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through which the Gala flows.

GALASHIELS. 1416, Gallowschel; 1503, Galloschelis, 'shiel-
ings ' (O.X. shall) or ' huts on the River Gala.' Shall is
still used in N. for a temporary or shepherd's hut. Cf.
SELKIRK.

GALBRAITH, Inch (L. Lomond). Family of Galbraith (1492,
Galbreytht) used to reside here. It is G. f/all-JBreatun-
nach, Brythonic, British, or Welsh stranger, ' Low-
lander.'

GALCANTRY (Fort George). Prob. G. geal ceann-tirc, ' white,
clear promontory.' Cf. KIXTYRE.

GAL(L)ATOWN (Kirkcaldy). ? G. <jall, a stranger, foreigner,
or (jalla, a bitch.

GALLON HEAD (Lewis). G. gaUan, a branch, or yaillionn,
a storm. Cf. Gallan, Tyrone, Gallana, Cork.

GALLOWAY, c. 970, Pict. Chron., Galweya; c. 1250, Gale-
weia ; Lat. citrons., Gal(l)wethia (1158, Galovidienses).
W. Gallwyddel (dd = th) = G. Gall-Gaidhel, 'stranger
Gael.' Prob., says Dr >Skene, fr. Galloway being long
a province of Anglic Xorthumbria.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 117

GALI.OWFI.AT (Rutherglen). ' Plain' or 'Hat of the gallows/
Cf. SKIN FLATS.

GALSTOX (Ayrsli.). ' G all's ' or 'stranger's (G. gall} town.'
Cf. GATTOXSIDE.

GAMRIE (Banff), c. 1190, Gameryii ; c. 1200, Gamery.
Prob. G. cam mridhean, 'crooked shielings' or 'hill
pastures.' Cf. BLIXGERY. C and g constantly inter-
change in Gaelic place-names.

GARDEXSTOWX (Banff).

GARDEEHOUSB (Lerwick). Icel. gai^-r, an enclosure, garden.

GARGUXXOCK (Stirling), c. 1470, -now. G. </arlh cuinneag,
'rough, uneven pool.' Cf. Girgunnochy, Stoncykirk.

GARIOCH (Aberdecnsh.). c. 1170, Garuiauche ; c. 1180,
Garvyach ; 1297, Garviagha ; a. 1300, Garuiacli. G.
garlh achadh, 'rough field.'

GARUESTOX (Wigtown). Prob. 1592, Garlics, i.e., G. garl'h
or gearr lios, 'rough' or 'short garden.'

GAKMOTJTH (Fochabers). G. gearr, 'short.' Cf. GAIRI.OCH.

GARXGABER (Lenzie). G. garadk na calair, 'deer forest;'
gctr(r)adh is an enclosure, park, garden, =O.E. yeanl,
Icel. (/ar'S-r ; and cabar usually means an antler. Cf.
Glengaber, Yarrow, and Ringaber ('antler-point').
Buchanan.

GARXGAD (Glasgow). 'Enclosure of the withies ;' G. <ju<l.

GARXKIRK (Glasgow). 'Enclosure of the, hens,' hen-roost:
G. ware, cirre, a hen.

GARRABOST (Stornoway). Hybrid; (i. gurradh, enclosure,
+ N. lolstaftr, place (see p. Ixiv).

GARROCH HEAD (J5ute). 1449, Garrach (old MS., Ceann
yarlh, ' rough head ' or ' cape ') = GARIOCH.

GARRY, R. (Inverness and Perth). G. garllt, rough, turbu-
lent. Cf. GARVE.

GARRYXAHIXE (Stornoway). G. garrcuJh mi h'alhuinn,
' garden ' or ' enclosure by the river.' Cf. PORTXAUAYEX.

GARSCADDEN (Glasgow). 'Herring (G. sgadaii) enclosure;'
? herrings cured here. Cf. Gulscadden, Galloway, and
Balscadden, Howth.

O



118 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

GARSCUBE (Glasgow). G. yarbh cub, rough curve or bend,
or ?fr. wjuab, a broom.

GARTCOSH (Glasgow). Prob. G. garradh cois, 'enclosure at
the fissure, little hole ' (cf. Cash Bay, Wigton) ; or fr.
G. cos, lit. 'a foot,' which seems also to have meant
'servant,' as in the surnames Cospatrick, Cosmungo,
and Cosh.

GARTH (Abcrfeldy). M.E. garth, farm, garden. Cf. APPLE-
GAUTH and GARNGABER.

G ARTIE, Mid and West (Helmsdale). Icel. yar$-r, an
enclosure ; cf. above.

GARTLEY (Tnsch). Prob. G. yarcuUi tulaicli, 'enclosure on
the hill.' Cf. MURTHLY.

GARTMORE (Balfron). G. = ' big enclosure ' or 'farm.'

GARTNAVEL (Glasgow). ' Enclosure of the apple-trees ; ' G.
n'abhail. = ORCHARD and APPLEGARTH.

GAHTXESS (Drymen). Prob. G. garradh an cos, 'enclosure
by the waterfall.'

GARTSHERRIE (Coatbridge). ' Enclosure of the foals ; ' G.
searrach (pron. sharragh). Cf. ]?arsherry, Galloway.

GARTURK (Coatbridge). 'Enclosure of the boar or hog;'
G. tore, gen. tnirc. Cf. TURK.

GARVALD (Haddington and Peebles) and GARVALTBURN
(Braemar). Hadd. G., #ic 1250. G. garWi allt, 'rough
stream' or 'cliff.' Cf. Garrel (prob. fr. nl, a rock),
Dumfries.

GARVE (Ross-shire). G. yarbh, rough.

GARVELLOCH, I. (Jura). 1390, Garbealeach. G. garbh
aileach, ' rough, stone house;' or 'rough pass,' G. bealach.

GARVOCK (Laurencekirk). = (!AHIOCII.

(TASK (Dunning). Corruption of G. vrosy, 'crossing, pass.'
Cf. ARNGASK, and Gergask, Laggan.

GASSTOWN (Dumfries). Founded by Mr Joseph Gass, <:
1812.

GAS WATER (E. Ayrsh.). Prob. G. yasach, ' full of branches,'
fr. gas, a branch. N. gas means a goose.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 119

GATEGILL BURN (Crii'thon). Icel. <jat fj/il, gill or ' ravine of
the gap.'

GATEHOUSE (Kirkcudbright), GATESIDE (Kinross, Renfrew).

GATTOXSIDE (Melrose). a. 1150, Galtuneside. G. yall, a
stranger, + O.K. tUn, tun, a hamlet. Cf. GALSTON and
WALLACETOWN.

GAULDRY (Cupar). Prob. G. </all-doire, ' stranger's wood '
or ' grove.'

GAVIXTON (Duns). Fr. a man.

GEAXIES (Tarbat Xess). Pron. Gaynes. c. 1500, Genes;
1529, Gathenn; 1570, Gany. Like Gannochy, Edzell,
fr. G. gaofhanach (pron. gan-aeh), windy, + X. nets,
nose, ness.

GELSTON (Castle-Douglas). Prob. = 'Gael's town.' Cf.
GALSTON.

GEORGEMAS (Thurso). Site of a modern market held on ' St
George's feast' or 'mass;' O.K. maesse, Dan. messc.
Cf. Hallowmas*.

GHEXAGHAN, I. (L. Lomond). ? G. gea/igacli, ' crooked, thick
and short.'

GIFFEN (N. Ayrsh.). Sic c. 1GOO. AY. mfn, a ridge. Cf.
Cefn, St Asaph's.

GIFFXOCK (Glasgow). Looks as if partly Brythonic, partly
Gaelic; fr. W. cefu, a ridge, + (r. achadh, field (cf.
COKSOCK), or cnor, a hill.

GIFFORD (Haddington). Trob.fr. 'Hugo Gyffard,' c. 11 (SO,
in Newbattle Chart., \\ 63. Origin of that name
doubtful.

GIGHA, I. (Kintyre). 1263, Gudey; 1309, Gug; 134:5,
Geday; <: 1400, Gya ; 1510, Giga; 1516, Geya; 1549,
Gigay ; a very curious assortment. ?'Isle of Ged or
Gug;' cf. JEDBURGH.

(TIGHT, Braes of (Fyvie). Terh. corruption of G. yaoth, wind.

GILABOLL (Helmsdale). Prob. G. giulla or gil/e, a servant, +
X. bol, place, dwelling ; cf. p. Ixiv.

GILCOMSTON (Aberdeen). 1361, Gilcolmystona. Hybrid ;
1 hamlet of the gillie ' (G. (jille) or ' servant of St Colm '



120 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

or Columba ; cf. p. xcii, and GII.MEKTON. The -tou is
fr. O.E. ton, ttin, a village.

GILLESPIE (Old Luce i. G. cill casbuiy, ' church or cell of the
bishop,' L. ejnscopus. In all other names cill remains
as KiU

GILLIBSHILL (Bannockburn). 'Attendants', servants' (G.
gille) hill.'

GiLHEBTON (Edinburgh), c. 1200, Gyllemoreton. 'Abod
("ton") of the servant of Mary' the Virgin; G. f/ille
Maire. Cf. Gilmorton, Lutterworth, and GILCOMSTON.

GILNOCKIE (Canonbie). G. ycal cnocan, 'white or clear
little hill.'

GIRMGO (Wick). Sic 1547. ?'< Japing inlet,' fr. Icel. yiiiui,
to yearn, desire, + yja t a goe or narrow inlet.

GIRTHON (Gatehouse). ? G. yarradh abliainn or an,
' enclosure on the river,' influenced by M.K. yartli, yirth,
yard, garden. Cf. APPLEGARTII.

GIRVAN, R. and Town (Ayrshire). 1'rob. G. yearr alihainn
or tin, 'short river.' But cf. GAUVAI.D.

GI/ZEN BRIGS (shoal off Tain). J'ron. rather like Giessen ;
prob. means 'boiling breakers.' First word akin to
geyser, fr. Icel. geysa or gjosa, to ' gush ; ' second perh.
the same root as Eng. break, breaker.

GLADHOUSE (Midlothian), GLADSMOOR (Kirkcolm), GLAD.S-
MUIR (Tranent). a. 1150, Gledehus. Trail. G., 131'S,
Glademor ; like 'Gladstone,' formerly Gladstone, all
thought to be fr. Sc. (/led, O.E. ylida, the kite, the ' glid-
ing' bird, and there is a Gleadhill ; but cf. Icel. glaftr,
smooth, bright, light. Muir or moor is O.E. and Icel.
mur, a heath, moor, morass.

GLAM(M)IS (Eorfar). The i is now mute. 1187, Glammes ;
1251, Glemmis. G. tjlarnhuc, lit. a wide gap; hence,
open country, a vale.

GLASGOW. 1116, Glasgu ; 1158, Glasgow; 1185, Jocdyn,
Cleschu. 1 This last, Khys thinks, shows the real meaning ;
it is just W. ylas chu (G. ylas cii), 'greyhound,' Kenti-

1 In the oldest MS. it stands Deschu, but the D is usually thought
to be a scribe's error for CL.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 121

gem, or St Mungo of Glasgow, being called, in Vitai
Sanctorum, 'In glas dm,' the greyhound. Hut is
there any place-name with a similar meaning? Others
make it the Celtic (jlas cu, ' dear (W. en, dear) river ' (see
GLASSFORD). Gfas-cu, ' dear, green ' spot, is an unknown
combination in Celtic names.

GI.ASMOXT (Kirkcaldy). 1178, Glasmonth. G. y7as monadli,
'grey hill' or mount.

GLASS, R. (Beauly). (1309, Straglass. G. sratli ghJafn.)
Old G. yJax, river : see above.

GLASS (Huntly). G. yla*, 'grey;' but in "\V. also 'l)lue ; or
'green.' Two in England.

GLASSARY (Lochgilphead). 1251, Glassered; 1284, Glasrod ;
1394, Glaster; 1513, Glastre. (J. glas airidli, 'grey
(or green) shieling' or 'hill-pasture,' cf. BLIXGERY : but
the last two forms are fr. iir, land.

GLASSERTOX (Whithorn). In early chronicles seemingly
confused with Glastonbury, the famous Somerset monas-
tery. It is pron. ( ilais'ton. Its origin is thus doubtful,
but cj. GLASS and GLASSAHY.

GI.AS(S)FORD (Hamilton), c. 1210, Glasfruth, -furth ; 1296,
Glasford. T } rob. G. gla*, grey or bluish, + O.E. ford, a
ford ; but -frntlt may be G. frith, a forest. Besides, in
Old G. (jla* means a river ; i-f. Strath glass.

GLASTKKLAW (Forfar). (!. y/a.s fir, 'green' or 'greyish
land,' + O.K. hldev; a hill.

GLBNALMOXD (Perth), GLEXARAY (Inveraray). See ALMOND,
ARAY, (Krc.

GLEXAPp(Ballantrae) and GLENNAPP (Berwick). Ball.G.,prob.
the Glen Alpinn where King Alpinn Avas slain in 750.
But they may both be ( \. r/lerinn an aba, ' the abbot's glen.'

G],EXBARR (Tayinloan). ' Glen by the height :' ( r. l>arr.

GLEXBOIG (Coatbridge). 'Soft, moist glen;' G. and Ir. bo<f
or Lu !<jc, soft, boggy.

(Lanark). 'Glen of the buck or he-goat;' G.
boc, gen. bnic.

NCAiitN (Thornhill). 1301, Glencarn. 'Glen of tin-
cairn' or 'heap of stones:' ( !. mr, gen. wim.



122 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

GLENCAPLE (Dumfries). 'Glen of the mare;' G. capvll,
gen. capuill. Cf. KINCAPLE.

GLENCARSE (Errol). ' Glen of the CAUSE ' of Gowrie.

GLENCOE (N. Argyle). 1 343, Glenchomyr ; 1494, Glencole ;
1500, Glencoyne ; 1623, -coan. The forms show the
word has been constantly altering. 1343 is fr. G.
chomair gen. of COMAR, confluence, meeting of two
valleys; 1494 is fr. G. coill, a wood; the two last are
fr. G. cu, gen. cow, a dog ; whilst the Mod. G. spelling
is gleann comhann, which last means ' a shrine ' truly
a useful warning against dogmatism about any name.

GLENCORSE (Penicuik). 'Glen with the pass or crossing;'
G. croisy. R is very commonly transposed. Cf.

CORSOCK, CORSEWALL.

GLENDALE (Skye). Tautology ; G. g/rann + X. daf.

GLKNDARVEL (Tighnabruaich). 1238, Glen da rua, i.e., 'of
the two points ; ' G. da rudfta.

GLENDOICK (Errol). Perh. fr. St Dufl/ar or Duthus of
Tain. Cf. DUICH.

GLENDUCKIE (X. Fife). Old, -duachy. Perh. as above.

GT.ENELG (W. Inverness). Sic 1292; but 1282, Glenhalk.
Prob. fr. Icel. elgr, Sw. elg, an elk. Rhys thinks fr.
Elga. See ELGIN.

GLENFINNAN (Fort William). G. fionn abhaimi or (iti,
' white, clear river.'

GLENGARNOCK (Ayrsh.). (Cf., c. 1240, 'Dalegernoc.') Prob.
fr. G. garradh an achaidh, 'enclosure of the field.'
Cf. GARNGABER.

GLBNGIRNAIG (Uallater). Prob. 'glen of the little cairn,'
see GAIRN ; -aig is prob. a G. diminutive,

GLEXGONAR (Abington). Sic 1239. Either 'blacksmith's
height ' (G. gobJiann urd), or ' height with the little
beak ' (G. goban).

GLENHOWL, -HOUL (Carsphairn). 1563, hovyll. ' Glen with
the fork' or 'two branches;' G. gabhal, gen. gJiabJtail
(pron. houl), a fork.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 128

GLEXIFFER (Paisley). Perh. fr. G. aifrenn or aoibltriomi, L.
offerens, 'offering,' i.e., the mass. Cf. INCHAFFRAY.

GLEXKEXS (Galloway). ' Glen of the river KEN.'

GLEXKIXDIE (Aberdeen). 'Glen of the black head;' G.
glcann cinn dziibJte.

GLEXLIVAT (Craigcllachie). ? Fr. G. liolili. ait<\ ' smooth,
polislied place.'

GLEXLOCHAR (Castle-Douglas). G. loch mr<l, ' loch of the
height.'

GLEXLYOX (Aberfeldy). Sic 1522 ; but c. 1380, For<lun,
-leoyne. G. litlie amltuinn, 'spatey river,' the fli and
ink being lost by aspiration. Cf. LYOX.

GLEXMORISTOX (Fort Augustus). 1479, Glenmorison. G.
rnor easan, 'the big waterfalls.'

GLENMUICK (Ballater). ' Glen of the swine ; ' G. inuc, gen.
muic, a pig.

GLEXORCHY or -URCIIY (Argyle). 1292, Glenurwy ; 1510,
-vrquha ; in G. Urchaidh, 'tumbling' stream, fr. G.
urchair, gen. -airc or -aireach, a cast, throw, push,
sudden sally.

GLEXPROSEX (Ivirriemuir). 1524, Glenprossin, -osswyin.
Prob. fr. Old G. bromach, a river. The root brosd or
brosn means to excite.

GLBNQUAICII or -QUOICH (Perth, Forfar, Inverness). G.
cuach, a quaich or drinking-cup.

GLEXSHEE (Blairgowrie). G. ^^, gen. dthe (pron. shee),
means 'a hill,' 'a fairy,' or 'peace, a truce.'

GLEXSHIEL (Htrome Ferry). Fr. Icel. tskjul, a shieling,
shelter. Cf. GALASJIIELS, &c.

GLEXSHIORA (Badenoch). 'Glen of the attack, onset;' G.
siorradh.

GLENTRUIM (Laggan). G. from, gen. tmime, means a burden,
protection, defence, and pregnancy.

GLEX VILLAGE (Falkirk). G. f/Ieann, a glen or valley.

GLEXWHILLIE (Stranraer). G. f/leann eJtoille, ' glen of the
wood.'



124 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

GLOON BURN aud RIG OF GLOON (Minigaff). Prob. G. glun,
the knee. Cf. Glunpatrick, Koscommon.

( JLOUPHOLM (Shetland). Prob. ' soft isle ; ' Icel. glufH', soft,
porous, + HOLM ; cf. the Sc. yloppen, to become soft.

GLOWER-O'ER-EM (Linlithgow). Name of a hill with a fine
view. Sc. gloicer is to stare, gaze.

GOATFELL (Arran). Fell is Icel. fell, a hill, or fjall, a
mountain.

GODSCROFT (Abbey St Bathan's). 'God's field.' See
CROFTHEAD, and cf. ' God's acre,' a churchyard.

GOGAR (Edinburgh). 1250, Gogger ; a ' Gogar ' is marked in
1745 map near Alva. Prob. G. t/obha or goiv, a smith,
+ f/arradh, enclosure, yard. Cf. LOCHNAGAR.

GOGO BURN (Largs).

GOIL, L. (Firth of Clyde). 1 430, -goyle. ' Loch of the fork ;'
G. fjaWial, -ail ; it forks off from Loch Long; perh. fr.
G. gall, goill, 'a stranger.'

GOIN, L. (Fenwick). 'Loch of the geese or barnacle ducks;'
G. and Ir. geadh, gen. pi. geadlian (pron. goin). Cf.
Loughnagoyne, Mayo.

GOLDEN ACRE (Edinburgh). O.E. aw, wcrr, Tcel. al'r =
L. ager, a field.

GOLSPIE (Sutherland). 1330, Goldespy; 1448,Golspi; 1550,
Golspiekirktoun (farm of Kirkton still there), locally
pron. Gdishpie or Gheispie. Either fr. some Norse-
man Gold or Goa, or fr. G. gall, a stranger (cf. the
surnames Gould and Gauld), + Dan. ly, bi, bae, a
hamlet, town (cf. po/ for bof, p. Ixiv). Its Celtic name
was Kilmaly.

GOMETRA, I. (Mull). 1390, Godmadray; 1496, Gowmedra.
' Godmadr ' or ' Godmundrls isle ; ' X. a;/, ey.

GORBALS (Glasgow). Perh. W. ^70?', spacious, or G. goWtar, a
goat, + G. baile, a village, with the common Eng. plural.

GORDON (Earlston). 1250, Gordin ; 1289, Gordun. W.ffor
din, 'spacious hill;' or perh., like GOURDON, G. (jolhar
(pron. gore) dun, 'goat-hill;' but Killgordon in Ireland
is Ir. coill-na-geuiridin, 'wood of the parsnips,' a word
which does not seem to be found in G.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 125

GORDON STOWN (Aberdeen and Kirkcudbright). Fr. a man,
Gordon.

GOREBRIDGE (Dalkeith). Hybrid; G. and Ir. yobhar, a goat;
in O.Ir. yobur, also meant a horse ; hence, probably, is
it so common in place names.

GORGIE (Edinburgh). <. 1 280, Gorgyn.

GORTLECH (Fort Augustus). G. yoirt leac, 'stone in the h'eld
or standing corn.' Of. cromlech, i.e., 'a crooked stone.'

GOURDON (Fordoun). 1315, Gurdon. Prob. = GORDON ;
perh. fr. G. chrr, a corner or a pit.

GOUROCK (Greenock). See above ; the -ock may be G.
achadh, a field, or X. aiy, a bay.

GOVAX (Glasgow), a. 1147, Guveu ; 1518, Gwuan. Might
be 'dear river;' Celtic ghu an (= G. abhaw.n), "W. en,
dear (cf. GLASGOW) : or second syllable might be G.
bheinn, a ben or hill. Not likely to be fr. G. yobhann,
a smith. Cf. GOWAXBAXK.

GOWAXBAXK (Arbroath and Falkirk). Se. yowan is a daisy,
G. and Ir. yuyan, a flower, a bud.

GOWRIE, Carse of (Firth of Tay). a. 1200, Gouerin; c.
1200, Gowrie. G. yabhar or yobhar, a goat; but the
origin of the last syllable is doubtful. The old name
of Ossory, Leinster, was Gabhran (pron. Gowran).

GRAHAMSTOX (Falkirk). Modern; it stands on 'Graham's
Muir,' idc 1774, fr. Sir John de Graham, slain here
1298. In 1295 (charters of the Roses of Kilravock)
we find the name both Graham and Gram.

GRAIN. O.N. greni, a branch, as of a tree. In Tweeddale
and Liddesdale applied to branches of a valley towards
its head, where it splits into two or three small glens,
and to the burns or waters in these; e.y., Grain Burn,
near Coulterwaterhead.

GRAMPIAN MOUNTAINS. II. Boece, F. vii. 45 (ed. 1520), is
the first (1) to identify them with Mons Grampins in
Tacitus' Agricola, 29, where Skene reads Granpius.
Origin unknown.

GRANDTUI.LY (Aberfeldy). 1492, Grantuly ; in G. Garan-



126 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

tulach, prob. = ' cairn-hill,' and e/1 under CAIRN Toui*.
But it is sometimes called liaile na Grandaich, ' tho
Grants' village.'

GRANGE (Edinburgh, Uo'ness, Dunfermline, Burntisland,

Keith). ' Farm ' (see ABBOTSGRANGE). Common in
England.

GRANGEMOUTH. Owes origin to the Forth and Clyde Canal,
begun 1768, at Avhose mouth, and also at the mouth of
' Grange Burn,' it stands. Takes name fr. ABBOTS-
u RANGE.

GR ANTON (Edinburgh). 1544, ' Grantaine Cragge.' Either
' Grant's ton or village,' or fr. G. granda, gen. gran-
dainde, ugly, ill-favoured.

GRANTOWN (Inverness-sh.). The oldest known Grant is
' Gregory le Grant,' a. 1250.

GRANTSHOUSE (Berwicksh.). Cf. Grantham, Lincoln.

GKAVIR (Lewis). ?Icel. grtir, grey, or ?G. garbh tir, ' rough
land.'

GREENGAIRS (Airdrie). 'Green fields;' G. <jar radii. Cf.
FERNIEGAIR.

GREENHILL (Larbert), GREENLAND, Ifill of (Dunnet), G KEEN-
LAW (Berwick and Crossmichael). Berw. G., 1250, Gren-
lawe. Five Greenhills in England. On law, see \>.
Ixxvi.

GREENLOANING (Auchterarder). Sc. loan is a green lane,
O.E. lane, Fris. lona, lana, a lane, Icel. lun, a row of
houses. For -iny, cf. shieling, fr. Icel. slijul, a shelter.

GREENOCK. G. grian, gen. yreinc, the sun, + cnoc, a hill, or
achad/i, a Held, or N. aiy, a bay (cf. Ascoo). There arc-
several Greenoges (Ir. grianug) in Ireland, meaning
' sunny little hill.' Loch Grennoeh, Minigaff, is either
fr. G. yreanach, gravelly, or grianach, sunny.

GREENS (Turriff) and GREENSIDE (Edinburgh).

CrRENAN (Bute), GiiENNAN (Penpont, and several in Galloway).
Bute G., sic 1400. G. grianan, a sunny spot, summer-
house, also a mountain peak, fr. grian t the sun.

GRETNA (Carlisle and Old Luce). 137G, Gretenhowe : 1576,



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 127

Gratnay. Prob. ' how ' or ' hollow of greeting : ' O.K.
g ret an, ' to greet,' i.e., either ' to salute,' or, as still in
Sc., 'to weep,' Icel. grata, to weep. For similar
corruptions of how, cf. KATIIO and STOHO,

GREYSTOXE (Arbroath). 'Grey's town' or 'grey stone.'
GRIMSAY (L. Eport). The man ' Grim's isle;' X. ay, aj.

GUISAPOLL (Coll). G. tjresa/'//, a cobbler, or Icel. grit, Dan.
grns, Sc. grisc, a young ]>ig, +/>o// = X. lot, place,
village.

GRUDXESS (Shetland). ? Icel. gi'jnt, stones, rubble, O.K.
griot, sand, ' grit,' -f nes*.

GRUIXART or -ARI> (Islay, (!airloch). Prob. 'green bay;' Dan.
and Sw. gran, Icel. grown, + art, ard, a.Tst,S. fjord
(see p. Iv). Some say 'shallow bay;' fr. Sw. and
Dan. grand, ground, a shoal.

GRULIXE (Arcs, Mull).

Guv FB WATER (Kcnf re w). c. 1160, Strath Grief; a. 1200.
Gryff. Perh. W. grif, frog-spawn.

GUARDBRIDGE (St Andrews). Built by Bishop AVardlaw.
before 1440.

GUAY (Dunkeld). Sic 1457. G. gaothach, windy.
GUILDTOWX (Perth).

GUISACHAX (J)eauly). 157iS, -anc. Pron. Gheesachan.
G. giuthsachan, 'pine forests;' fr. G. gin-thai*, a pine,
Scotch fir. Of. Inverghuisachan, Loch Ktive.

GULLAXE (Longniddry). 1250, Golyn. Pron. Gillan :
orgin doubtful. W. golyn is ' the guard of a sword,''
which might refer to the shape of the bay. The name
Gillon is just the G. gille or niolla Eoin, 'John's
servant.' Perh. the first syllable is O.K., O.X., and
Dan. gul(l), golden, yellow.

GUSIIETFAULDS (Glasgow). Sc. guthet is a triangular corner,
Fr. gousset, a gusset in a dress or boot ; fauld is = fold.
O.E. fald, Dan. fold, lit. 'an enclosure by felled trees.'
Prof.'Veitch.

GUTCHER (Cullivoe, Shetland).



128 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

GUTHRIE (Arbroath). 1359, (Jutherio. G. gaothair, -aire,
'windy.' The surname is derived from the place.

GWEXYSTRAD (Galashiels). W. = ' white strath' or 'vale:'
now usually called WEDALE.



II

HABBIE'S How (Carlops). 8c. for ' Halbert's hollow;' O.K.
holy, holh, a hollow, fr. hoi, a hole.

HADDINGTOX. a. 1150, Hadintnn, Hadingtoun. ' Hading's
village ; ' O.K. tun, ton. Hading is said to be a
Frisian name, some early settler's. There are two
Haddenhams in England.

HADDO HOUSE (Aberdeensh.). Sic 1654. (5. fha/la, long:
/ lost by aspiration. Cf. ATTOW.

HA<;GS, The (Denny). O.K. haga, a hedge, Old Sc. liwj.
copsewood. Cf. Hag, Parton.

HAILES, New (Mussclburgh). 1250, Halis; 1467, Xewhal.
1 O.K. heal, heal/, Icel. holl, hall, a public room, a hall :
fr. O.K. heal, a stone.

HATRMYRES (Renfrew). First syllable prob. O.K. liar, her.
a boundary; second syllable is Icel. myrr, mj/ri, X.
mi/re, a swamp fen. Cf. HA HI, AW ; also Halmyre, or
-mure, Kelton.

HALBEATII (Dunfermline). G. choil heath, ' wood of birches;'
c lost by aspiration. Cf. CALROSSIE.

HALF ^FoRTox (Canonbic). 8ee iMoR'rox.

HALIVAL (mountain, Rum). ? G. r/iala na Ma/7, 'haven,
shore, bay of the village.'

HALKERSTOX (Moray), c. 1200, -ertoune. 'Hawker's,' ?>.,
' fowler's, village ; ' Tcel. hauler, a hawk. <]f. FULLEUTON,
also 'baldric 'and 'bawdric.'

HALKIRK (Caithness). Sir 1500, but in saga // Kirldu.
'high church;' 1222, Hakirk ; 1274, Haukyrc ; 1601.
Halkrig. The / is prob. due to association with [eel. hall-r,
a slope, frequent as Hall-, in Scandinavian place-names.
Ilall-ormr, Hall-land, &c. On Kirk, see KIRKHAY.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 129

HALLADALK (Sutherland), or, hy tautology, Strath Halla-
dale ; c. 1 230, Helgedall ; 1274, Haludal. ' Holy dale '
or 'vale of saints ; ' Icel. heilay-r, Dan. licllic/, O.K. lidli<j,
holy, hdlga, a saint (cf. to hallow), + N. <1al, a dale. Cf.
I I alia ton, Uppingham.

HALLIN-IN-VATEBNISH (Skye). Cf. Ilallcn. near Bristol,
and see, VATERNISH.

HALLRULE (Hobkirk, Hawick). <: 1560, llarroull. Modern
' refining ' for the, traditional Harrulc, 'i.e., Haraway
Rule, Rula Hercrei. See ABBOTRULK.

HAIXSIDE (Glasgow). Proli. tautology fr. Icel. liall-i\ a slope.
See HALKIRK.

HAMiLDEAX-HiLL (Lyne). 1'roh. ' II an) il's woody glen.' See
DEAN, and next.

HAMILTOX. 1291, Haiuelton ; the surname also occurs as
Hambleton. A\'alter '.Fitz-Gilhert,' called Hamilton,
is known to have held the lands in 129G. Haiuil is
still an English surname. The old name was CADXONV.

HA.MMA YOE (Yell). Sayan, Ilai'narvag. Dan. J/ar//, Icel.

hofn, a ' haven,' + O.IS T . /'(tf/-r, a hay or inlet. Voe is

Icel. vi'ir, a little hay or inlet.
HANGIXGSHAW (farms, Coulter). 'Wood on the side of the

hill.' See SHA\V.
llARBL'RN (Camwath). O.K. liar, Inr, 'a boundary mark;'

cf. 'menhar,' boundary stone.
HAHLAW (Aberdeen), c. 1500, Hayrlau. ' Boundary hill ;'

O.E. hldeiv. Cf. Harelaw, Lochore, Fife, and Herlaw,

E. Kilbride.
HARLOSH (Dunvegan). G. charr loi*, 'rock of the fire.' Cf.

Ironlosh, Galloway.
HAROLDSWICK (Balta Sound). ' I5ay (X. vile) of Harold, 7

prob. King H. ILardrada, died 1066.

HARRAY (Orkney). OW, Herad, O.X. for 'territory.' See

ElRSAY.

HARRIS, c. 1500, Blc. Clanranald, Ileradh ; 1542, Harrige ;
1588, llarreis. ]S T . harri, 'heights,' with Eng. plural
s. Its G. name is Na h'earadh (airdead), with same
meaning. This last accounts for the form c. 1500,
though we must cf. HARRAY,



130 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

UARSTAXE (Kirkurd). 'Boundary stone.' See HARBUKN,
and rf. Haer Cairns, Clunie, Blairgowrie, and Kinlocli
(Perthshire), and Haerland Faulds, Finhaven.

HARTFELL, and HARTiiiT.L ("Whitbum). O.K. heor(o)t, Icel.
hjort-r, a male deer.

HAKTHEE (Biggar). ' Boundary tree.' Cf. HARUUKX.

HARVIESTOX (Edinburgh). 1250, Horuistun. 'Harvey's
dwelling.' Cf. HALLRULE.

HASKEVAL (mountain, Rum), Ila*k is prob. corruption of
G. crony, a pass, rf. ARXCASK and CASKIEBEN ; so it
will be 'pass of the dwelling,' bait. Cf. HALIVAL.

HASSEXDEAX (Hawiek). 1155, Halestonesden ; 1158, Has-
tenden ; c. 1320, Hassenden. O.K. hdliy stdn demi,
dean, wooded valley of the holy stone.'

HATLOCK (Tweeddale). The root idea of both our Eng.
words hat (O.K. haet, Icel. hatt-i; Dan. hat) and lock
(O.K. loca, foe, Icel. lok) is 'covering.' But early
forms of this name are needed. Cf. Matlock.


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