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HATTOX (Kllon, Perthsh., and Montrose). Prob. /. 970, Picf.
Chron., Athan = (Jl. at ft abhainn or an, 'ford of the
river' (</. AYTOX). Ir. alteanu (pron. attan) is furze, as
in Ballynahattin. There is a Hattonknowe, Eddies ton,
the ' Haltoun ' or ' village by the hall,' mentioned a.
UOO. Three in England.

HA UGH (Coulter, Arc.). O.K. /talech(nsiiia. 1150, ' Cialtunes-
halech,' ^lelrose, = Gattonshaugh), Icel. Jtatji, a pastnrc-
])lace which is flat, and by a river-side. Cf. SAUCHIE.
But

HAUGH OF URR (Dalbeattie) is X. hoi, a hill, O.X. hamja,
a mound.

II A WES Ixx (8. Queensferry). Prob. Icel. hah, M.E. and
Sc. halae, hauw, the neck, throat ; hence, a narrow
opening, delile.

HAWICK. a. 1183, Ilawic, llawich, Hauuic. First syllable
may be fr. either root of HAUGH ; the second is O.E.
wic, M.E. irifJi, irii-h, dwelling, village, as in BERWICK,



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 131

HAWTHORXDEX (Edinburgh). Of. DEAN.
HAYWOOD (Lanark).

I TKBRIDES. c. 1 20, Ptolemy, Kbudae (prob., too, tlie same word
as the Kpidii, who, according to him, inhabited most of
modern Argyle) ; Solinus, Poli/hMor., 3rd century,
llebudcs (Ulst. Ann., aim. 853, Innsegall, 'isles of
strangers,' i.e., Norsemen; and always called by the
Norsemen ' Sudreys ' or Southern isles to distinguish
them from the Northern Orkneys, &c., the ' Xordreys').
Origin unknown ; possibly Old (J. c(li}al>ad, a head, or
c(h)abadh, a notching, indenting. The u is supposed to
have become ri through some early printer's error.

HECKLEGIKTH (Annan). 'Church-field' or 'yard.' See
ECCLES (1297, llecles), ECCLEFECHAX, and APPLEGAKTH.

HEE, Ben (Reay). Perh. (I. /Ji-iadJi, a deer (cf. HADPO).
As likely fr. xJdth (pron. hee), peace, i.e., 'tame, peaceful-
looking 'hill.' Cf. TEE.

HEITOX (Kelso). X. lioi, a hill, +O.K. ton, tthi, a village.
Cf. lluyton, Cheshire.

HlLENSBUBGH. Founded c. 177G by Sir James Colquhoun,
and called after his wife.

HELLMUIR, L. (Hawick). X. hella, 'flat,' +O.E., Icel.,
and Dun. mor, a moor, marsh.

HELL'S GLEN (Lochgoilhcad).

HELMSDALE (Sutherland), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Hjalmund-
dal; another Sat/a, llialmasdal; 1290, Kolmcsdale ; 1513,
Helmisdaill. ' 1 Ijalmund's dale,' or ' valley of the helmet;'
Icel. lijahn-r, Dan. lijehn. Cf. Helmsley, Yorkshire, and
Helmdon.

HEMPRIGGS (Wick). Icel. hamp-r, Dan. Itamp, hemp. On
rig, see BISIIOPHRIGGS.

HERBERTSHIBB CASTLE (Denny). Sice. 1630; said to have
Ix'en given by an early James to the Karl of "Wigtou
as his ' halbert's share,' for service in war.

HERIOT (Stow). 1250, Herieth ; c. 1264, Herewyt. O.K.
heri'-geatu, ' army-equipment,' a ' heriot,' ])ayment given
to the lord of a fee on the death of a vassal or tenant.

HERIOTFIELD (Methven).



132 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

HBRMISTON (Gurrie). 1201, Hyrdinanstoun, ' lierdmau's ' or

' Herdman's village.' Cf. HALKERSTON.

HERMITAGE CASTLE (Kiccarton Junction). 1300, Eremitage ;
f r. Fr. ennite, ( rk. epj///,iT?/9, a hermit, fr. cp^/xo?, solitary.
Cf. vicarage.

HERHIES (Dumfries). 1578, llerois (1585, ' Herres,' in
Glenelg) . ^ HARRIS.

UEUGH. O.X. ha/nya, a mound.

HIGH BLANTYRE. See BLANTYRE. 'High' or ' Higher ' is
very common as a prefix in England. This is the only
instance of consequence in Scotland.

HIGHLANDMAN (Crieti). Humorous name. The earliest
mention of the word Hiyldand I have found is in the
poet Dunbar, who in 1503, in his Daunce, speaks of 'a
Heleand padyane ' or pagan; Lyndesay, c. 1536, in his
Compleynt, 384, has ' Baith throw the heland and the
bordour ;' while Hollinshed, 1577, says, 'Justice should
be administered in the Isles and hie lands.'

HIGUTAE (Lockerbie). Can hardly be fr. U.E. and Icel.
fa, toe ; but cf. the Sc. tee, point of aim in quoits or
starting-point in golf, fr. Icel, tju, to mark.

HILLEND (Inverkeithing), HILLHEAU (Glasgow), HILLSIDE
(Aberdeen and Montrose), HILLTOWN (Dundee).

HILLSWICK (Lerwick), Soya, Hildiswik, i.f., 'battle-bay.'

Cf. WICK.
HILTON (Fearn). 1544, Hiltown. = HILLTOWN. Five in

England.
HINTON (Anwoth). 'Hind's, servant's place;' O.E. hina-

tun. Cf. Carlcton or ' churl's place.'

HIRSEL (Coldstream). Sic 1572. Sc. hi rale, a shepherd's
term, means to move along on the hams ; but 1 con-
nection here.

HOBKIRK (Hawick). 1220. Hopechirke ; 1586, Hopeskirk ;
c. 1610, Hoppkirck ; still sometimes Hopekirk. Sc.
hope (e.f/., c. 1200, Hopekeliov, see KAILZIE) is a valley
among hills, a cul dc sac, Icel. hop, a haven, place of
refuge. On kirk, see KIHKAUY, and cf. KIRKHOPE.

Hoi) i) AM (Ecclefechan) and HODUOM (Parton). Ecclef. II.,



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 133

1116, Hodelm; 1185, Jocelyn, Holdelin ; c. 1320, Hod-
holme. First syllable prob. = hold, in sense of ' fortress,'
hold being pron. hod in the north of England. Holm in
Icel. is a meadow near the sea or a river, but in place-
names oftenused interchangeably with hamfor 'dwelling,
house' (cf. LANGHOLM, YETHOLM, also Durham, old Dun-
elm). Hoddam will thus prob. mean 'fortified dwelling.'

HOLLAND (S. Konaldshay). Sic c. 1500. 'Hole (Icel. and
O.E. hoi) land,' land in a hollow.

HOLLANDBUSH (Denny).

HOLM (Orkney). Dan. and O.E. holm, a small island in a
river, Icel. holm-r, an island, also a meadow near river
or sea; and often interchanged with liam (cf. LANGHOLM,
YETHOLM, &c.). Six Holmes in England. But Glenholm,
Peebles, can hardly be the same word, for its forms are
c. 1200, Glenwhym ; c. 1300, -whim ; 1530, -quhome,
which may be ' glen of the captive ;' G. chiomaich.

HOLY ISLE (Lamlash). Sar/as, Melansay, ' Melan's ' or ' St
Molios' isle.' His well here was long famed for its
cures. Cf. LAMLASH.

HOLYROOD (Edinburgh). c. 1128, foundation charter,
' Ecclesia Sancti l Crucis;' as late as 1504, ' Abbey of the
Holy Croce.' Rood is O.E. rod, a rod, pole, cross. For
the legend how David I. scared the fierce stag with the
miraculously given ' holy rood,' see Grant's Old and Neiv
Edinburgh, i. 21.

HOLYTOWN (Coatbridge). Pron. H611ytown.

HOLYWOOD (Dumfries). Aberdeen Brev., Sacrum Nemus. A
monastery once here. Its old name was Darcongall,
' thicket, wood (G. daire) of St Congal.'

HOPE, Ben and L. (Eriboll). Icel. hop, a haven of refuge.
See HOBKIRK, and p. Ixi.

HOPEKIUK. See HOBKIRK.

HOPEMAN (Burghead). Icel. hop, haven of refuge. Man
might be G. manach, a monk.

HORNDEAN (Berwick). ? G. ornaeh, barley, + DEAN.

HOSII (Crieff). Its site shows it is an aspirated form of G.
cois (pron. cosh), 'the foot.'

1 The medieval Latin charters often pay little attention to gender.

P



134 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

HOUNAM (Kelso). c. 1200, Hunum, Hunedun; 1237,
Honum ; 1544, Hownome. Prob. 'hound's home or
place ' (O.E. ham) ; O.E., Dan., and Sw. liuwl, a dog.
Of. EDNAM, EDROM.

HOUNDWOOD (Grantshouse).

HOURN, L. (W. Inverness). Prob. urrin or uitJiarn, hell;
corruption of G. Ifreoine, which, nota bene, was the
cold island of Fingal, fr. ftiar, cold. Cf. Gleiiurrin,
Cowal.

HOUSTON (Johnstone). c. 1200, Villa Hugonis ; c. 1230,
Huston; c. 1300, Houstoun. 'Village of Hugo' de
Paduinan, mentioned in the Paisley Cliartulary, c.
1160. Cf. SYMINGTON, and see p. Ixxiv.

HOWFP (farm, Orkney). Sc. howffis a rendezvous, house of
call ; but in N. Jwf means properly ' the house of God.'

HOWMORB (Lochmaddy). How prob. represents some G
word. G. mor is ' big.'

HOWOOD (Johnstone).

HOWPASLBY (Roberton, Roxburgh). Sc. liow is a hollow.
Cf. HABBIE'S How and PAISLEY.

HOXAY (S. Ronaldshay). c. 1390, Haugaheith, which is
O.N\ for ' niound of the heath ' or 'waste.' The -ay
means ' island.'

HOY (Orkney), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Haey ; c. 1580, Hy.
'High isle;' Icel. lid-r, Dan. hoi, high, + N". ay, ey, an
island. Cf. Hysker, ' high rock.' west of Rum.

HUGHTON (Beauly).

HUMBIB (Haddington, and Aberdour, Fife). Prob. ' Hume's
place or dwelling;' Dan. bi, by, northern O.E. by.
There is no -by or -bie between Aberdour and Caith-
ness.

HUME (Greenlaw). 1250, Home. Home and Hume are
still common surnaiues hereabouts.

HUNA (Canisbay). Sagas, Hofn, i.e., 'haven.' The -a is
N. ay, ey, isle. Prob. referring to Stroma opposite.

HUNGYRFLAT. 1361, in Liddesdale. Cf. SKINFLATS.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 135

HUNTER'S QUAY (Frith of Clyde). On the estate of the

Hunters of Hafton.
HUNTINGTOWER (Perth). Hunting-seat of Lord Euthven.

Cf. 'Castle Stalker.'
HUNTLAW (Roxburgh). Sic 1170. O.E. hunta, a hunter, +

hlcew, a hill.
HUNTLY (Aherdeensh.). 1482, -lie. Originally the name of a

Berwickshire hamlet, now extinct, and transferred north

by the Duke of Gordon ; = ' hunting lea ' or ' meadow.'

Cf. Huntley, Gloucester.

HURLET (Barrhead). Possibly G. chur liath, ' the grey turn '
or ' bend ' (G. car).

HURLFORD (Kilmarnock). If above be correct, which is
doubtful, this cannot be the same. Prob. hurl = whirl,
referring to the river Irvine.

HUSEDALEBEG and -MORE (Skye). Hybrids ; Icel., Dan., and
Sw. husdal, ' house-dale,' + G. beag, little, and mor,

hi Or
Ul o .

HUTTON (Berwicksh. and Lockerbie). Berw. H., c. 1300,
Hutona. Prob. not ' hut-village,' as hut is not in O.E.,
rather ' Hugh's village ' (cf. HOUSTON). Seven in Eng-
land. Isaac Taylor says the English Huttons mean
'enclosure on a hoo or projecting heel of land.'

HYLIPOL. Sagas, Heylipol. ' Heyli's place ; ' N. l>6l. Cf.
p. Ixiv.

HYNISH (Tyree). Dan. hoi naes, 'high ness' or 'promontory.'
Cf. VATERNISH.



IBROX (Glasgow). (Cf. c. 1200, 'Monabroc,' in Strathgryfe,
not far away.) / might be the Ir. hy, ' tribe, race,' as
in Ikeathy, Kildare ; and there is an Irish St Broc.
Broc means a badger both in G. and in O.E., cf.
BROXBURN, &c.

IDRIGILL POINT (Skye). ? Fr. Idris, a reputed giant, as in
Cader Idris, Wales, + Icel. gil, a ravine.

IDVIES (Montrose). 1219, Edevy ; 1254, Edevyn. Prob.



13G PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

G. fhada abk or alliuinn, 'long water' or 'river' (cf.
ADD and ADVIE). The s is the English plural.

INCH (Forfar, Perth, and Wigtown, also loch, Kincraig, and
isle in Tweed). G. and Ir. innis, an island; also 'pasture-
ground, links.' The Gael loves to aspirate his s. Wig-
town Island is so called fr. the island in the White Loch
of Inch. Cf. INSCII.

INCHADDON (Taymouth Castle). 'Isle of St Aidan,' died
651.

INCHAFFRAY (Muthil). c. 1190, 'Incheaffren Latino

Insula Missarum;' 1290, Incheafraue. 'Isle of the
offering.' i.e., ' the mass ; ' G. aifrenn or aoibJirtonn,
corruption of late L. offcrens, offering or mass. Cf.
INNERPEFFRAY, and the surname Jaffrey.

JNCHARD, L. (Sutherland). G. innis aird, ' isle of the
height.'

INCHBARE (Brechin). Here G. innis has its meaning of
' pasture-ground, sheltered valley : ' and the meaning
prob. is ' field of the battle ' or ' game ; ' G. innis buire.

INCHCAILLOCH (L. Lomond). ' Isle of nuns,' lit. ' old
women;' G. cailleacli. Ruins of a nunnery here.

INCHCOLM (Aberdour, Fife). Monastery founded here by
Alexander I., c. 1123, whose charter calls this 'Insula
Sancti Columbse,' or 'St Columba's isle;' in G. Innis
Colum, cf. p. xcii.

INCHES (Douglas). G. innis, a meadow, 'links,' with Eng.
plural. Cf. INCHBARE and Perth Inches.

INCHGARVIE (Queensferry). G. innis garbh, 'rough, rocky

islet.'
INCHINNAN (Paisley). 1158, -enan, -ienun ; 124G, -innun.

' Inch of St Adamnan ' (cf. KIRKENNAN, and see p. xcv).

The inch is the angle made by the junction of the rivers

Gryfe and Cart ; G. innis, an isle or a meadow.

INCHKEITII (in Firth of Forth, and hill near Lauder). a.
1200, Insula Ke6 ; 1461, Ynchkeyth. Bade, c. 720,
speaks of Urbs Giudi in the midst of the Firth of Forth ;
which frith the Irish once called Sea of Giudan or of
the Giuds ; peril. = the Jutes fr. Jutland. May mean
'isle of Che,' Pictish prince, one of the seven sons of



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 137

the famous Cruitlme. Skene (Celtic ScotL, i. 208)
thinks fr. a successor of his, Gaeth or Giudid Gaetli
brechach. Of. KEITH.

IXCHMAHOME (L. of Monteith). S/'c c. 1550: 1296, ITsle
de St Colmoc. ' Isle of Macholnioc,' the Irish pet name
of St Colman, c. 520. See p. xcv, and cf. KILMALCOLM.

IXCHMARXOCK (Bute). ' Isle of St Maniock,' pet form of
Ernan. See KILMARNOCK.

IXCHAIICKERY (Aberdour, Fife). G. innis na bhicaire, ' isle of
the vicar.' Inchcolm Monastery was close by.

INCHMOIN or -MOAN (L. Lomond). 'Isle of the mossy spot ;'
G. moine.

IXCHXADAMPF (L. Inver). G. innis na daimh, ' pasture-
ground of the ox.'

IXCHTURE (Errol). 1183, -ethore. 'Inch' or 'links of the
tower ' or ' hill ; ' G. tbrr.

IXGAX (hill, Kinross). G. ionga, 'anail, talon, claw,'fr. its shape.
IxGLESTOx(Twynholm). 'Village of the English 'or 'of Inglis.'

IN(N)ISIIAIIJ (L. Awe). 1375, Insalte ; 1542, Inchalt. G.
Innis ailt, 'stately, charming isle.'

IX(X)ISTRYXICII (peninsula, L. Awe). Prob. G. innis nan
Druineach, ' isle of artists or sculptors ; ' so Prof.
M'Kinnon.

IXKERMAX (Paisley). Fr. the battle in the Crimea, 1854,

IXKIIORX (j^ew Deer). Likely to be the corruption of G.
ionga, pi. iongaingean, nail, claw, cloven hoof. Cf.
IXGAX, CLEGHORX, and DREGHORX.

IXNELLAX (Firth of Clyde). 1571, -lane. Prob. G. an eilean,
' the island/ fr. the rocks off the shore.

INXERLEITHEX (Galashiels). G. inlhir, mouth of a river or
confluence, is a purely Gadhelic form = the Brythonic,
and prob. also Gadhelic abhir or aber (see p. xxvii).
Inbltir in place-names is always fluctuating between
inver- and inner-, the b getting lost by aspiration ; e.g.,
this name, c. 1160, is Invcrlethan, 'confluence of the
K. Leithen,' which may either be G. liatli, luithe an or
aliliainn, ' grey river,' or = LEITII, fr. W. lleitliin, to
moisten.



138 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

INNERPEPFRAY (Crieff). 1296, Inrepeffre. ' Confluence of the
Peffray,' corruption of G. aoibhrionn, offering. See INCH-
AFFRAY, which is just to the east ; cf. also river PEFFER.

INNERWICK (Dunbar). 1 250, Inuerwike. Hybrid ; G. inWiir
+ O.E. tcic, 'dwelling, village,' or N. vik, 'bay at the
confluence.' Cf. LIXTOX, POLTOX, &c.

INSCH (Aberdeensh.). a. 1300, Insula. = !XCH; G. inni*,
1 isle ' or ' links, meadow.' S in G. generally has the
sound of sh.

IXVER (Crathie, Tain, where the Bran joins Tay, river and
loch in W. Sutherland). See IXXERLEITIIEX ; = ' con-
fluence ' (cf. Aber, Bangor). The Tain Inver was
originally Inveiiochslin.

INVERALLOCHY (Aberdeen). G. iriblnr dilleach, 'beautiful

confluence.'

IXVERAMSAY (Inverurie). ? ' Eamsay's confluence.'
IXVERAX (Bonar Bridge). G. inbhiran, 'little confluence.'

INVER- or IXXER-ARITY (Forfar). 1250, Inuerarethin. Prob.
'confluence at the shielings;' G. airidhean. Cf. IXVEK-

QUHARITY.

IXVERARY. ' Mouth of the ARAY ' or ' smooth river.'
IXVERAVOX (Balindalloch). ' Confluence of the AVON.'

INVERCAXXICH (Beauly). ' Confluence of the Cannich.' Prob.

the G. caonnag, a fight, a fray.
IXVERDOVET (N. Fifesh.). Old, -dufatha or -doveth, i.e., G.

dubh dth or atha, ' black ford ' or ' kiln.'

INVERESKAXDY (Fern, Forfar). G. inbhir uisgain dhu ' coir
fluence of the dark little water or stream.'

INVERFARIGAIG (L. Ness). 'Mouth of the fierce, turbulent
little river ;' G. feargaig, dimin. of feargach, fierce. Cf.
ABERARGIE and FARG.

INVERGARRY (Fort Augustus). ' Mouth of the GARRY ' or

' rough river.'
INVERGORDON (E. Ross-sh.). Quite recent ; used to be Invcr-

or Inch-breckie ; G. brcac, speckled.

IXVERGOWRIE. (Dundee). This can only mean 'place in
Gowrie at the mouth of the Tay.'



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 139

INVERIE (Fort Augustus and Oronsay). (Old name of St
Monan's, ' Inverry '). The -ie is perh. G. iodh, corn.

IXVERIXGATE (Lochalsh). ? Fr. G. ionga-tiite, ' claw or hoof-
like place.' Cf. IXGAN.

IXVERKEILOR (Arbroath). c. 1200, Innerkeledur, which
shows that Keilor is just another form of CALDER ; G.
coille diir or ' wood by the river.'

IXVERKEITHIXG (Dunfermline). 1229, Innerkeithing ; 1250,
Innerkethyn ; 1290, Inver- and Inner-kethin. 'Mouth
of the Keithing;' 1 G. cithean, grumbling, lamenting.
Cf. next.

IXVERKEITHNY (Turriff). Here Keitliny prob. represents
some G. adjective formed from KEITH.

LXVERKIXDIE (Rhyme, Aberdeen). River Kindle is the
G. dim dim, 'black head.'

IXVER- or IXXER-KIP (Greenock). c. 1170, Innyrkyp. Kip
is G. and Ir. ceap, a block, trunk of a tree ; in G. a
shoelast. Cf. Edinkyp, Loch Earn, and Coolkip and
Knockacip, Ireland.

IXVERLEITH (Edinburgh), c. 1145, Inverlet ; also Innerleith.
' Mouth of the Water of LEITII.' The present Inverleith
is a good distance from the sea, one of the many proofs
of the once much wider extent of the Firth of Forth.

INVERLOCHY (Fort William). ' Mouth of the river LOCIIY.'

IXVERXESS. a. 1300, Invernis; c. 1310, Invirnisse ; 1509,
Innernis. See XESS.

IXVERXOOK BAY (Jura). G. inWiir an uiye, ' confluence in
the nook.' Cf. CRAIGXEUK.

INVERQUIIAKITY (Kirriemuir). 1444, Irmerquharady, Iner-
carity. ' Confluence of the pair of streams; (r. c(li)andd.
Cf. CART.

IXVERSIIIX (Sutherland). ' Mouth of the river SHIX.'

IXVERSXAID (L. Lomond). ' Xeedle-like or narrow con-
fluence;' G. and Ir. mdthad, a needle.

INVER- or IXXER-TIEL (Kirkcaldy). 'Mouth of the Tiel ;'
? G. t-ylol, spawn, fish-fry, seed.

INVEUUGIE (Peterhead). a. 1300, Iniierugy. River Ugie is



140 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

G. uigeacli, full of nooks or retired corners, fr. itig, a
nook.

IXVERUGLAS (L. Lomond). 'Confluence of the grey pro-
montory;' G. rudha glas.

INVERURIE (Aberdeensh.). Sic 1199; 1203, Inuerurin; a.
1300, Innervwry. ' Confluence of the river URIE.'

IOCHDAR (S. Uist). G. ' tlie bottom, nether lands.' Cf.
YOKER.

IONA (Mull), c. 657, Cuminus, and c. 690, Adamnan, Hyona;
Bade, Hy, Hii; a. 900, O.E. Citron., Ii; c, 1100, ibid.,
Hiona-Columcille. Forms loua, Yona, and la also occur.
Hy or Ii may be either G. aoi, isthmus (as lona once
seems to have been joined with Mull), or i, island,
while Hyona or lona may be either aoi uain, 'green
isthmus,' or i-tlwnna, 'isle of waves.' M'Lauchlan
derived fr. G. iodli, com. Also called Icolmkill (cf. form
c. 1100), i.e., ' isle of Columcille,' pet name of Columba.
Cf. Kilcolmkill, formerly on Loch Aline, and Kilcalm-
kill, Sutherland ; also Aoi Columcille, Lewis, G. name of
EYE (i.e., isthmus), peninsula. lona itself is called by
this name in the Annals of Innitfailen, ann. 807.

IRONGRAY (Dumfries). Corruption of G. aird an grcaick
(pron. graigh), ' height of the moor.'

IRVINE (river and town, Ayrsh.). c. 1230, Irvin; 1295,
Orewin ; also Irewin. G. iar aWiuinn, ' west-flowing
river.'

ISLA, E. (Banff and Forfar). (1263, Strath ylif, and prob. the
Hilef, mentioned in Angus by Bishop Andrew of Caith-
ness, 1165.) 1 G.Jilleadh, a folding, wrapping ; / lost by
aspiration.

ISLAY. c. 690, Adamnan, Ilia ; a. 800, Nennius, He ; Sagas,
II; 1376, Harbour, Yla (this is very near the modern
pron.); c. 1450, Yle. Skene thinks the name pre-
Celtic, and II- is common in Basque place-names. Mean-
ing doubtful. The s is a quite recent innovation, so no
derivation fr. G. iosal, ' low,' is to be thought of.

ISLE TOLL (Auldgirth). G. isle, compar. of iosal, means
' lower ; ' but is this name Gaelic ?

ITLAW (Banff). Hybrid ; prob. G. fiath, a calm, fine weather,
/lost by aspiration, +laic, O.E. hlxw, a hill.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 141



JAMESTOWN (Balloch and Strathpeffer).

JANET'S BRAE (Peeblessh.). Said to be Danes' BRAE.
Certainly d in G. often comes near the sound of j. There
is a Janetstown near Thurso.

JAWCRAIG (Slamannan). 1745, Jallcraig, i.e., 'bare rock'
or ' crag/ Icel. gall, barren (cf. YELL) ; also stalk (pron.
stawk), falconer (pron. fawkner), &c.

JEDBURGH and JEDFOOT (Roxburgh). Jedb., a. 1100,
Geddewrde; c. 1130, Gedword ; c. 1145, Jaddeuurd;
c. 1160, Jeddeburgh 1251, Jedwarth ; a. 1300, Gedde-
worth; c. 1500, Jedward; 1586, Geddart (cf. the
modern phrase ' Jeddart justice,' and by some still living
pron. Jethart). The name of the river Jed is prob. fr. W.
gwd, a turn, a twist. The second syllable was originally
(and even still) O.E. or M.E. worth, word, ' a place like
an island;' cf. POLWARTH, Isle worth, and Donauwerth
on the Danube ; cf., too, the similarity of its forms here
to those taken by the X. fjord in the west, see p. Iv.

JEDBURGH KNEES (hill, Carsphairn). Knees is prob. O.E.
and Dan. naes, a ness, cape, nose. Cf. Calf Knees.

JEMIMAVILLE (Cromarty). A modern type of name happily
confined chiefly to Brother Jonathan.

JOCK'S LODGE (Edinburgh). 1650, Jokis Lodge. Jock is
Sc. for John ; said to be fr. an eccentric beggar who
built himself a hut here.

JOHN o' GROAT'S HOUSE (Wick). Tradition says this was
an octagonal house with eight windows and doors, and
a table with eight sides. We certainly read of ' John
o' Grot of Duncansbay, baillie to the Earl in those
pairts,' 1496-1525. Grot suggests Holland.

JOHNSHAVEN (Montrose).

JOHNSTONS (Paisley and Moffat). ' John's town ' or village.
Perth, in 1220 (and earlier), was called ' Sanct Johns
toun.' Le Seigneur de Jcanville, a Xorman, is said to
be the ancestor of the Johnston(e)s. Paisley Johnstone
was only founded in 1781.



142 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

JOPPA (Portobello). Called, c. 1800, after the Joppa on the
Mediterranean.

JORDANHILL (Glasgow), JoRDANBURN (Edinburgh), and JOR-
DANSTONE (Alyth). Modern ; though Jordanhill goes
back at least to the 16th century.

JUNIPER GREEN (Edinburgh). Quite recent.

JURA (Inner Hebrides). Ulst. Ann., ann. 678, Doirad
Eilinn; 1335, Dure; c. 1590, Dewra, alias Jura; in
Mod. G. Diura. Form 678 shows it is 'Island of
Doirad,' and not !N". dyr-ay, 'deer isle.' Very feAV
Xorse names in Jura. Cf. Jurby, in Man.



K

KAIL WATER (Hawick). 1 Old G. cail, an assembly, or cail+
a wood ; on Water, see GALA. All river-names here-
abouts are pre-Anglian, so Kail will not be Sc. kail,
Icel. kdl, cabbage.

KAILZIE (Innerleithen). c. 1200, Hopekeliov ; c. 1265,
-kelioch ; 1494, Hopkelzow ; 1653, Kelzeo. Prob. G.
coilleadh, a wood, or coillteacli, woody. On hope, 'a
shut-in valley,' see HOBKIRK.

KAMES (L. Fyne). 1475, Caniys. G. camas, 'a creek, bay/
Cf. CAMBUS.

KATRINE, L. (Callander). In G. pron. Ketturin or -urn ;
G. catli, 'the battle,' or as prob. ceathach, 'the mist,
fog,' urrin or uitharn, 'of hell.' Urrin is corruption of
Ifreoine, the cold island of Fingal ; fr. fuar, cold. Cf.
Loch HOURN, and Glenurrin, Cowal.

KBIG (Alford). Pron. Kaig, g hard ; a. 1200, Kege. 1 G.
ceadha, the part of a plough on which the share is fixed.

KEIL(L)OR, K. (Forfarsh.). = CALDER. See INVERKEILOR.

KEILLS (Lochgilphead), and KEIL or KIEL (Kintyre). Prob.
Old G. dl, 'ruddle,' a kind of clay; in Sc. keelie.

KEIR (Thornhill and Bridge of Allan). G. ciar, dark brown.
Cf. Keer, mentioned in the thanage of Belhelvie.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 143

KEISGAG, B. (Cape Wrath). Prob. Icel. Jceisa, to jut out,
+ aig, a'J, of/, a bay.

KEISS ("\Vick). Icel. keisa, to jut out.

KEITH (Banffsh.). The upper part of river Tyne, Iladdington,
is called Keith Water, and near by is Keith-Humble.
Haddington Keith in 1160 is Keth. Prob. fr. die or
Gait, the Pict who gave his name to CAITHNESS and
IXCHKEITH. Cf. Ikeathy, Kildare, = liy CeatacJt, 'race
or family of Co ; ' also KEITHOCK. Keith Hall is near
Inverurie.

KEITHAN (Keith). G. = ' Little KEITH.'

KEITHOCK (Brechin). c.H30,Chethec; 1617,Kcithik. 'Field
(G. achadh) of Cheth ' or KEITH.

KELBURX CASTLE (Fairlie). Old, Kilburne. Hybrid; G.
coil, a wood, + Sc. burn, O.E. Lurna, a stream.

KELLAS (Elgin). G. coill eas, 'the wood with the waterfall.'

KELLIE ('Mar and Kellie') and KELLY (Carnbee). Carnbee
Kelly, c. 1140, Chcllin. G. c(li)oill(t)ean, plural of
coille, a wood. Cf. Collyland, Alloa.

KELLS (Xew Galloway). May cither be G. coiU, a wood, or
till or ceaU, a cell, church, with Eng. plural ; Dan. he'll,
means 'a spring,' as in Kellhead, Dumfries. Kells, Co.
Meath, in its oldest form was Cenandas, then Kenlis or
ceann-lii*, 'head fort.'

KELSO. 1126, Calkou; 1158, Kclcou ; c. 1203, 'Ordo
Kelchoensis ; ' c. 1420, Wyntoun, Kelsowe ; 1447, Cal-
couia. The old Welsh bards called it Calchvynyd, of
which Calkou may be the rubbing down, fr. Old W.
calcli i'i/ni/d or mywjd, 'chalk' or 'limestone height.'
Calcli is = O.E. cealc (sic c. 700), L. calx, chalk or
lime. The second syllable may possibly be Sc. hot/-
(here pron. hu), a hollow, O.E. hoik. Cf. STOBO.

KELTOX (Castle-Douglas). (Cf. a 'Cheletun,' temp. Win.
Lyon.) Prob. G. coil, a wood, + O.E. ton, tun, a
hamlet, village. Cf. LIXTOX.

KELTY (Kinross), KELTY WATER (Gartmore). Kinross K.,
1250, Quilte. G. coilltc, plural of coil, a wood. Cf.
Keelty, and Quilty, Clare.



144 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

KELVIN, R. (Glasgow). G. coil abhuinn, 'wood by the river,'


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