James B. (James Brown) Johnston.

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David I. (1140-50) signing charters 'apud (.'astelluiu
puellarum,' or the 'Castle of the Maidens.' But, without
doubt, the name of King Edwin of Xorthumbria (GIG
33) did influence the later spellings, indeed influenced tin-
oldest spellings we have, viz., Holyrood Charter, c. 112^,
' Ecclesia Sancti Crucis Edwinesbuigensis,' and Simeon
Durham (died 1130), Edwinesburch. But in later
charters of David L, a. 1147, we find Edeneburg,
Edensburg. On lurgh, cf. BORGUE.

EDIXGIGHT (Banff). G. eadan <jao!fli, 'hillside exposed to
the wind.'

EDINKILLY (Dunphail). G. eadan clioille, 'face or front
of the wood.'

EDNAM (Kclso). c. 1100, Aednaham; 1116, Edyngahum ;
1285, Edinham ; 1316, Ednam. ' Home or village (O.E.
ham) on the River EDEN.' Cf. Edenham, Bourne, and
ED ROM.

EDRADYNATE (Logicrait). G. cadar dinait, 'between tin-
woods or woody glens.' Cf. EDDRACHILIS and DINNET.

EDROM (Berwicksh.). O.E. Edr-liam, 'home' or 'village
on the R. ADDER. Cf. EDNAM.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 103

EDZELL (Brechin). a. 1204, Edale ; c. 1230, Addele. ?G.
eadha, an aspentree, + N. dal, dale.

EGILSHAY (Orkney). Orkney. Sag., Egilsey ; 1529, Jo. Ben,
' Egilschay quasi ecclesiae insularum.' If fr. G. eaglau
(L. ecclesia), a church, the name is a very exceptional
one for Orkney. Pcrh. fr. some man, ' Egil's isle.'

EGLIXTOX (Ayr). 1205, Eglingstoun, Eglintoune. Fr.
some Saxon settler. Cf. Eglingham, Alnwick ; Eglin
Lane, Minigaff; and Eglin Hole, Yorks.

EGLISGIR(I)G (Kincardine). ' Church (G. eaglais) of Girig,'
Grig, 9th-century Scottish king, dedicated by him to St
Ciricius, and now ST CYRUS.

EGLISMOXICHTY (Monifieth). 1211, Eglismenythok. See

MONIKIE.

EIGG (Hebrides). Adamnan, Egea; Ulst. Ann., ami. 725,
Ego ; old Celtic MS., Eig, which last in Old Ir. means
'a fountain.' The G. eag, gen. eige, means a nick or
hack.

EILDON HILLS (Melrose). a. 1130, Sim. Durham, Eldunum;
a. 1150, Eldune. Prob. G, aill, a rock, cliff, + dwi, a
hill. Cf. Ercildun or EAKLSTOX.

EILEAX DOXAX ("W. Ross-sh.). 1503, Alanedonane; 1539,
Elandonan. G. = ' St Donan the martyr's isle.' He
died, 617, in Eigg. Peril, fr. dunan, a little fort or
hiU.

EILEAX MUXDE, or ELAXMUXDE (Glencoe). ' Isle of Munnu,'
Columba's friend. See KILMUX.

EILEAX XA J^AOIMH (The Minch). G. = 'isle of saints.'

EILLERHOLM, or HELYER HOLM (Kirkwall). Icel. for, ' isle
of the flat or slaty rocks.' Cf. HOLM.

EISHORT, L. (Skye). Perh. G. eisg, gen. of iasg, fish, + Norse
suffix art, art, or arth, frith, bay, or fjord.

ELCHIES (Craigellachie, g.v.). The s is the common Eng.
plural added to a G. word.

ELCHO (Perth), c. 1230, Elchok. ? G. eallach, gen. eallcha,
'a battle.'

ELDERSLIE (Renfrew). 1398, -sly. ' Alder lea ' or meadow



104 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

(cf. COULTER ALLERS). The elder in Sc. is ' bourtree,'
though in O.E., a. 800, we find ellaern as the gloss of
L. sambuciis.

ELGIN. Sic 1283; in 1281, Elgyn; on old corporation
seal, Helgyn. Said to be fr. Helgy, a Norse general,
victor near here c. 927. But Ithys thinks it pre-Celtic
or Ivernian. Elga is a character in Irish mythic,
history, and also poetic name for Ireland, peril, mean-
ing 'noble.'

ELGOLL (Broadford). Peril, G. al-gobhail, 'rock at the fork,'
if that suit the site.

ELIE (Fife). Perh. ' on the other side ; ' G. eile, other.
Cf. BALELIE and Ely.

ELLIOT (Forfar). Old, Elloch (see ARBIRLOT). Prob. G. aill
or al achaidh, 'rock in the field;' pern, connected with
Ir. aileach, a stone fort, as in Ardelly, Ireland.

ELLON (Aberdeensh.). 1265, Elon. Prob. G. ailean, 'a
green plain.' Cf. ALLAN.

ELLSRIDGEHILL, or ELSRICKLE (Biggar). 1293, Elgirig, which
must be G. al Giriy, ' rock of King G.' (see EGLISGIRIG).
A very curious corruption.

ELPHIN (Lochinver). Prob. = Elphin, Ireland; G. and Ir.
aill fliionn, 'white rock' or 'cliti'.'

ELPHINSTONE (Airth) and PORT ELPHINSTONE (Inverurie).
Maybe as above, + O.E. ton, tun, hamlet; more prob.
fr. some man. Elpin is the name of one of the Pictish
kings.

KLSICK. (Portlethen, Kincardine). Sic 1654; cf. Elswick,
Xewcastle, pron. Elsick. It looks like G. aillse, a fairy,
-t- O.E. icic, dwelling, village; but that is rather a
dubious combination.

ELY AN WATER and ELVANFOOT (X. of Beattock). c. 1170,
Elwan, and, same date and district, 'Brothyr-alewyn.'
Prob. W. al-wen, ' very white, bright,' fr. gwen, white,
as in Gwenystrad (Gala Water) or ' white strath,' now
WEDALE ; cf. K. Alwen, N. Wales, and El wand (c. 1160,
Alewent, Aloent), other name of Allan Water, Melrose.
Elwan is the name in Cornwall for a porphyritic rock.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 105

EMBO (Dornoch). a. 1300, Ethenboll ; 1610, Eyndboll.
A difficult name ; 1 ' place of the little ford.' G. athcm,
+ 1ST. bol, see p. Ixiv ; cf. ETHIE. But in G. it is
Eirpol = ERIBOLL, X. cora-bol, beach-town or -place,
just its site.

ENARD or EYNARD BAY (W. Sutherland). 1632, Eynort. X.
eijin ard, art, or ort, ' island bay ' or ' fiord ' (see p. Iv).

ENDRICK, K. (Stirlingsh.). (Cf. Strathendry, Leslie, a.
1169, -enry). Prob. G. abhainn or an reidh, 'smooth'
or ' straight river.' Final dh is sometimes pron. with a
click, almost 7r. On d intruding itself as here, see p.
xxxvii.

ENHALLOW (Orkney). c. 1225, Orkney. So,;/., Eyin helga,
' holy isle ' (cf. EXAUD). Eng. hallow is fr. O.E. lidlyian,
to hallow ; half/a, a saint.

ENOCH DHU (Pitlochry) and ENOCH (Durrisdeer). G. aonach
dhu, 'black, steep hill ; ' for ao = e, cf. aodann and edann,
slope, hill face. But St Enoch's, Glasgow, is fr. Thenew,
c. 500, mother of St Kentigern or Mungo. The th in
her name has been lost by aspiration.

ENTERKIN BURN (X. of Drumlanrig). ? G. mi (ubhaitm)
t'uircein, ' sow's water,' or farcoin, ' mastiff's, blood-
hound's water.'

ENZIE (Buckie). 1654, ' Ainia (Ainyee),' sic in II. Gordon's
Survey ; nowpron. Ingee ; doubtful The River Inny, "NV.
Meath, c. 670 in Tirechanwas Ethne ; and E. was daughter
of an Irish king. ? Aiiy connection with this Enzie.

EOCHAR (Lochmaddy). More correctly lochdar, G. for 'low
place, bottom.' Cf. YOKER.

EOROPIE (Lewis). Erroneously spelt Europa ; X. eora pic
(= by, bi), 'beach-place, or village.' Cf. ERIBOLL, and
'Eurobolsey,' in Islay, 1562.

EPORT, L. (Lochmaddy). Prob. X. ctj, isle, + G. jwrt, port,
harbour.

ERCHLESS (Beauly). 1258, Herchelys ; 1539, Hereichlis; a
])uzzling name. Can it be = Hercules, whose G. name is
lorcall, asin Uinneag lorcaill, 'H.'s Avindow,' a huge cleft
in a rock in Colonsay, and cf. Erackhall, Breadalbane.

ERIBOLL (X. Sutherland). 1499, Erribull ; 1530, Ireboll.



100 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

N. eyri-bol, 'place on the tongue of land,' same as
G. earbil and Ir. earball. Cf. ARBOLL, and Erribul,
Foynes.

PJUCHT, R. and L. (N. Perth sh.). Stream from 'the ascent
or rising slope ; ' G. ciridh. Of. Coire Eirigh, Loch
Katrine.

ERISKA(Y) (L. Creran and 8. Uist). Crer. E., 1558, Yriskay.
Uist E., 1549, Eriskeray. Looks like 'goblin's' or
' diviner's isle ; ' G. uruixy + N. at/, <?//, isle. But some
say it is the X. Eiriksey, ' Eric's isle.'

ERISORT, L. (Lewis). Prob. 'Eric's bay;' X. ort, art (see
p. Iv).

ERROGIE (Fort Augustus). Prob. G. nird raoig, ' height of
rushing.' Cf. Falls of Rogie, and Ercattan, old form of
ARDCHATTAN.

KRROL (Firth of Tay). c. 1190, Erolyn ; c. 1535, Arole.
Doubtful.

ERSKINE (Renfrew). 1225, Erskin; 1262, Ireskin ; a. 1300,
Irschen, Yrskin, Harskin. Prob. G. aird agionn, ' squint '
or 'projecting height.' Cf. Ercattan, spelling in 1296
of ARDCHATTAN.

ESK, R. (Midlothian, Berwick, Forfar). Midi. E., a. 1145,
Escli. Berw. E., a. 1130, Sim. Durham, Esce ; c. 1200,
' Northesk.' Celtic for ' water.' Same root as G. uisge,
Ax, Usk, &c.

ESKADAI.E (Beauly). 1538, Escliadillis. Soe above, and DALE.

ESKBANK, ESKBRIDGE, EsKDALE, &C.

ESSACHOSEN (Inveraray). G. easar-cliasain, 'a thoroughfare.'

ESSLEMONT (Ellon). a. 1600, Essilmontht. G. eoisle-monadli,
' mount, hill of the spell, incantation.' Cf. TuLLYNBSSLB.

ESSY (Strathbogie). 1187, ' Essog in Strabolgin.' Prob. G.
easach, 'abounding in waterfalls;' G. eas, a waterfall.

ETAL (Coldstream). Prob. G. aiteal, 'a juniper' or 'a
glimpse.'

ETIIIE HOUSE (Arbroath). c. 1212, Athyn ; 1433, Athe,
Athy. G. athan, a little ford.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 107

ETIVE, L. (Argyle). Old Ir. MS., Loch-n-Eite. Prob. eite
or eiteag, a white pebble ; also name for the streaks of
quartz with which the rocks there abound.

ETTRICK (Selkirk), c. 1235, Ethric, Hetterich, Etryk ; 1776,
Atric. Doubtful. Can it be G. atharracli, an alien?

EUXAICH, Ben (Dalmally). Prob. = ENOCH.
EVANTON (Dingwall). ' Evan's town. '

EVIE (Orkney). Orkney. Sag., c. 1225, Efju, also Efja; last
syllable prob. X. r/jd, a goe or narrow inlet.

EWE, L. (W. Koss-sh.). Prob. = A WE, 'water. '

EWES and EWESDALE (Langholm). a. 1180, Ewichedale ;
c. 1280, Ewycedale; 1296, 'Le Vale de Ewithe;' c.
1 300, Ewytesdale. ' Newt's ' or < eft's dale ;' O.E. efete,
3I.E. evete, eicte ; the n in neivt is fr. the article an.

EYEMOUTH and EYE WATER (Berwicksh.). Eye is prob.
Celtic for 'water.' Of. AYTON.

EYE PEXIXSULA (Stornoway). 1506, Fy ; 1552, Y. Old G.
y, ui, aoi, island, peninsula. Of. IOXA.

EYXARD, L. See EXARD.



F

FAI>, L. (Bute). G. fada, 'long.' Cf. Inchfad, L. Lomond.

FAIRGIRTH (l)albeattie). ' Fair garth or garden ;' O.E. faeger,
Icel. fiigr, Dan. feir, fair, pleasant ; and cf. APPLEGARTH,
old, Applegirth.

FAIR ISLE. Orkney. Sag., Fridarey, the goddess 'Freya's
isle.' Cf. Friday. But Jo. Ben, 1529, says, 'Faray,
quasi clara (fair) insula.'

FAIRLIE (Largs). ' Fair lea ' or meadow, untilled land ; O.E.
ledh, Dan. lei, fallow.

FALA (S. Midlothian). 1250, Faulawe. Fahlaw, 'pale, dun
hill;' cf. next, and LAW ; also cf. ' Fauhope,' c. 1160, in
Melrose Chart.

FALKIRK. Sic 1546; but Sim. Durham (died 1 1 30), ann. 1 065,



108 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

Kgglesbreth ; 1166, charter, ' Ecclesia de Egglesbrec,
que varia capclla dicitur;' 1382, Fawkirc (which still is
the local pron., accent on either syllable). These forms are
most instructive. Its original name, and its name in ( r.
still, is Eaglais (W. eglwys) Ireac, 'speckled church,
church of mottled stone,' of which Fall- or Faw-kirk is
the translation, Sc. faw, faucli, meaning 'dun, pale red,'
O.E. fah, varicoloured. Of. Faside Farm, Xewtou
Mearns.

FALKLAND (Fife), c. 1125, Falkland; 1160, Falecklen ;
but a. 1150, Falkland. Doubtful. Peril, connected
with G. failc, to bathe or a bath, or falaicli, to hide, a
hiding. The old forms seem to prevent any derivation
fr. O.E. fall, as in FALKIRK.

FALLOCH, R. (L. Lomond). (1. falach, a hiding, a veil.

FALLSIDB (Lanarksh.). Prob. = Faside, ' spotted side.' See

FALKIRK.
FALMOUTII (Cullen). So spelt in Ordn. Survey Map. Its

real name is ' whale's mouth,' locally pron. faVs man',

Icel. hval-r, Sw. and Dan. hvaJ, a whale.

FANDOWIE (Strathbraan). c. 1200, Fandufuith. Prob. G.

fan dubh, 'dark, black slope.' Fuith may further

represent fuaclul, cold.
FANNYSIDE, L. (Slamannan). Prob. fr. G. feannag, a ridge

of land ; a peculiar way of laying out ground, sometimes

called ' a lazy -bed.'
FARG, R. (Kinross), c. 960, Pid. Chroii., Apur-feirt. See

ABERARGIE.
FARNELL (Brechin). c. 1220, Fernevel ; 1410, Fern well.

Prob. G. fearna lhail, 'alder village.'

FARXESS (Cromarty and Wigtown). Wig. F., in Ada Sand.,
Farness. Crom. F., 1578, Fames. Prob. G. faire,
watching, + N. IMS, nose, ness, cape. Cnoc-na-faire, or
' watch hill,' is common in the Highlands.

FAR OUT HEAD, or FARRID HEAD (X. Sutherland). Prob.
Icel. fjarri, 'far.'

FARR (N. Sutherland), c. 1230, Far. Icel. far means a
passage, means of passage, ship. Ships can sail right
up the River Xaver here.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 101)

FARRER, R. and GLEN (Inverness). Possibly G. faraire, a
lyke-wake, night-watch over a corpse.

FASNACLOICH (Appin). G. fasadh no, cloi/'Jt, ' protuberance
of the stone or rock.'

FASQUE CASTLE (Laurencekirk). Prob. G. f<)#acli, 'a wilder-
ness, forest, mountain ; also stubble, choice pasture.'

FASSIEFERX (Banavie). 1553, Faschefarne. G. fnsacli na
fliearna, 'forest of alders.'

FAST CASTLE (Coldingham). Sic 1461. Prob. O.E. frof,
Dan. fast, Icel. fast-r, 'firm, solid.'

FAULDHOUSK (Lanarksh.). 'House by the fold;' O.E. fal<l,
a pen (cf. G-USHETFAULDS). Xames in Fauld- common
in Galloway.

FE(A)RIXTOSH (Dingwall). G. fearainn Toishac/i, 'land of
the thane' or 'land-officer.'

FEARX (Tain and Brcchin). Tain F., 1529, Fernc, G.
fedrna, an alder. Cf. COULTER ALLERS.

FEDDERAT (Brucklay). c. 1205, Fedreth ; 1265, Feddereth.
Prob. Old G.fotJicr, hardened to fader (sometimes to for,
as FORDOUX, &c.) ath, 'land at the ford.' Cf. FOD-

DERTY.

FENDER BRIDCE (Blair Athole). G. Jionn <lur or rfobltar,
' white, fair, pleasant Avater.'

FEXTOXBARXS (Haddington). 1332, Fenton. 'Village in the
fen, bog, mud;' O.E. and Icel. fan.

FEXWICK (Kilmarnock). The w is mute; = FENTON; O.E.
icic, dwelling, village. Common in the north of
England.

FEORLIX(G) (Skye). G. fcoirlinn, 'a fartliing,' a land-
measure (see p. Ivii).

FERXAX (Fortingall). Black fik. Taymoutlt, Stronferna,
which is G. for 'point of the alder trees.'

FERXIEGAIR (Hamilton). G. fearna yarmdli, clump or
'garden of alders.' Cf. GREEXOAIRS.

FERRIELOW (Colinton). 1 = 'Ferry-hill ;' ( >.K. Jiltf'ir Sc. lair.
But this and the following quite possibly fr. G. fearam/,
land, a farm.



110 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

FERRYDEN (Montrose). See above, and DEAN.

FERRYHILL (Aberdeen). Also in Durham.

FERRYPORT ox CRAIG (X. Fife).

FESHIE BRIDGE (Kingussie). Prob. G. fasacli, desolate.

FETLAR (iShetland). ^aya*, Faetilar. Porh. connected with



Icel. fitla, to touch lightly.

FETTERANGUS (Mintlaw). Here and in next Old G. fothir,
'bit of land, field,' is softened into fetter; often it
is hardened into for, cf. p. xxviii, and FEDDERAT, and
ANGUS.

FETTERCAIRX (Laurencekirk). c. 970, Pid. Chron., Fother-
kern. ' Field in the corner ;' G. cearn.

FETTERESSO (Stonehaven). c. 970, Fodresach (but cf.
FORBES); 1251, Fethiresach. 'Land abounding in
waterfalls;' G. easach, fr. eas, waterfall.

FETTERNEAR (Chapel of Garioch). a. 1300, Fethirneir.
'Field to the west;' G. an iar.

FETTYKIL (Leslie), c. 1200, Futhcul. G. fodha, or perh.
Old G.fethir coill, 'foot' or 'field of the wood.'

FEUGH, K. (Kincardine). Prob. G. fuachd, cold, dullness.

FIDDICH GLEN (Banff). Prob. fr. Fidach, son of the legendary
Cruithne.

FIDRA (X. Berwick). Prob. ' Feodore's isle ;' X. ay, ey.

FIFE. 1165, Fif. Fr. Fibh, mentioned in the Irish Xennius
as one of the seven sons of Cruithne, legendary father
of the Picts.

Fi FE KEITH (Keith). See above, and KEITH.

FIGGATE BURN (Portobello). First syllable doubtful. Gate
in Sc. means 'a road, way.'

FILLAN'S, St (L. Earn). Fillan succeeded St Mund as Abbot
on the Holy Loch ; died 777.

FIMBUSTER (Caithness). 'Five places' or 'houses;' Icel.
Jim, five. Cf. COIGACH, and see bolsta&r, p. Ixiv.

Fi. \ CASTLE (Pitlochrie). G. and Ir. fionn caideal, ' white,
fair castle ' or fort.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. Ill

FiXDHORN, K. (Forres). ( )n part of its course still called
Findearn. Prob. = G. Jionn Earn, or 'white, clear
EARN.' On the d, cf. p. xxxvii, and next.

FI'XDLATER CASTLE (Portsoy). G. Jionn leiti.r, 'white, clear
hillside.' Cf. BALLATER. ( hi the '/, see above ; in
pron. it is usually mute.

FINDOX (Aberdeen, Ross, Perth). ' Clear hill ;' G. Jionn dun.
Also near Worthing.

FIXGLAXD LANE (Carsphairn). Fingland is a personal name
now in this district.

FI'XLARIG CASTLE (Killin). G. Jionn lairiy, 'clear, sloping
hill.'

FINHAVEN (Oathlaw). <. 1445, Fynewin ; 1453, Finevyn.
G. fionn abhuinn, ' clear, white river.' Cf. J\!ETHVEX

and PORTNAHAVEN.

FIXSTOWN, or PHINSTOWN (Kirkwall). Phin is a Sc. surname.

FIXTRAY (Kintore). c. 1203, Fintrith; a. 1300, Fyntre.
' AVhite or fine land;' ut least tritJt, trc, is prob. the older
form of G. tir, land, AV. trc.

FINTRY (Stirlingshire and Cumbraes). 1238, Fyntrie ; =
above.

FIX/BAN (Aboyne). c. 1150, Feyhan. Doubtful, though
prob. G. faiclie or fonn abhainn, ' plain by the river.'

FIRTH (Orkney). <. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Fiord. Mod. X.
Jjord, a frith, bay.

FISHERIE (Turritt).

FISHERROW (Musselburgh), FISHERTOX (Ayr).

FITEACII, ]>en (Islay). G. fitheacli, a raven.

FITFULL HEAD (Shetland). Sa</a, Fitfugla hofdi. Prob. Icel.

fat, a step, and Icel. and Dan. fuyl, a fowl, from being

spot where the sea-birds love to light.
FIVE-MILE- HOUSE (Dundee).
Fi.. \XXAX ISLES (Minch). Fr. St Flannan, a Culdee saint.

FLEET, K. (Sutherland and Kirkcudbright). Icel. Jfjot, a
stream, jJjut-r, (puck. Cf. Eng. fleet, 'float. Three
Fleet streams in England.



112 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

FLEURS CASTLE (Kclso). Fr. fleurs, ' flowers.'

FLISK (Cupar). Sic 1250. ? G. flea.g, a wand, a ring.

FLODAVAGH (Harris). Prob. ' flood-bay ; ' fr. Icel., O.K.,
Sw., and Dan. flml, flood, flow of the tide, + X. vag-r, a
bay, cove, as in STORXO-WAY. Might be fr. Icel. floti,
a fleet.

FLOTTA (Orkney). Soyas, Flottey. 'Isle of the fleet;'
Icel. floti, O.E. fleot. The = X. ay or ey, isle ; Icel.
fiota-liolmr simply means an islet.

FLOWERHILL (Airdrie).

FOCHABERS (Elgin). 1325, Fouchabre ; 1514, Fochabris.
G. faiche abhir, plain, meadow, at the river mouth ; .<
is the common Eng. plural.

FODDERTY (Dingwall). r. 1360, Fothirdy ; 1548, Fothartye ;
1572, Foddertie. Old G. fothir, 'land, field,' of which
we find here both the soft and hard forms, + Ugh, a
house. Gf. FETTERAXGUS.

FOGO (Duns). 1250, Foghou ; a. 1300, Foggov ; 1352,
Foggowe. Prob. 'fog how,' i.e., ' hollow (O.E. holy,
holh, Sc. Jioice) in which the fog, after-math, or second
growth is found ;' ~\Y. fftcy, dry grass.

FOIXAVEX, Ben (Sutherland). Prob. G. fonn aWiuinn, 'river
land.'

FOLDA (Alyth). Perh. G. faogliail (pron. foyl) daim/i, 'ford
of the ox.'

FOLLA RULE (Fyvie). 1245, Folayth ; 1364, Fouleroule ; a.
1400, Folethroule, Foleroule ; seems to be G. folad/i,
a covering, hiding-place. On Kule, cf. R. RULE, Rox-
burgh, and ABBOTRULE.

FOXAB (Perthsh.). (T. fonn aba, 'land of the abbot.'

FORBES (Alford). Sic a. 1500. Prob. fr. Old Ir. (and ?G.)
forba, 'afield, district,' with the common Eng. plural.
G. forbhas is an ambush.

FORD (Coldstream, Dalkeitli, Loch Awe). Colds. F., 1293,
Forde. O.E. ford, a ford. Four in England.

FORDOUN (Kincardine). a. 1100, St Berchan, Fothardun ;
Colgan, Life of St Patrick, Forddun ; c. 1130, Fordouin.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 113

Old G. fothir duin, ' land of the hill or fort ; ' fothir is
here hardened. Cf. p. xxviii, and also FETTERAXGUS,

FODDERTY, FORTEVIOT.

FORDYCE (Portsoy). a. 1300, Fordyse. ' Land to the south ; '
G. deas, also 'trim, fit.'

FORFAR. Sic 1199. Prob. G. fothir or for fuar, 'cold
land.'

FORGAX (N. Fife). 1250, Forgrund. Perh. G. fothir grunda,
'land with bottom' or 'ground,' i.e., good subsoil.

FORGANDENXY (Perth). 1250, ' Forgrund in Gouirryn.' See
above, and DENNY.

FORGLEN (Turriff). G. fothir gleann, land in the glen.

FORGUE (Huntly). a. 1300, Forge. Perh. 'land of the
wind ; ' G. fothir gaoith.

FORRES. Perh. the Fodresach, c. 970, Pict. Chron. (cf.
FETTERESSO) ; 1187, Fores; 1283, Forais. G. fothir or
for eus, ' land by the waterfall.' Prob. influenced some-
what by N. fors, a waterfall, the Eng. force, so common
in Lake district. Tacitus, in his Ayricola, mentions a
tribe Horestii hereabouts.

FORSE (Lybster), FORSS (Thurso). Thurso F., c. 1225,
Fors. N". fors, a waterfall ; cf. Stockgill Force, &c.

FORSIXAIX (Sutherland). Said to be ' lower waterfall,' as
contrasted with

FORSIXARD (Sutherland). ' Higher waterfall ; ' G. an dird,
' of the height.'

FORT, St (X. Fife). A quite modern, silly corruption of
Sandford, old name of the estate here. Cf. Sandyford,
Glasgow.

FORTEVIOT (Perth), c. 970, Pict. Chron., Fothuirtabaicht ;
1280, Ferteuyoth ; but 1251, Forteviot. Old G. fothir
t'abaicht, land of the abbey ; Mod. G. abachd. Not the
same as R. TEVIOT.

FORTH, Firth of, and K. Sic a. 1150 ; form Forthin also
occurs. In Bcde c. 720, called Sinus Orientalis ; in
Nennius, about the same date, Mare Frenessicum
('Frisian Sea') ; in Descriptio Albania}, a. 1200, ' Scottice



114 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

(i.e., Gaelic) Froch, Brittanice, (i.e., in Welsli) Werid,
Romana (i.e., Old English) vero Scottewattre (or
'Scots water'); Orkney. Say., <. 1225, Myrkvifiord
(i.e., 'murky, dark frith'). In Jocelyn, 1185, the
northern shore is called 'Frisican (Frisian) shore;' the
12th century Froch may be connected with G. fraigli,
edge, rim, border of a country. By the common trans-
position of r, Froch has become Forclt, softened to Forth.
As likely, Forth is the corruption of N. fjord, a frith,
often found in So. names as worth. Cf. KNOYDAUT
and MOYDART. ,

FORTH (Lanark).

FORTIXGALL (Aberfeldy). c. 1240, Forterkil ; a. 1300,
Fothergill ; 1544, Fortyrgill. Interesting example of
a name which has quite changed. It really is Old G.
fotldr gaill or till, ' land of the stranger ' or ' of the
church.' In this region we could not have Icel. gil, a
ravine. The r has been transposed, as often, through
the influence of the Fng. fort.

FORTISSAT (Shotts).

FORTROSE (Cromarty). Prob. G. fotldr or/nr frois, 'land on
the promontory.' Cf. MONTROSE.

FORTS AUGUSTUS, GEORGE, and WILLIAM (Strathmore). Fort
A., named in 1716 after William Augustus, Duke of
Cumberland. Fort G., named in 1748 after George II.
Fort W., so named c. 1690 after William III., though
there was a fort built here in 1655.

Foss (Pitlochry). c. 1370, Fossache. Prob. G. fasach, 'a
desert, forest, hill.'

Fosso WAY (Kinross), c. 1210, Fosscdmege. Prob. G. fasad/i
nihagha ' protuberance, hill in the plain.'

FOUL A (Shetland). Icel. and Dan. fugl-ay, ' fowl island ; '
abundance of sea-fowl there. Cf. Fugloe, Faroes.

FOULDEN (Ayton). 1250, Fulden. Prob. 0. E. ful (Icel. full}
denu, ' foul valley ' or ' dean.' Cf. Foulden, Norfolk.

FOULFORD (Crieif). Prob. tautology ; G. faogliail (pron.
foil, fu'il), a ford.

FOUNTAINBRIDGB (Edinburgh), FoUNTAIXHALL (Stow).



PLACE-XAMES OF SCOTLAND. 115

FOVERAX (Ellon). a. 1300, Fouerne. Perh. G. fotlth-
ablminn or rin, 'land by the river.'

FOWLIS (E. Ross-sh. and Crieff). Pron. Fowls, Ross-sh. F.,
1515, Foulis. Prob. G. pJatill, ' a pool,' with the common
Eng. plural.

FOYERS, Fall of (Fort Augustus). Prob. G. fa! re, ' reflec-
tion of light ' fr. the clouds of spray. The s is the
common Eng. plural.

FRASBKBUBGH. Sic 1605. Land here bought by Sir
William Eraser of Philorth, close by, in 1504. Town
founded c. 1GOO. Erasers found in Scotland fr. <.
1160. Eraser was formerly often spelt Frescl. The
old name of the spot was Faithlie.

FRESWICK (Wick), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Thresvik. Prob.
'Frisian's bay;' X. vile. Cf. Freston, Ipswich.

FREUCHIE (Auchtermuchty). (1479, Freuche, near Banff;
1548, Freuchy, Loch Broom.) G. fraocliadi, ' heathery,
heathy ' place ; fr. fraoch, heather, and name of an
isle on Loch Lomond. Cf. French, Galloway.

FBIOCKHBIM. Pron. Freakem ; German. Village, founded
c. 1830.

FRUID WATER (Hart Fell). W. frwyil, ' impulsive, hasty
stream.' Cf. RENFREW.

FRUIX GLEN (L. Lomond). Said to be G. brun, broitt,
lamentation (over the dreadful slaughter here of
Colquhouns by the M'Gregors, 1602).

FUIXAFORT (Bunessan). G. ftonna />Jtorf, white or 'fair
port ' or bay.

FULLARTOX (Irvine and Forfarsh). Irvine F., 'Geoffrey
of Foullertoune.' king's falconer in 1327 ; 1391, Fouler-
toun. 'Fowler's town' or hamlet; fr. O.E. furjel, - //,
led. and Dan. fit'./I, Sc. foul, a fowl or bird.

FURNACE (old iron-work near Inveraray). G. ftiimei*, a
furnace. Also near Llanelly.

FUSHIEBRIDGE (S. Midlothian). Peril. Sc. fu-^ie; fr. Fr.
fosse, a ditch, or fr. G. fasach, a desert, forest, hill.
Cf. FOSSOWAY.



116 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

FYVIE (Aberdeen), a. 1300, Fyvyn. Peril. G. fiodli abhuinn,
with dh quiescent, ' wood ' or ' wilderness by the river.'
Of. METHVEN.



G

GADIE, E. (Aberdeensh.). G. gad, a withe. Of. GARNGAD.

GAIRLOCH (W. Ross-sh., and Kells, Kirkcudbright) and
GARELOCH (Helensburgh). Ross. G., 1366, Gerloch;
1574, Garloch ; prob. fr. G. yean', 'short loch,' as con-
trasted with its much longer neighbours, Lochs Carron,
Torriden, and Broom. The same is true re Helensburgh
G., 1272, Gerloch.

GAIRN (or Gairden) WATER (Ballnter). ? G. yaran, -am, ' a
thicket,' or earn, cairn, a cairn.

GALA, R. (Galashiels). a. 1500, Gallow. G. geal abh,
' clear water ; ' cf. AWE and Gala Lane, Carsphairn.
' Galawater,' according to Border usage, means the valley


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