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Place-names of Scotland online

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Of. Calcots, Elgin.

CAULRIG (Inverness). Prob. ' cold (Sc. caul' or cauld} rig or
ridge.' See p. Ixi.

CAUSEWAYEND (Manuel) and -HEAD (Stirling). Fr. Eng.
causey + way, M.E. came, O.N.Fr. caucic, late L.
calceata, a beaten, trodden way, fr. calx, the heel.

CAVAY (Orkney). Not, as some say, ' cheese isle,' but prob.
Kalf-ey. Cf. CALP, CALVA.

CAVERS (Roxburgh). 1291, Kauirs ; c. 1310, Cauers. Prol)
a man's name. Cf. Caversham, Reading.

CAVERTON (Roxburgh). As above.

CAWDOR (Nairn). ]S~ow pron. Kahdor; c. 1280, Kaledor ;
1501, Caldor, = C ALDER.

CEANNACROE (Inverness). ' Peak or head of the hill.' G.
ceann in names is usually Ken-, Kin-. Croe is the G. and
Ir. croagli, cruacli, a stack-like hill, of which CRUACHAN
is the diminutive. Cf. Glencroe, Croagbpatrick, &c.

CEANN A MHAIM (Inverness). ' Head or point of the
rounded hill ; ' G. mum, gen. mkaim, prob. cognate
with L. mamma, a breast. The n of the article is
merged in the ceann.

CELLARDYKE (Anstruther). Doubtful; Cellar (O.F. celier, L.
cellar ium, fr. cella, cell) occurs in Eng. a. 1225. Dyke
is O.E. die, ditch, or bank of earth thrown up from the
ditch, which is softened form of the same Avord.

CERES (Cupar). 1279, Sireis ; 1517, Siras, which is almost
the modem pron. G. siar, west, or saor (pron. seer),
carpenter (cf. Balsier, Sorbie) ; with Eng. plural. Siris
is G. and Ir. for a cherry. Bishop Forbes thinks, perh.
fr. St Ciricius or ST CYRUS ; cf. EGLISGIRIG.

CHALLOCH (Girvan and Newton Stewart). G. teallacli, a
hearth, forge. Initial t often = ch. Cf. CHIPPERDINGAN.

CHALMAN ISLAND (lona). Prob = Colman, name of about
sixty Irish saints.



62 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

CHANCE INN (Arbroath).

CHANNELKIRK (Lauder). Old, Childeschirche, sacred to St
Cuthbert, fr. O.E. did, a child, especially of gentle
birth ; but present name means ' church on the river '
(Leader), common former meaning of channel O.Fr.
rltanel, L. eanalis, canal. Cf. Channelsea, on R. Lea,
Essex.

C IIANONRY (Fortrose). 1 503, ' The Canoniy of Ross ; ' 1 570,
Channonrie. 'The ric, O.E. rice, or jurisdiction of the
canon ' (see CANONBIE). The word canonry does not
seem to occur till 1482. The G. name of Fortrose is
A'chanonach, 'the canonry.'

CHAPEL (two in Fife, and four others). Common, too, in
England. Chapel (late L. cappella, fr. cappa, cape, cope ;
see Dr Murray's dictionary) is so spelt in Eng. c.
1275.

CHAPELHALL (Airdrie), -HOPE (St Mary's L. ; see HOBKIRK),
-KNOWE (Hawick; Knowe, see p. Ixxvi.), -TON (Hamil-
ton), -TOUN (Ballindalloch).

CHAPPELERNE (Carmichael). 'Chapel-house;' O.E. erne,
house, cot. Cf. WHITHORN and Blackerne, Kirkcud-
bright.

CHARLESTON (Dunfermline). Also near St Austell.

CHARTERSHALL (Bannockburn). Charteris (i mute) is a
common Sc. surname.

CHERRYBANK (Perth). Cherry, c. 1350, clcri, is in O.E.
ciris, G. Jcirschc.

CHESTERS, The (Hawick and Bolton, Haddington), CHESTER
KNOWES (Chirnside), CHESTER LEES (Tweedsmuir), and
CHESTER RIG and HILL (Traquair). L. c.astra, camp,
castruin, fort (cf. Chester, and the many -chesters in
England). Remains of circular or oval hill-forts found at
all, or nearly all, the places cited. The Romans certainly
were in Peeblesshire, but it is doubtful whether these are
Roman or British. Professor Veitch thinks they mark
the Cymri or Brytbons' iinal but unsuccessful stands
against Pict, Scot, and Saxon, their last retreats.

CHEVIOT HILLS. W. cefn, a ridge or back. Cf. Chevy



PLACE-XAMES OF SCOTLAND. 63

Chase and Chevington, Northumberland ; -ot is a difficult
ending to explain.

CHICKEN HEAD (Stornoway). Translation of G. name,
ceann na circ. Circ is now obsolete.

CifippERDixGAN WELL (Wigtown). G. tiobar Dingan, 'well
of St lX r inian.' See p. xcii., and cf. CHALLOCH and
TIPPERLINN.

CHIRXSIDE (Berwicksh..). Sic 1250. ' Hillside like a churn ;'
O.E. cyrin, M.E. rJiyrne, Sc. Jam.

CHOXZIE, Ecu (S. Perthsh.). Might be = GJioinneacJi, G.
gen. of St Kenneth, more prob. fr. clwn, gen. of G. cu, a
dog. Cf. Carchonzie Woods, Callander, while L. Con
is not far away.

HRYSTOX (Glasgow). Pron. as 'Christ 'is; so just 'Christ's
village.' Cf. Christon, near Exeter, and Christskirk, old
name of Strath, Skye.

CIR MHOR (Come). G. 'great comb or crest.'

CLACHAIG (Dunoon). 'Stony bay;' G. dacJi, a stone, +iS T .

a/'i/, bay. Cf. ASCAIG.
CL.ACHAN (Tayinloan), also CLACIIAN OF ABERFOYLE, <fec.

Perh. twenty ' clachans ' in Scotland; G. for 'village;'

often also for ' church.'

CLAOHAX EASY (Wigtown). 'Village of Jesus;' G. losa.

Cf. CHRYSTON.
CLACHDHIAN (Ben Machdui). 'Stone of shelter;' G. dion.

CLACIINACUDDAN (stone at a street corner, Inverness). G.
'stone of Cudnchan' or St Cuthbert. Cf. Sc. name
'Cuddie,' and Killiemacuddican, Kirkcolm, 'church of
my Cuthbert.'

'CbAGHNAHAEBY (Inverness). Prob. == Clach-charra, Onich,
'stone of strife, quarrel, trouble,' G. car r aid ; but
Knockenharrie, Galloway, is 'little rough hill,' fr. G.
ranuch, rough, lit. mangy.

CLACKMANNAN. 1147, Clacmanant ; 1283, -aiman ; c. 1585,
Clacmana. ' Stone of Manann, 3 prob. same as the Man-
annan MacLir of Ir. legend, who gave his name to the
Isle of Man. The district, called in G. Manann, in W.
Manair, stretched fr. Clackmannan over the Forth



64 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

through Stirlingshire to SLAMAXXAX Moor and east to
R. Avon.

CLADICH (Inveraray). G. dadaidi, the shore. Cf. BRUAN.

CLA(I)RDOX HILL (Thurso). G. clar dun, 'smooth, bare,
bald hill.'

CLARENCEFIELD (Annan).

CLARKSTON (Airdrie) ; cf. 1183, ' Clerkinton,' Midlothian.

CLASHBREAC (Morvern). 1496, Clashbrake. 'Spotted,
speckled hollow ;' G. dais breac, G. and Ir. dais, a ditch,
trench, furrow, hollow in a hill, is common, as Clash-,
in names in Galloway and Ireland.

CLASHMACK HILL (Huntly). 'Son's hollow' or 'swine's
hollow;' G. mac, gen. maic, or miic, gen. muic.

CLASHNEACH, Nick of (Minigaff). A tautology ; G. dais
n'ech, ' trench or furrow of the horse.'

CLATT (Aberdeen), a. 1500, Clat. G. deithe, 'concealed
(place),' or = CLETT.

CLAVERHOUSE (Dundee). Prob. fr. a man, (cf. Claverdon,
-ing, and -ley, England). Perh. fr. Sc. daver, to gossip,
found a. 1605 ; cf. G. ddbaire, babbler.

CLAY OF ALLAX (farm, Fearn). Clay, prob. as in Clayshant,
Galloway, =G. clack scant (fr. L. tsanctua), 'holy stone/
Cf. Cambus o' May, and see ALLAN.

CLEGHORX (Lanark). Perh. corruption of G. and Ir. doich-
rean, stony place, fr. dach, a stone, as in Clogherane
and Cleighran, Ireland. Cf., too, Ir. daigeann, G.
daigionn, a skull, ' often applied to a round, hard, dry
hill,' Joyce. Cf. DREGHORX.

CLEISH (Kinross). 1250, Kles. G. and Ir. dai$, 'a ditch,
furrow.' In the same district is Clashlochie (G. lodia),
'ducks' ditch;' the name has nothing to do with Loch
Leven, on which the place stands.

CLELLAND (Motherwell). Thought to be = Cleveland, i.e.,
'cliffland;' O.E. dif, M.E. clef. Cf. woman = O.E.
wifman.

CLEPINGTON (Dundee). Prob. 'Clephane's village.' Cf.
Clephantown, Nairn.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 65

CLETT, The (Tlmrso). 1329, in S. Ronaldsay, Klaet. G.
deit, ' a rocky pillar.'

CLIBRECK BEN (Sutherland). 1269, Clybry. G. cliath
breac, 'spotted side or slope.'

CLIXTMAINS (St Boswells). Sw. and Dan. dint, brow of a hill,
promontory. Of. Clint, Yorks., and Clent Hills, Stafford;
but Clinty, Antrim, is Ir. duainte, meadows. Mains is
common Sc. term for a farm-steading, or large country
house ; prob. the same as manse, mansion. Low L.
mansus, fr. L. maneo, mans-um, I remain.

CLOCK, The (Gourock). G. dadi, gen. doiclie, a stone, rock.

CLOCHAN (Fochabers). Diminutive of above. In Ir. it
means a beehive-shaped stone house.

CLOCHNABEIN or -BANE (mountain, Kincardinesh.). Prob.
G. dodian Ian, 'little white rock.' It is sometimes
called 'White Stone Hill.'

OLOCKSBRIGGS (Forfar). Without further information ex-
planation of this corruption is impossible ; but first
syllable prob. G. dock, a stone.

CLOLA (Mintlaw, Aberdeen). 1 G. dadh laclia, 'hillock of
the wild ducks.' Of. CLOY A and CLOVULLIN.

CLONE (three in Galloway), c. 1230, Clon in Eoss-sh. G.
and Ir. duaiti (pron. cloon), a meadow.

CLOSEBURN (Dumfries), a. 1200, Kylosbern; 1278, Close-
burn. G. cill Osbern, 'cell or church of St Osborne,'
]S T . Asenbjorn, ' bear of the gods.'

CLOUSTA (Shetland). Perh. O.^N". Jdof-sta, ' place of the
cleft,' fr. Idoji, a cleft or rift, and stafir, place, see
p. Ixiv.

CLOVA (Forfar and Aberdeen), a. 1300, Cloueth ; 1328,
Cloveth. Prob. G. dadk atJi, ' mound at the ford.'

CLOVENFORDS (Galashiels).

CLOVULLIN (Ardgour). In G. dadh-a-mhuillinn, ' the mound
of the mill.'

CLOY GLEN (Arran). Perh. G. doiclte, gen. of doclie, a
stone ; and cf. LOY or Gloy.



66 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

CLUDEN, R. (Dumfries). Peril. "NV. dwyd a/on or an, ( warm
river.' Cf. AVON, and R. Clwyd, Wales.

CLUGSTON (Wigton). A Cloggeston is found in 1296,
? where. 1 Perh. = Bally clug, Ireland ; Ir. dug, G. day,
a bell.

CLUNAS (Nairn). G. and Ir. duain or duan, a meadow,
with Eng. plural.

CLUNIE, -Y (Blairgowrie, Aberdeen, Laggan, and loch west of
Fort Augustus). 1291, Clony. As above; old form
Cluanan occurs. Cf. Clun, Salop ; also Cluniter (duan-
a-tir), Dunoon.

CLUTAG (Kirkinner, Galloway). Prob. refers to the valua-
tion of land in ' pennylands ; ' G. ditag, being ^th of a
farthing.

CLYDE, R. Tacitus (c. SO A.D.) and Ptolemy (c. 120), Clota;
a. 700, Adamnan, Cloithe ; a. 1249, Chid. Doubtful.
Whitley Stokes says = L. duere, to wash. Not likely
to be fr. G. dtth, strength. Rhys thinks Clota may
have been a pre-Celtic divinity, and says the name is
not = Welsh R. Clwyd, which means warm, Cf. also
Joyce, Irish Names, 2nd series, pp. 371-72.

CLYDEBANK (Glasgow).

CLYDESDALE. 1250, Matthew Paris, Cludesdale.

CLYNDER (Helensburgh). G. duain dur (or dobhar),
'meadow on the water.'

CLYNE (Golspie and E. Ross-sh.). Gols. C., r. 1240, Clun.
Ross C., 1375, Clyn. G. daoiit, a slope.

CLYNELISII (Sutherland). G. daon-lios, 'hill slope with the
garden.'

CLYTH (Lybster). G. diathach, a side, 'the slope of a hill ; '
fr. diabh, the breast.

CNOC AINGIL (lona, Islay, Lismore, Lochaber, Kintail,
Tain). G. cnoc, ainrjeal, 'hill of fire,' rather than
' angel's hill ; ' prob. relic of Druidic sun or fire worship

1 SeeJ. Stevenson, Documents Illustrative of the History of Scotland,
vol. ii. , s. ann. 1296.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 67

(see Alex. Carmichael on 'Place-Xames of lona,' Scot.
Geofjr. Mag., Feb. and May 1887). Cnoc in names is
usually spelt Knock.

COALTOX (Dysart).

COATBIUUGE, and near it COATDYKE and COATS. "W. coed, a
wood, G. coid, brushwood, sticks. Two Coathams in
north of England, and three Coats in England.

COBBIXSHAW (S. of Edinburgh). Prob. 'Colvin's hill.'
Shaw is properly a wood, O.E. scat/a, but in Sc. often
applied to a hill, Cobbie Row's Castle in "VVeir, Ork-
ney, is corruption of Kolbein Ilruga's Castle, a name
mentioned c. 1150. Hruga means a heap.

COCKAIRNIE (Aberdour). a. 1169, Kincarnathar ; 1178,
Kincarnyne ; form a. 1169 = Kincarn Nether ; and there
are still Nether and Upper Cockairnie. Kincarn = G.
ccann cairn, ' head of the cairn or heap.' But Cockairnie
is rather the W. cocli earn, 'red heap ' or 'hill.'

COCKBURXSPATH (Berwicksh.). 1128, Colbrandspath ; 1461,
Coburnispeth, and now pron. Coburnspath. Trans-
position of r is very common, and / easily drops. Cf.
POWBTJEN.

COCKEXZIE (Prestonpans). Kenzie is prob. G. Cohmeaclt,
Kenneth ; the first syll. might be G. coblt, a victory,
triumph.

COCKMUIR (Leadmuir).

COCK OP ARRAX. Its northern point. Cf. Cocklaw; 1461,
Coklaw. jST. holt means a heap, a lump.

COCKPEX (Dalkeith). 1250, Kokpen ; a. 1300, Cockpcu.
W. cocli pen, ' red head ' or hill.

COIGACII (Ullapool). 1502, Cogeach (the mod. pron.) ;
1530, Coidgeach. Prof. M'Kinnon says, G. cuiyeach, a
fifth. The local explanation is coiyacli, 'five fields,' there
being five places there beginning with Ach- (cf. FIM-
BUiSTEii). G. coigeach is a hand.

COIGXAFEARX (Inverness). First syll. doubtful (see above) ;
nafhearna, 'of the alders.'

COILAXTOGLE (K. Teith). G. foil an t'oylaidt, ' nook ' or
'wood of the youth or soldier.'



68 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

COILTON (Ayr). Fr. King Cole. See KYLE.

COIR-NAN-URISKIN (Ben Venue). G. ' cave (coire, a dell or
hollow) of the goblins.' It was thought to be haunted.

COLABOLL (Lairg). Perh. ' wood of the place,' G. coill and
X. bol, or fr. G. coil, noAv cuil, a corner, recess ; or, as
likely, fr. the Norse personal name Kol, ' Kol's place.'

COLDBACKIE (Tongue). See CALU WELL and BACK. It means
' cold hill ridge.'

COLDINGHAM (Berwicksh.). c. 720, Eddi, Coludesburg ;
Bede, same date, Urbs Coludi ; 1235, Coldingham ; a.
1500, often spelt with a G; 1639, Cauldingham.
' Colud's place ' or ' home.'

COLDSTREAM. 1290, Colde-, Caldestreme, referring to the R.
Tweed.

COLDWELLS (Cruden). Cf. CALDWELL.

COLFIN (Port Patrick). The cols may often either be fr. G.
cbil, cuil, a corner, nook, or coill, a wood ; so this will
either be 'clear, white (G. fionn) nook' or 'wood.'

CoLiNSBURGH(Fife). Fr. Colin, third Earl of Balcarres, c. 1690.

COLINTON (Edinburgh). c. 1540, Collintoun. ' Colin 's
village.' There are two Collingham's in England.

COLINTRAIVE (Kyles of Bute). G. coil an fsnaimh, ' corner
at the swimming place ' (for cattle to be driven over).
Cf. ARDENTRYVE. Liquids n and r often interchange,
and mlt is = v.

COLL (island, and in Lewis). Sic 1449; c. 1590, Collow.
G., Ir., and "W. coll, a hazel.

COLLAGE (Perth). 1250, Kulas; 1403, Cullace. Prob. G.
cuil eas, 'nook of the waterfall,' if there be one there.

COLLESSIE (Newburgh). 1288, Cullessy. Perh. G. coill or
cuil easaige, ' wood ' or ' nook of the pheasant ' or
'squirrel;' and cf. above.

COLLI(E)STON (Ellon and Arbroath). Collie is a common Sc.
surname, also Sc. for 'sheep-dog.'

COLLIN (Kirkcudbright). G. cuileann, 'holly.'

COLMONELL (Girvan). c. 1240, -manel. Fr. St Colmonella,



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 69

died Gil; called in Adanman, Columbanus; = Coluin
an Eala, ' Coluni of the Eala' (name of stream in

King's Co.). Of. KlLCALMONELL.

COLOXSAY. 1335, Golwonche ; 1376, Colowsay ; 1463,
Colonsay ; 1549, Colvansay. In Adanman it is Colosus,
which is perh. = COLL, ' a hazel.' Most say = 'Columba's
or Colnm's isle' (a//), or 'isthmus' (G. aoi), for C. and
ORONSAY once joined. But Prof. M 'Kinnoii thinks this
cannot he the original meaning, as m would not easily
become n. Yet in and n often do interchange (cf.
the many cases of duin for dun, DUMBARTOX, &C.). 1
However, the ending is Norse, and the name as it now
stands is = 'Colum's isle,' he in 10th-century Norse
being called Koln.

COLPY (Aberdeen). Doubtful. G. c.alpa is 'the leg' or
' the brawn of the leg ;' and C<>1 pa was one of the sons
of the legendary Milesius ; hence Colp on the R. Boyne.
A Colpley in Renfrew occurs in 1461.

COLTXESS (Lanarksh.). Cf. Coltbridge, Edinburgh. Quite
possibly G. coillte an eas, ' woods by the waterfall.'

COLVEXD (Dalbeattic). 1560, Colven; 1610, Culwen; Font'*
map, c. 1620, Covenn or Cawenn. First two forms =
G. c/tl Iheinn, ' back of the hill ; ' Pout's is evidently
G. and Ir. caliltan, a hollow. See CASTLE CAVAX.

COMAR (Ben Lomond). Farm at mouth of ravine on Ben
Lomond's north side. G. and Ir. cornar, a meeting,
confluence of two waters. Cf. CuMBEBNAULD.

COMERS (Aberdeen). As above, with Eng. plural.

COMISTOX (Edinburgh). Derivation fr. Camus, Danish
general who fought here, is prob. mythical.

Cox, L. (L. Katrine). G. cu, gen. coin, a dog.

COXAGLEX (Fort William). Prob. G. coa rjleann, 'Scots-fir

glen.'
CoxciiRA(8trachur). PeA.foTcConchuliar, G. form of Connor.

1 Joyce, Irish. Names, 1st series, gives one or two other examples of
this in his chapter on Corruptions; and, c.;)., comfort and all its
derivatives were in M.E. frequently spelt con fort,

L



70 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

COXDORRAT (Cumbernauld). Possibly G. caoin dobhar (or
dor) aite, 'gentle river place' (cf. Coxox). The river
would be the Luggie Water.

COXISBY (Islay). Prob. fr. Dan. liontje, a king. Cf. Coniston
and CONNINGSBURGII. On Dan. by or bi, a village, see
p. Ixiii.

COXXELL FERRY (Oban). iS r ot after some Celtic saint or
hero, like Inis Chonaile, L. Awe ; but G. coingheaU, a
whirlpool, referring to the falls on L. Etive.

COXXIXGSBURGH, or CuxxiXGSBURGH (Shetland). Prob. fr.
Icel. konungr, Dan. Jconye, a king. CONISBY may be
fr. same root. Cf. Kingstown, Queensborough, &c.
But, of course, O.E. coning, cunning, M.E. cunny, cony,
was the regular word for a ' rabbit.'

CONON, or CONAX (E. Ross-sh.). G. caoin abliainn or an,
'gentle, pleasant river.'

CONTIX (Strathpeffer). 1227, Conten ; 1510, Contan. Prob.
G. cointin, a dispute, debateable land ; but cf. Quentan's
Head, Carsphairn.

COXWAY (Beauly). c. 1220, Coneway ; a. 1300, Conveth.
G. coinneamh or coinrnlte (pron. conve), a refection =
food-rent, cf. BORELAND. But Conva and Convoy, Ire-
land, are fr. Ir. (and G.) con rnliayh, ' hounds' plain.'

COODHAM (Kilmarnock). Prob. AV. coed, a wood, + O.E.
Jtam, home, village. Cf. Codford, Bath. There is a
Cootham Common in Sussex.

COCKNEY (Stonehaven). Doubtful. Cf. 'Quikenne,' a.
1400, near Hawick.

COOMLEES (Tweeddale). 'Hollow pastures;' W. cwm, hollow
(cf. Eng. coomb, O.E. cumb, a valley or a bowl). On
lee, see BROOMLEE ; and cf. Coomb Hill, Tweedsmuir.
Leo of Halle says, root is same as O.E. ciniban, to join.

COPINSHAY (Orkney), c. 1260, Kolbensey. ]$". 'Colvin's
or Kolbein's Isle.' Cf. COBBIXSHAW. On ay, cf.
BARRAY, &c.

COPPERCLEUCH (Selkirk). ? ' Copper-beech glen.' See Buc-

CLEUCH.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 71

CORBY (Roxburgh). Corbie is Sc. for a raven, crow ; !N".
and Sw. korp, L. corpus. Three in England ; and cf.
Corbiehall, Carstairs, Corbie Den, Cults.

CORGARFF (Strathdon). G. coire garbh, 'rough ravine or

corrie.'
CORXHILL (Coldstream, Coulter, Banff).

CORPACII (Fort "William). ?G. corp-acltadh, 'corpse-field,
grave-yard, i.e., that at Kilmallie. Cf. Lochan-nan-Corp,
Callander.

CURRA Lixx (Lanark). Corra is said here to mean 'round'
(cf. G. cor ran, a reaping-hook). Linn is "W. rather
than G., which is linne. Cf. Corra Pool, Galloway.

CORRAX (L. Linnhe). G. ' a reaping-hook,' in Ir. carran, as
in Carran Tual.

CORRIE (Arraii and Dumfries). Arran C., 1807, Currie. G-.
coire, a cauldron ; hence, a glen, ravine.

CORRIEGILLS (Arran). Tautology, see above. Icel. yil, a
ravine. Cf. CATACOL.

CORRIEMULZIE (Braeiiiar). G. coire muihagacli, 'glen abound-
ing in cranberries.'

CORRIEVAIRACK, or CORRYARRICK (Inverness). G. coire eiri>-//,
'rising ravine or glen.'

COKRIEVRECKAX (Jura). <i. 700, Adamnan, Vortex or
Charybdis Brccain ; <. 1380, Fordun, Corebrekane.
G. en ire Blirecain, 'cauldron, i.e., whirlpool of Brecan,'
grandson of the famous Xiall, c. 450.

CORSEWALL POIXT (AVigtown). ' The cross well ;' here dedi-
cated to Ht Columba. Transposition of r is very
common. Cf. Corsapool, Islay.

CORSOCK (Kirkcudbright). 1527, Karsok. Sc. CARSE + G.
achad/i, field. Curs in Corn, means bog, fen. Cf. Cors-
cleugh, Yarrow. (Jn ode, cf. BEATTOCK.

OORSTORPIIIXE (Edinburgh). 1147, Crostorfin ; 1508, Cor-
storphyne. (r. croix torr fioini, ' cross of the clear (lit.
white) hill.' A cross certainly stood here ; and cf. CORSE-
WALL. There is an Incheturfin, c. 1130, in charters of
Dunkeld, but that is G. innis taar fi'jnn, 'meadow of
the white bleaching-green.' There is a Torphin Hill just



72 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

opposite Corstorphine, near Juniper Green ; and cf.
CAR-FIN. A Thorfinn or Turphin, son of the Norse
Earl Harold, appears in Scotland, c. 1165, but he has
probably given rise to no place-name.

C6RTACHIE (Kirriemuir). c. 1320, Carcathie. G. cathair
(pron. car) catha, 'fort of the battle.'

CORUISK (Skye). G. and Ir. coire uisge, 'glen of the water.'

Cf. Usk, Esk.
CORVEN. G. corr bheinn, 'rounded hill.' Cf. Corwen, Wales.

COTHAL (Kinaldie, Aberdeen). Doubtful. Cf. ' Couthal,'
1329, in Arbroath Chart., vol. ii.

COULBEG and COULMORE (Sutherland). G. cul beag and
?nhor, ' little ' and ' big back ' (of the hill).

COULISS (Nigg). 1351, Culuys ; 1550, Guiles. G. cul lios
(pron. lis), 'at the back of the garden.'

COULL (Aboyne). a. 1300, Coul ; 1454, Colic. G. <-ul,
'the back.'

COULMONY HOUSE (Xairn). 'At the back of the moss or
moor;' G. moine.

C(O)ULTER (Biggar, loch near Stirling, and Aberdeen). Big.
C., c. 1210, Cultyr; 1229, Cultir. Aberd. C., c. 1170,
Kultre and Culter ; a. 1300, Cultyr. 'At the back of
the land;' G. tir, W. ire. Cf. BAL-QUHIDDER. Simeon
Durham, a. 1130, mentions a Culterham near theTeviot.

C(O)ULTER ALLERS (Biggar). See above. A Hers = 'alders ;'
O.E. alor, aler, O.X. ulr.

COUNTESSWELLS (Aberdeen).

C(o)upARFiFE and C(O)UPAB ANGUS. Fife C., 1183, Cupre;
1294, Coper. Angus C., c. 1169, Cubert; 1296, Coupre
in Anegos. Can it be G. cu-bar>; 'dog height, or hilll'
G. Jiearrta means ' clipped, pruned, shorn.'

COURANCE (Lockerbie). Prob. fr. a man.

COUSLAND (Dalkeith). Sic c. 1 160. ' Cows' land ;' O.E. cti,
Icel. Jut, Lowl. Sc. coo, a cow. Cf. Cousley Wood, Sussex.

COVE (Dumbarton, Aberdeen, L. Ewe). O.E. cofa, chamber,
cave, Icel. kqfi, Sw. Jcofica, a hut. Two in England.

COVINGTON (Lanark). <: 1190, Villa Colbani ; c. 1212, Col-



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 73

baynisttin; 1434, Cowantoun; c. 1480, Covingtoun.
' Colban's or Cowan's village.' C. Avas follower of
David, Prince of Cumbria, c. 1120. There is a Coving-
ton near St JSTeot's. Cf., too, Coven, Wolverhampton,
and SYMIXGTOX.

COWAL (L. Fyiie). From King Comgall, Coill, or Cole, chief
of the Dalriacl Scots in the 6th century ; but Liber
Pluscardensis, 1461, spells it Touvale.

COWCADDEXS (now in Glasgow). 1521, Kowkadens. Latter
lialf puzzling. But cf. Icel. yaddr, Sw. yadd, an ox-
goad. It was a loan by which the cows Avent to pasture.

COWDEXBEATH (Dunfermline). There is a Cowden in Eng-
land, and it is an Eng. surname ; but here it is prob.
Celtic as in next. See BEATH.

COAVDENKNOWES (Earlston). 1604, Couldenknowes ; 1827,
ColdingknoAves. Hybrid; G. eld dnin, 'the back of the
hill,' + Sc. knowe. Cf. Cowdenhill, Bonnybridge. On
Imoice, see p. Ixxvi.

COAVLAIRS (GlasgoAv). Prob. just 'COAV pastures or lairs;'
O.E. leger, couch, bed.

COYLET Ixx (L.Eck). Perh. G. coill eich, 'Avood of the horse.'

COYLTON (Ayr). Prob. fr. King Cole. See COWAL and
KYLE. On -ton, see pp. Ixxiv, Ixxv.

CRACKAIG, or CRAGAIG. Either G. creay, ' a crag,' a rock, or
croze, ' a skin ' (cf. Clintycracken, Tyrone ; Ir. cluainte,
croiceann, 'meadoAvs of the skins,' = Sc. SKIXFLATS).
Air/ is X. suffix for 'bay. 1

CRAGGAXMORE (Craigellachie). G. creagan mor, lit. ' big,
little rock.'

CRAGGIE, or CREAGACH. G. crcayacli, rocky.

CRAICHIE (Forfar, andParton, Kirkcudbright). G. cruacliacli,
hilly. Cf. CRUACHAN.

CRAIG(A)XURE (Mull). ' Kock of the yeAV-tree ; ' G. iulliar
(pron. ynre).

CRAIGDAAE (Old Meldruni). G. creay daimh, ' rock of the ox.'

CRAIGDUCKIE (Kinross). ' Crag of the haAvk ; ' G. t-seabltac,
(pron. tavac).



74 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

CRAIGELLACIIIE (BaUindalloch). G. creag eagalacli, 'rock of
warning/ war-cry of Clan Grant. Cf. 'Stand fast,
Craigcllachie.'

CRAIGENPUTTOCH (Mthsdale). Said to be G., 'rock of the
kite,' same root as L. buteo ; but dictionary gives only
putag, a small ridge of land.

CRAIGENVEOCH (Old Luce). G. crew/an bJifithich or llifiaiclt
(pron. veeagh), ' little rock of the raven.'

CRAIGFOODIE (Cupar). Might be G. creag-bhodaig, 'rock of
the calf,' or bliodaiclt, 'the churl, rustic.'

CRAIGHALL (Edinburgh).
CRAIGHOUSE (Jura).

CRAIGIE (Kilmarnock, Blairgowrie). c. 1272, Cragyn. G.
creagan, dimin. of creag, crag, rock.

CRAIGIEBARNS (Dunkeld). As its site shows, plainly G.

creag-a-beirn, 'crag at the gap or pass ;' with the common

Eng. plural.
CRAIGIEBUCKLER (Aberdeen). The second part is sure to be

corruption of some G. Avord. Difficult to say what.

CRAIGIEVAR (Alford). G. creagwli bharr, 'rocky point or
head.'

CRAIGLEITH (Edinburgh). ' Rock over the (Water of) Leith.'

CRAIGLOCKHART (Edinburgh). 1528, Craglokhart. Perh.
fr. a man ; but cf. Bar- and Drum-lockhart, Galloway,
and Drumlougher, Ireland, fr. G. and Ir. luachair,
rushes.

CRAIGLUSCAR (Dunfermline). Peril, 'rock of the sudden
noise ; ' G. lasgar. Also cf. Ir. lusca, a cave, and loisgrean
(fr. loisg, to burn), ' corn burnt in the ear,' as in Knock-
aluskraun, Clare, <fcc.

CRAIGMILLAR (Edinburgh). Sic. 1212. Old form Craig-
moilard is said to occur, if so = G. maol drd, ' rock of
the bare height.'


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