kaldor, and
some Southern C. is spelt in Chart ul. Paisley, Kaledour ;
also 1293, Caldovere ; 1294, Calder. G. coille dobJiar
or dur, 'wood by the water or stream' (coif 1). Of.
GADDER, CAWDOR, SCOTSCALDER. Coil, a wood, in place-
names, seems generally to become cal. See below.

CALDERBANK (Airdrie).

CALDERCRUIX (Bathgate). Pron. -crooks; 15G1, -cruikis.
' The crooks ' or windings of the R. Calder.

CALDERHEAD (Shotts).

CALDWELL (Renfrew). Presumably 'cold well,' fr. Sc.
caald, O.E. cald, Icel. kaldr.

CALF (Eday, Orkney), also CALF OF MULL (Tobermory), and
CALVA (islet in W. of Sutherland). Orkney C. in ]ST.
chrons., Kalf-ey. Mull C. in do., Mylarkalfr (in G. An
calbh). Icel. kdlfr, S\v. k,<df t a calf, hence a small islet
near a large one (cf. ' Calf of Man ') ; + ey or ay X.
suffix for island.

CALIFORNIA (Polmont). Fancy name.

CALLANDER (S. Perthsh. and Falkirk). The parishes of Fal-
kirk, Polmont, and Muiravon were once called Calatria,
in Ir. annals Culathros, and by Britons Catraeth or
fort of Che (G. cat hair Caith, c lost through aspiration).
Calatria is commonly supposed = Callander ; but c. 1 190,



52 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

Callander is found asKalenter ; 1296, Calentyr ; c. 1350,
Callanter. This can hardly be aught else but G. coill
an tir, 'wood of the land,' or an dur (dobhar), 'of the
water;' prob. the two names have been assimilated.

CALLERXISH (W. of Lewis). Prob. G. coill aird, ' wood on
the height,' + N". nws, ness, cape. Cf. ARDTORXISH.
Possibly the same as the Icel. ' Kjalar-ness.'

CALLIGRAY (Harris). Prob. G. coill na yreaicJt, 'wood on
the high flat.' Cf. AUCIIEXGRAY.

CALLY, Bridge of (Blairgowrie). G. coille, a wood.

CALROSSIE (Fearn). G. coill rois or rhos, ' wood of Ross '
or ' of the promontory.'

CALTOX (Edinburgh and Glasgow). Prob. G. coill duin,
' wood on the hill ;' G. calltuinn is the hazel ; and
there was a Cailtaine or Cailtarn, son of Girim, king of
the Picts.

CALVIXE (Blair Athole). G. coille mldne (fr. min), ' smooth

woods.'
CAMBUS (Stirling). G. and Ir. canni*, a bay, creek, crook.

For intrusion of b, cf. CAMEKOX, CROMARTY, and CUMBER-

XAULD ; and cf. Cambo, Northumberland (in 13th

century, Cambhou, Camou).

CAMBUSBARROX (Stirling). 'Bend at the height over the
water;' G. barr dn = dbhainn, water, river (cf. CARR-OX).
Cambusdrenny (G. dmiyhneach, thorns) refers to the
same crook of the Forth.

CAMBUSCURRY BAY (Tain). Sic 1487. 'Bay of the glen;'

G. coire. Cf. CURRIE.
CAMBUSDOOX (Ayr). 'Bend of the R. Doox.'

CAMBUSKEXXETH (Stirling). Sic 1147; 1290, Kambuskinel ;

1296, Cambusshenel. 'Bend of Kenneth' or Canice,

in Adamnan, Cainnachus, friend of Columba, and patron

of Kilkenny.
CAMBUSLAXG (Glasgow). 'Long bend;' Sc. lany, O.E. lany,

long, Icel. lanyr; a hybrid.

CAMBUSMORE (The Mound). ' Big bay ' (Loch Fleet) ; G.

camus mbr.
CAMBUSXETHAX (Lanarksh.). a. 1153, Kambusnaythan.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 53

' Bend of Xathan ; ' perh. same man as gave name to
XENTHORN; or perh. fr. King Xecthan, king of the
Picts c. 700.

CAMBUS o' MAY (Aberdeensh.). G. camus a maigh, 'crook
in the plain.' Of. May, in Mochrum parish, and
ROTHIEMAY.

CAMBLON (Falkirk, and Balmaghie, Galloway). Falk. C.,
977, Camlan ; local pron. never sounds the e. G. cam
Ion, ' crooked marsh,' prob. extension of the now-drained
Mungal Bog ; Ion also means meadow. Cam is one of
those few G. adjectives which usually stand before the
substantive. Cf. Camling, Carsphairn Cameline, Ire-
land ; and Lincom, New Luce.

CAMERON (Fife and Stirling). Stirl. C., a. 1200, Cambroun.
Fife C., c. 1320, Cambron. There is also early mention
of a Kambroun, near Craigmillar. Must be G. cam sron,
'crooked nose.' For intrusion of b, cf. CAMBUS and
Cambo ; also cf. Campbell.

CAMLACHIE (Glasgow). Prob. G. cam lathach, lit. 'crooked
puddle ' or mire. A zigzag burn used to flow here.

CAMPBELTON (Kintyre and Cromarty). Kint. C., fr. Duke
of Argyle, head of the Clan Campbell. Crom. C.,
named in 1623 after John D. Campbell of Calder.
Campbell occurs in chrons. as De betto campo Xorm.
Beauchamp or 'Fairfield;' but this is popular etymo-
logy. Earliest mention of the name is of a ' Gillespic
Cambell,' 1263; plainly G. cam beul, 'crooked mouth.'
Cf. CAMERON.

CAMPEKDOWN (Dundee). Presumably after the scene of
Admiral Duncan's victory over the Dutch in X. Holland,
1797.

CAMPFIELD (Banchory and Falkirk). Former prob., latter
certainly, a field of battle (1298 and 1746).

CAMPSIE (Glasgow). 1216, Kamsi; a. 1300, Camsy. G. cam
sith, 'crooked hill' or hill-range. Also near Londonderry.

CAMPTOWN (Jedburgh). Cf. Chester.

CAMSTRADDAN (L. Lomond). 'Crooked lanes;' G. sraddan,
pi. of sraid.

K



54 PLACE-XAMES OF SCOTLAND.

CAMUSNAGAUL (Fort William). 'Creek or bend of the
stranger;' G. gall. Here we get the Mod. G. spelling
of CAMBUS.

CAMUSTOWN (Forfarshire). A curious hybrid (see above).

CANISBAY (John o' Groat's House). c. 1240, Cananesbi ;
1274, Cranesby; 1455, Cannasby. A ' crane ' in Icel. is
trani, Dan. trane; so 1274 is prob. a mistake. Pont's
map, c. 1620, gives Conansbay, which Dr Jos. Anderson
thinks shows the name is after an early Celtic chief,
Conan ; but the earliest form makes it most likely =
'canon's place.' Canon is found c. 1205 in Layamon
as a name for a clergyman. Bay is the northern form
of the Dan. and O.K. by or bi, a village. See p. Ixiii,
and cf. DUNCANSBAY.

CANISP BEN (Assynt). Possibly ' bishop's lake,' fr. Old G.
can, a lake, + ea-xpuiy (L. episcopus), a bishop.

CANNA (Arisaig). 1549, Kannay. Prob. ' island like a can
or pot;' O.X. and Sw. kanna, O.E. canne, G. cunna, a
can, +ay or ey N. for ' island.'

CANNY, R. (Banchory, Kincardine). Pcrh. fr. StKenneth (see
CAMBUSKENNETH) ; G. cannach, is sweet-willow, myrtle.

CANONBIE (Dumfries). 1290, Canenby and Canneby.
' Canon's town ' = CANISBAY ; O.E. canonic, M.E. canon
or -nn. An Austin priory founded here in 1165.

CANTY BAY (North Berwick). Its site makes it prob. =
KINTYRB, 'head, end of the land,' only accent is here on
first syll. (cf. Blantyre). G. cann-thigh is a strawberry.

CAPPLEGILL (Moffat). ' Horse glen ; ' G. c.apall, a horse, +
N. gil (see AUCHINGILL). Shows how far inland Scan-
dinavian influence went.

CAPUTH (Dunkeld). Pron. Kayput ; ' full of heights like
shoe-lasts,' fr. G. ceap, a last, as in Edinkyp, Loch
Earn ; so Eev. J. M'Lean. Cf. Caputhall, Bathgate.

CARBERY (Inveresk). Said to be fr. Cairbre, son of Niall of
the nine hostages ; common in Ireland. Quite possibly
a tautology fr. W. caer, a fort, + Eng. burgh, bury ; sec;
TURNBERRY, and cf. BERRIEDALE.

CARBETII (Killearn). Perh. 'fort among the birches;' G.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 55

catliair (pron. can) bcath ; or ' Macbeth's fort,' cf.
CAIRXBEDDIE.

CARBOST (Skye). G. catliair, a fort, + X. host, short form of
boMaS); place (see p. Ixiv). Cf. Shawbost, Skeabost.

CARBROOK (Larbert). G. catliair, \\ r . caer, a fort, + O.E.
broe, a spring or brook. Cf. CARROX, close by. Three
in England.

CARDEXDEX (Dunfermline). Prob. G. catliair diona, ' fort of
protection,' + den, O.E. demi, a dell, 'dean,' or 'dene,'
often found in place-names.

CARDOXALD (Paisley). ' Donald's fort ; ' G. catliair Donull.

CARDORCAX (Newton Stewart). Old, Garrowdorkan. Here
car-, as in several cases, is fr. G. ceatkramhadh (pron.
carrou), ' a land-quarter,' fr. ceitliir, four ; second syllable
prob. a man's name (cf. Dorking) ; peril, from G. and Ir.
ton; a boar ; cf. Edcndurk, Tyrone.

CARDOWAX (Lanark). Prob. G. can- dull tar/ ain, 'rock at the
deep part of the stream,' fr. dubJt, black. Cf. PARDOVAX.

CARDRONA (Peebles). Sic 1534; c. 1500, Cardronow; 1530,
-ono. ' Fort on the ridge ' (G. dronnag). Old British
fort here.

C.UIDROSS (Helensburgh). 1208-33, Cardinros, Cadinros ;
1401, Cardrose. Looks like G. ceardacli an roi$, 'smithy
on the promontory.'

CARESTOX (Brechin). Old form, Caraldston.

CARFIX (Lanarksh.). G. cnrrjionn, ' white or glistening rock.'

CARGiLL(Perthsh.). 1296, Carghill. Either 'fort in the glen'
(sec AUCHIXGILL), or G. carr fjill (gen. of geall), ' rock of
the pledge,' or 'wager,' or 'love,' or fr. geal, <jile, Avhite.

CARIXISII (Lochmaddy). ' Rock island ;' G. carr inn is ; or, as
likely, ]ST. Kariness, Kari being a Norse personal name ;
cf. Carness, near Kirkwall.

CA(E)RLAXRIG (1 fa wick). See below, and DRUMLAXRIG.

CA(E)RLAVEROCK (Dumfries). Sic 1299. "W. caer, a fort;
laverock is Sc. for a lark ; O.E. Mw&rce, or -fercc. Some
think fr. Ly warch-Ogg (or ' the little '), son of Ly warch
Hen, lord in Xithsdale, c. 600.



56 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

CARLONAN LINN (Inveraray). Peril. G. carr lonain, ' rock of
prattling, foolish talk.'

CARLOPS (Penicuik). c. 1425, Wyntoun, Karlynlippis. 'Car-
line's loup,' 'old woman's leap,' fr. northern M.E. and
O.N. kerlinrf, old woman ; fern, of Karl, assimilated
with carl, Sc. for churl ; -ing in Sc. is usually -in' (cf.
waddin' = wedding, &c.), + loup, Sc. for a leap, O.N".
hlaup (cf. O.E. hledpan, past tense hleup, Icel. hlaupa, to
leap). Carlops Hill, Dean, and Burn, ancient names ;
village only founded in 1784.

CARLOWAY (Lewis). 1716, Carlvay. 'Karl's bay;' X. vagr.
Cf. STORNOWAY.

CARLOWRIE (Kirkliston). G. can- labhairadh (pron. lowra),
'rock of the echo,' lit. 'of speaking.' Cf. Craiglowrie,
Galloway.

CARLUKE (Lanarksh.). c. 1320, Carneluke; 1567, Carlouk.
? ' Cairn of St Luke.' Its old name was Eglismalescoch
(cf. LESMAHAGOW, near by), i.e., ' church of ? ' The
ma is prob. the endearing prefix, and -ocli the dimin.
(see p. xcv.) ; so Lcsc may be the name here corrupted
into Luke.

CARMICHAEL (Lanark), c. 1180, Kermichael. "W. caer
(Armor, cear, ker) Michael, ' Michael's fort.'

CARMUIRS (Falkirk). 1774, Caer-muirs. Prob. 'fort in the
moors;' Sc. muirs, O.E., Icel., and Dan. mor, a heath
or marsh ; thus hybrid word. It stands just by the old
Roman wall.

CARMUNNOCK (Glasgow), c. 1177, Cormannoc. Prob. G.
coire manaiclt, ' glen or corrie of the monk.'

CARMYLE (Lanarksh.) and CARMYLIE (Forfar). Lanarksh. C.,
c. 1240, Kermill. G. carr maol, 'bare, rounded rock.'
Cf. Myl, spelling of MULL in the sagas. Of course -mill
may be the gen. of G. meall, a hill, and the Car- will
mean ' fort ; ' thus, ' fort on the hill.'

CARNBEE (Anstruther). c. 1450, Carnbe ; 1457, Carnebene.
Looks like G. carr na bein, ' rock of the hide ' or wild
beast's skin. Perh. fr. G. beath, a birch, th quiescent.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 57

CARXBO (Kinross). Sic c. 1210. 'Rock or mound of the
cattle;' G. lo.

CARX DEARG, LEAC, &c. (Inverness-sh.). G. = 'recl cairn or
mound,' ' cairn of the flag or tombstone,' &c.

CARXETHY (Pentland Hills). W. caer NecJitan, 'King
Xechtan's fort ' or ' rock.' See ABERNETHY.

CARXOCK (Dunfermline, St ]S T inians, and Koss-sh.). St X.
C., c. 1150, Jocelyn, Kernach. Dunf. C., 1250, Kernoch.
'Fort or rock in the field ;' W. caer, Armor, cear, kei;
G. cathair an achaldh. The G. -ach often becomes -ock
in names, as Beattock, Corsock, &c.

CARXOUSTIE (Arbroath). Peril. G. catliair, carr, or earn na
fheusta, fort, rock, or cairn of the feast ; fh lost by
aspiration.

CARNWATH (Lanarksh.). c. 1165, Charnewid; 1174, Kar-
newic ; 1186, Carnewith. The old forms are puzzling.
Seems to be G. earn, cairn, mound, + X. with, a forest,
or X. and Dan. wath, a ford, same root as Icel. and
Sw. vada, O.E. icaden, to wade, go.

CAROY (Skye). G. carr ruadh, 'red rock.' Of. Rob Roy.

CARPOW (Abernethy). Prob. the ancient Cairfull, which is
"W". caer pwl, 'rock or fort at the pool.' Cf. POWBURN.

CARRADALE (Kintyre and Skye). G. and Ir. carraiy, a cliff,
rock, + X. dal, dale, valley.

CARRBRIDGE (Aviemore). See CARR ROCKS.

CARRiCK(Ayrsh. andLochgoilhead). Ayrsli. C., c. 1 200, Karic ;
1286, Carryke. G. and Ir. carraig, 'a sea-clilfor rock.'
Compounds very common in Ireland, and in Galloway,
where, e.y., we have Carrick-aboys, -cow, -glassen, &c.

CARR!DEN (Bo'ness). c. 560, Gildas, Cair Eden, and prob. in
Brit. Triads, Caer Eiddyn ; 1250, Karedin. W. caer,
G. catliair, 'fort on the slope or hillside,' W. eiddyn.
Cf. G. aodann, front, face ; and Dunedin, or EDINBURGH.

CARRINGTOX (Edinburgh), a. 1300, Kerington. Prob. from
some man ; 1 who.

CARROX (Falkirk, Elgin, "\V. Ross-sh.). Falk. C. prob. Caere
in O.E. chrun., aim. 710 ; c. 1470, Carroun. Ross-sh. C.



58 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

prob. seen in tribes, Carnones and Cerones, mentioned
by Ptolemy, c. 120, in this region. Prob. G. cathair or
W. caer + G. abhainn, 'fort on the river.' Of. CAMBUS-
BARR-ON and CARBROOK, near Falk. C. But th e Ir. Carrons
are corruption of Ir. and G. earn, cairn, rock.

CARROXBRIDGE (Stirlingsh. and Dumfriessh.).

CARROXSHORE (Falkirk). Founded c. 1750. The Carron is
a tidal river even above this.

CARR KOCKS (Crail and Berwick-on-Tweed). Tautology ; G.
carr, W. caer, Armor, her, cear, also O.E. (in Lindis-
farne Gosp., c. 950) carr, a rock (cf, Ir. carraig, sea-cliff,
rock). Car- is in some Ir. place-names, Carlow, &c.,
though not in the Irish dictionaries. Carr is perh.
cognate with scaur.

CAR(R)UBER (Linlithgow, also farm in Fife). Perh. 'fort
with the yews ; ' G. iubhar, now pron. yure. ' William
of Caribris ' was Bailie of Edinburgh in 1 454.

CARRUTHERSTOXE (Lockerbie), c. 1 350, Caer Ruther, ' fort of
E.,' an old Celt. The final syllable is O.E. tun, tune, village.

CARSEBRECK (Auchterarder). ' Spotted, mottled CARSE ; '
G. breac, speckled.

CARSE OF ARDERSIER (Cromarty), OF THE FORTH, OF GOWRIE
(Forfar), OF STROWAN, also FRIAR'S CARSE (Dumfries).
Dr Murray's earliest quotation is fr. Barbour, 1375,
'kerss;' but in charter of "Win. Lyon, c. 1200, we find
'Filio Walteri Falconer in lie Carse de Gowrie,' and in
oath of fealty to Edward I., 1296, ' Johan Strivelyn de
Cars ' ( = C. of Forth). In Sc. still called kerss, as in
KERSE, Grangemouth. It means low, alluvial land along
a river. Root doubtful ; prob. O.lS r . carr, Dan. 7raer,
pool, marsh, fen-land, Icel. Igarr, copse-wood ; common
in M.E. as carr.

CARSETHORX (Kirkcudbright).

CARSHOGLE (hill, Thornhill). Prob., by common transposi-
tion of r, G. crasg (or crosy) oylaicli, ' pass or crossuig of
the soldier ;' lit. a youth. Cf. ARNGASK, and also CARSE.

CARSKEY (Kintyre). G. cathair stjeaiy, 'fort among the
hawthorns.'



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 59

CARSPHAIRN (Kirkcudbright). 'CARSE with the alders;'
G. fearna.

CARSTAIRS (Lanarksh.). 1170, Casteltarres ; 1592, Carstairs.
O.E. castel (or G. caisieal) Terras, ' T.'s castle or fort ;'
but see CASTLEBAY. Terras is still a Sc. surname ; and
cf. 'Tarrisholme,' 1376, in Liddesdale.

CART, E. (Renfrewsh.). The Black and White Cart join to
form the R. Cart, G. car aid, ' a pair.' The Water of
Kilmarnock is also called Garth; for it, too, forms a pair
of streams. Cf. Cartmel, Lancashire.

CARTER FELL and HAUGH (Cheviots). Sic a. 1540. Looks
like G. catliair (or W. caer} tir, 'fort on the land.'

CARTLAND CRAGS (Lanark).
CARTSDYKE (Greenock).

CARWHINELOW, R. (S. Dumfriessh.). Prob. W. caer Gwen-
dolen-, ' fort of G.,' leader in the Battle of Ardderyd, 573.

CASHEL DHU (Sutherland). G. and Ir. caisecd, circular
stone fort, + G. dku, black, dark. Fifty ' Cashels ' in
Ireland ; cognate with L. castellum.

CASKARDY. Prob. G. crasg airde, ' pass of the height.' Cf.
ARXGASK.

CASKIEBEX (Aberdeen). Prob. G. crasy-a-lieinn, 'pass
between the hills.' Cf. above, and ' Kaskybaran ' ( = na
bearna), Fife, ' opening between high lands.'

CASSILIS (Maybole). Prob. G. and Ir. caiseal, a wall, castle,
with the Eng. pi. s.

CASTLEBAY (Uist). In dealing with some names containing
rattle, it needs to be remembered, O.E. cartel originally
was=L. castellum, the Vulgate X. T.'s translation of
Gr. KM/J.-TJ, 'village' or 'ton;' only through Fr. influence
did it come to mean 'a fortress.'

CASTLE CAMPBELL (Dollar). Formerly 'Castell Gloume'
(? =G. gocli Icum, mad leap). Xame changed in 1489,
after its owner, first Earl of Argyle.

CASTLECARY (Falkirk). Perh. ' Gary's castle,' or a tautology
fr. W. caer, fort. Old Roman fort here.

CASTLE CAVAN (Perthsh.). Old G. callian, a field, Ir. cablian,



60 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

a hollow, 'hollow place.' Common in Irish names, but
not cognate with cabin.

CASTLE DOUGLAS. Modern ; after a man who built mills
here.

CASTLE KENNEDY (Stranraer).

CASTLEMILK (Dumfries and Glasgow). Dumfries C., 1189,
Kastelmilc. See ABERMILK and CASTLEBAY.

CASTLE STALKER (Appin). On Island Stalker, sic 1501
(Q.Eilein-an-stalcaire, 'falconer's isle'), fr. O.K.staelcan,
Dan. stalke, to go warily, stalk. Said to have been
built for James IV. 's hunting expeditions.

CASTLE SWEN (Knapdale). In old Ir. MS. Dun Suiblme
(pron. Sween). S. was Abbot of lona, 766. Dr
M'Lauchlan says fr. Sweyn, a chief who died in 1034.

CASTLETON or -TOWN (Roxburgh, Braemar, Thurso). Rox-
burgh C., 1220, Caseltoun. Eight in England. Of.
p. Ixxiii.-lxxiv.

CAT, Hill of (Forfar). G. cat, a cat, or cath, a battle.

CATACOL (L. Ranza). 1433, Catagill. Prob. G. cath na giU y
'battle of the gill;' O.X. gil, ravine. Cf. AUCHINGILL,
and for interchange of c and y, cf. AUCHNAGATT.

CATHARINE'S, St (L. Fyne). Modern.

CATHCART (Glasgow). 1158, Iverkert; c. 1170, Ket- or
Katkert ; c. 1375, Catkert. ' Battle (G. cath) on the R.
CART.' On Ker-, cf. CAERDON.

CAT(H)KIN BRAES (Glasgow). G. cath dun, ' battle on the
height or head ; ' and cf. BRAES.

CATIILAW (Torphichen). Hybrid; G. cath, battle, + law (O.E.
hldew, a cairn), Sc. for hill.

CATRAIL, or PICTS WORK DITCH (said to run from Peel Fell
to Mossilee, near junction of Tweed and Gala). Dr J.
A. H. Murray, a Border man himself, informs me that
this is an invented name for an invented rampart, both
due to the imagination of Chalmers (Caledonia, 1807).

CATRINE (Mauchline). Perh. ' battle at the point or division
of the land ; ' G. rinn.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 61

CAT(T)ERLINE (Bervie). Old, Katerlyn. Perh. G. ceatltra
linne, ' cattle pool.'

CAULDCOTS (Arbroath). ' Cold huts ; ' O.E. cot, cott, a cham-
ber, hut, Icel. Jcot (cf. dovecot, and see CALDWELL).


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