James B. (James Brown) Johnston.

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cuik), KiRKJiuiRtiiLL (Lesmahagow), KIRKNEWTON
(Midcalder), KIRKTON (Hawick, Penicuik, L. Melfort,
Golspie). There are many Kirtons in England.

KIRKBEAN (Dumfries). Prob. 'church of St Bain' or 'Eeyne,'
first bishop of Mortlach.

KIRKBUDDO (Guthrie). Prob. 'church of St Bititte' or
' Boathius,' friend of King Nechtan, who came over
from Ulster, and died 521 ; so Skene. But Carbuddo,
in the same parish, is the old Crebyauch ; G. craobhach
achadh, ' wooded field.'

KiiiKCALDY. Pron. Kirkaiidy ; c. 1150, Kircaladinit and
-din; 1250, Kirkaldin. Hybrid; 'church of the wood
of the Den' or DEAN, still there ; in G. coille dinait.

KIRKCOLM (Stranraer). 1296, Kyrkum, which is the present
pron. 'Church of St Colin' or 'Columba;' cf. p. xcii.

KIJIKCONNEL (Sanquhar). 'Church of St ConvalV Seven
Irish saints bear this name.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 157

KIRKCOWAN (Wigtown). 'Church of St Comhghain' or
' Comgan,' uncle of St Fillan, c. 750.

KIRKCUDBRIGHT. 1291, Kirkcutbrithe ; 1292, Kircutbrith ;
c. 1450, Kirkubrigh ; and now pron. Kirknbry. 'Church
of St Cudberct,' the great Cuthbert of Melrose, c. 700.

KIRKEXXAN (Minigaff). 1611, Kirkcunane. 'Church of St
Eunan ' or ' Aclamnan ; ' see p. xcv.

KIIIKGUXZEOX (Kirkcudbright). c. 1200, Kirkwynnin.
' Church of St WynninJ see KILWINNIXG. The z repre-
sents, as so often, the old Scottish y.

KIRKHOPE (Selkirk) and KIRKHOPE CLEUCH (Durrisdeer).
' Church in the valley ' or cul de sac, = HOBKIRK. A
cleuch is a ravine ; see BUCCLEUCH.

KIRKINXER (Wigtown). 1584, Kirkinver ; but it is dedicated
to St Kennera, virgin and martyr, who accompanied
St Ursula to Eome.

KIRKIXTILLOCH (Glasgow), c. 1200, Kirkentulach ; 1288,
-intolauche. Prob. ' church at the head ' or ' end of the
hillock;' G. ceann or cinn tulaicli. Dr Reeves thinks
this is the site of the Battle of Chircliind, 596 (-ind
= Old G. cind, now ceann).

KIRKLISTON (S. Queensferry). 1250, Listun; 1298, Lystone
Templi ; c. 1300, Templehiston, 'Listen church.'
L. is prob. G. lios, a garden, + O.E. tun, dwelling,
village. !Xew Listen is near by. In G. teampull
means simply a church.

KIRKMABRECK (Kirkcudbright). ' Church of Mabrec,' i.e.,
my own Brecan or St Bricius. Prob. he who was such
an enemy of St Martin of Tours, 4th century.

KIRKMAHOE (Dumfries). 1321, Kircmacho. Prob. 'church
of St Machute.' See LESMAHAGOW.

KIRKMAIDEX, or MAiDEXKiRK (Wigtown). Aberdeen Brev.
says, fr. the Irish St Medana, contemporary of Xinian,
c. 390. St Medan's Cave is here. Cf. EDINBURGH.

KIRKMICHAEL (Dumfries, Maybole, Blairgowrie, Grantown).
'Church of St Michael,' the Archangel. Also in the
Isle of Man ; and cf. KILMICHAEL, and Kilmichil,
Ireland.

KIRKNESS (Orkney and Kinross). Ork. K. is certainly



158 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

' ness ' or ' cape ' with the church. But Mr W. J.
Liddell thinks Kinr. K. is fr. G. cathair (pron. car)
cinn eas, 'fort at the head of the waterfall.' This is
doubtful, for the name in the llth century is already
Kyrkenes. See Skene, Celtic Scotl., i. 406.

KIRKOSWALD (Maybole). Fr. Oswald, King of Xorthnmbria,
died 642, regarded as a saint and martyr. Also in
Cumberland.

KlRKPATRICK-DURHAM (Dalbeattic), -FLEMING, -IRONGRAY,

and -JuxTA (Dumfries). ' Church of St Patrick,' the
renowned Irish missionary of the 5th century. K.-
Juxta (L. for ' next '), formerly Kilpatrick, was so called
in the 15th century to mark it oil' fr. K.-Fleming.

KIRKSHEAF (Tain). X. Kirk-sJcaith, i.e., land given as tribute
to the church, fr. Icel. skatt-r, Dan. skat, O.E. sceat. a
' scat,' i.e., a coin ; hence, a tax.

KIRKUHD (Biggar). c. 1180, Ecclesia de Orda ; 1186, E. do
Horda; c. 1200, Orde ; 1296, Horde; c. 1320, Urde ;
1382, Kyrkhurde. Possibly fr. a man, or fr. G. oir, a
corner, edge ; cf. ORD. Hardly fr. G. itird, a height.
Ladyurd and JsTetherurd are near by.

KIRKWALL. Sic c. 1500; but c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Kirkiu-
vag(r); a. 1400, Kirkvaw, -cwav ; 1438-1554, -waw :
1529, -wallia. O.X. kirkiu var/-r, 'church (cathedral)
on the bay.' The forms show how ' liquid ' the liquid
letters are. Cf. SCALLOWAY, STORNOWAY.

KIRN (Dunoon). Quite modern. Sc. kirn, O.E. ctjrn, Icel.
kirna, a churn ; fr. the churn-shaped quarry out of
which the place was built.

KIRRIEMUIR (Forfarsh.). 1229, Kerimure, Kermuir. Prob.
G. ceathramh (pron. carrou) mor, ' big quarter ' or ' divi-
sion.' Kerimor (sic 1250) was one of the quarters of
Angus, and is prob. Sim. Durham's (a. 1 130) Wertermor,
where werter is corruption of O.E. feordc, a 4th ; so
Skene. Also called Kilmarie, the Virgin 'Mary's church/
with which the modern pron. Kirriemare has nothing
to do ; cf. STENHOUSBMUIR, pron. Stanismare.

KIRRIEROCK, or -ROACH, IE ILL (Barr). Old, Kererioch. G.
coiro riabhach, 'greyish, grizzled ravine.'



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 150

KIRTLE, R., and KIRTLEBRIDGE (Annan). Peril. O.E. cartel,
Icel. lii/rtill, a short gown, petticoat ; but why so called 1
Of. Kirtling, Xewmarket ; Kirtlington, Oxford.

KISHORX (loch, W. Ross-sh.). 1472, Kysryner ; 1554, Kes-
sarne ; 1575, Kisyrne. Prob. G. cu-roinn, 'cape of the
toll' or 'impost' (c.ts). But Icel. kits, kisa, is pet name
for a cat, and Kisi was a Scandinavian giant ; whilst, on
the analogy of CLEGHORX, Kishorn might be G. ciscan, a
little chest. Of. Kismull, Earra.

KITTLEGAIRY HILL (Sooiihope, Peebles). Kittle is Sc. for
' tickle,' so the first part may be some G. word or words
represented by tickle ; so 1 tiyli coill gaii'bli, ' house in
the rough wood.'

KITTYBREWSTER (Aberdeen). Prob. a name.

KITTYSIIALLOCH (Miiiigaff). G. (and Ir.) cride sealgaicli,
'hillock' or 'green for hunting;' fr. scafg, the chase.

KNAPDALE (X. and S. Argyle). 1471, -dal. Icel. knapp-r-
dal (or G. cnap, as in next), 'knob-dale,' i.e., glen with
the hillocks. On the coast is Knap Point. Cf. Knapp
Hill, Woking ; Knapton, Yorkshire.

KXIPB, The (hill, Xew Cumnock). G. and W. cnay, knob,
button ; hence, little hill ; O.E. cnaep, hill-top.

KXOCK (Largs, EaniF, Lewis, &c.). G. and Ir, cnnc, a hill.
Sir II. Maxwell gives 220 Knocks- in Galloway.

KXOCKAXDO (]\Ioray). G. cnoccm dint, 'black hillock.' Cf.
Knockin, Oswestry.

KXOCKBAIX (Cromarty). G. cnoc ban or l>aine, 'white, fair
hill.'

KXOCKFARREL (Strathpcffer). Prob. G. cnoc faire, ' hill of
the Avatch ' or ' guard ; ' but G. farral, -rail, means
'anger.'

KNOCKLBGOIL (1 Stirlingsh.). G. cnoc till f/o/'U, 'hill of the
strangers' (G. gall) grave.' This Avas a cairn full of
cinerary iirns.

KXOCKRIOCII (Argyle, pasaini,). G. cnoc riabhach, 'brindled,
brown, heather-coloured hill.'

KXOCKSTIXG, L. (N. Kirkcudbright). G. cnoc stain;/, "hill
of the pool' or 'ditch.'



160 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

KXOXLAXD (Dumbarton).

KNOWE (Kirkcowan). So. knon;e, O.E. cnoll, Dan. knold,
W. cnol, a (rounded) hillock. Kuoiue is just a softened
form of knoll. Cf. Pow, fr. G. poll, W. ^wZ, a pool.

KNOYDART (Sleat Sound). 1309, Knodworath; 1343,
Cnudeworth ; 1511, Knod wart; 1517, Knodort. King
Canute or ' Cnufs fjord,' of which last the Norse endings
worth, wart, ort are corruptions ; in G. Crojarst. Cf.
MOYDART. Cnut invaded Scotland in 1031.

KYLE (district of Ayrsh.). 750, Contimiaiion of Bede,
Cyil; c. 1150, Chul; 1293, Kyi; Bk. Taliesin (very
ancient), Coelin, which makes it likely to be fr. Coel
Hen or C. the aged, the famous 'old King Cole; 'so
Rhys. Cf. Coilsfield and Coilton in this district. Form
Chul suggests G. cliaolas, straits ; see below.

KYLE AKIX. See AKIN. Cf. 1549, Dunnakync.

KYLE SKOW or SKU (Assynt). Prob. G. caol sgatlia, ' straits
of dread.' Kyle, kil, and lieel are all only approximations
to the sound, in different localities, of G. caol, caoil, a
strait, fr. caol, slender, thin. See KILCHURN, EDDRA-
CHILIS.

KYLOE, West. Prob. G. caol alJi, ' narrows of the water.' Cf.
AWE.

KYLES OF BUTE. In G. iY Caoil BJiodac/t. See KYLE
SKOW.



L

LACHSAY (Skye). X. laclts-d, 'salmon river.' Cf. LAXA,
LAXAY.

LADHOPE (Galashiels). Prob. O.E. lad, a way, course, canal ;
Sc. lade, a mill-race. On hope, a shut-in valley, see

HOBKIRK.

LADY (Kirkwall), LADYBURX (Grcenock), LADYKIRK (Nor-
ham), LADYWELL (Glasgow). All prob. fr. ' Our Lady,'
i.e., the Virgin Mary. Lady is O.E. lilacfdiye or -die, lit.
' breadmaid.'

LADYBAXK (Fife). Lindores monks dug peats here, fr. 13th



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 161

century, hence called ' Our Ladtjs Boy,' but also ' Lathy-
bog,' which looks like G. leathad bog, ' moist hill-slope ;'
about fifty years ago ' improved ' into Lady-bank. There
was also once a ' Lady-Bank, 3 near Arbroath.

LAGAVOULIN BAY (Islay). G. lag-a-mliuilinn, ' bay of the

mill.' Of. MOULIN.
LAGG (Arran and Jura). G. and Ir. ]<ty, a bay, hollow ;

same root as Icel. lay-r, low. Of. LOGIE.

LAGGAX (loch and village, Inverness-sh., and Bonar Bridge).
G. lay an, diminutive of lay, a hollow. Laggankenney,
on Loch Laggan, is fr. St Cainneacli (Kenneth or
' Kennie ') of Achaboe, Irish friend of Columba.

LAID (Durness). G. lad, laid, a Avater-course, a foul pool,
same as O.E. lad, way, course, canal, fr. Icv.dan, Dan.
Icde, to lead.

LAIGH CARTSIDE (Jolmstone). ' Low place on the side of
the river Cart;' Icel. lay-r, M.E. layh, Sc. laiyh, low.

LAIGHDOOKS (Muthill). 'Low doors;' yh is always sounded
and guttural in Scotch.

LAIRG (Sutherland), c. 1230, Larg. G. leary, 'a plain,
little eminence, beaten path.' Cf. LARGS.

LAMAXCIIA (Peebles). The Grange of Komanno was so
called, c. 1736, by Admiral Sir A. F. Cochrane, who
had resided for a time in this province of Spain.

LAMBERTON (Berwicksh.). 1235, -ertona. Perh. fr. a man.
Cf. Lamberhurst, Sussex, and Ltunerton, Tavistock ;
but see LAMMERMUIK.

LAMBHILL (Glasgow). Cf. Lambley, Notts and Carlisle.

LAMIXGTOX (S. Lanarksh.). 1206, Lambinistun ; 1359,
Lambyngyston ; 1539, Lammyntoun. Fr. amnnLambitt,
found here before 1150. Cf. p. Ixxiv.

LAMLASII (Arran). Formerly simply Molas ; G. lann Lai*,
' church of St Las,' commonly in the endearing form
Molas, or Molios, or Molaise ; though Molios is also
interpreted as = Maol-Io*a, ' servant, shaveling of Jesus '
(cf. p. xcv). Of the three St Molaises this is M. of
Leighlin, grandson of King Aidan of Dalriada, c. 610.
G. lann, AV. llan, is rare in Sc. names, but cf. LHAX-
BRYUE. It means (1) a fertile, level spot: (2) an



162 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

enclosure; (3) a church; rf. a similar gradation of mean-
ings in L. templum.

LAMMERLAWS (grass-topped cliffs at Burntisland). Lammer-
law is also name of one of the LAMMERMUIRS, so the
names must be the same. Sc. law is O.E. hltew, a
mound or hill.

LAMMERMUIR HILLS. Sim. Durham, a. 1130, Lombormore.
Prob. G. lann barra mur, ' level spot 011 the big height.'
See LAMLASH and LAMMERLAWS.

LANARK, also LANRICK, CASTLE (R. Teith). c. 1188, Lannarc ;
1289 Lanark; c. 1430, Lamarke; also Lanerch. Lanark,
Lanrick, and DRUMLANRIG (1663, -lanerk), are perh. all
the same, = ' level spot on the ridge ; ' G. lann (see LAM-
LASH) + O.E. hrycg, hric, Sc. rig. a hill-ridge, furrow,
= G. druim or DRUM. But -ark might be fr. G. drach,
field of battle ; and -erch is like Old G. care, a cow, which
last gives the likeliest origin of all ; and so Lanark may
mean ' level spot, enclosure for the cows.'

LANGAVAT, L. (Lewis). N. lanc/a-vatn, ' ling (the fish) loch '
or ' water ; ' perh. fr. Icel. lang-r, Dan. lang, long. Cf.
Langavill, Mull ; -mil prob. = G. bail, village, dwelling.

LANGBANK (Port Glasgow), LANGHAUGHWALLS (Hawick, see
HAUGH), LANGSHAW (Galashiels, see SHAW), LAXGSIDE
(Glasgow, c. 1600, 'The Langsyd field'), LAXGTOX
(Duns, 1250, Langetun). Sc. lann, O.E. and Dan.
lang, Icel. lang-r, long.

LAXGHOLM (Carlisle). Pron. Langom ; sic 1376; but 1776,
Langham; formerly Arkinholm. On the interchangeable-
ness of holm, a meadow, and ham, house, see HODDOM,
YETHOLM.

LAXGLOAX (Coatbridge). ' Long, country lane ;' Sc. loan, as
in ' Lovers' Loan,' O.E. lane, a lane, Eris. lona, a lane,
Icel. Ion, a row of houses.

LAXTOX (Jedburgh). = LAXGTOX, or ]>erh. fr. G. lann,
enclosure, church, + O.E. tun, ton, village.

LAOGHAL, Ben (Tongue). Popularly spelt and pron. Loyal ;
G. laofjh dl, 'hind calves' rock.'

LARACHBEG (Morvern). G. = ' little house ' or ' farm ' or
' ruin ; ' larach has all these meanings.

LARBERT (Stirling). 1 1 95, Lethberth ; c. 1320, Lethberd.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 163

G. letli is a half, a share, but Lar- is prob. fr. laracli ; see
above. The second half may be fr. G. lard, laird,
a poet, bard, or heart, work, exploit, a yoke, burden,
machine, so that the exact meaning is hard to define.

LARG HILL (Kirkcudbright) and LARGS (Ayrsh.). Ayrsh. L.,
c. 1140, Larghes ; 1318, -gys ; and prob. Ti/jliernac Ann.,
ami. 711, Loirg ecclct. G. leary, the side or slope of a hill,
a plain, a beaten path, with English plural. Of. LAIRG.

LARGO and LARGOWARD (Fife). 1250, Largauch ; 1279,
-aw. G. leartj ac/ta/dJi, ' slope of the field ;' icard, O.E.
u-eard, expresses direction, as in 'homeward,' &c.

LARIG, Hill (Dava). G. lariy, a path, way. Of. CRIAX-
LARICII.

LARKIIALL (Hamilton). Also near Lath.

LASSODIE (Dunfermline). Prob. G. leas-aodann, 'garden-
slope' or 'face,' = Lessuden, old name of St Boswell's,
r. 1200, Lassedwyn; in the latter the ending is l>ry-
thonic, \Y. eid'li/n, a slope.

LASS WADE (Dalkeitli). a. 1150, Leswade; and ef. LESWALT,
in 17th century Lesswad ; first syllable prob. G. ha* or
lios, a garden. G. Chalmers' M.E. wcyde, 'a meadow,'
is a pure invention.

LATHEuoxand LATHEROX WHEEL (Caithness). 1271, Lagheryn;
1275, Laterne ; 1515, Lutheroun ; c. 15G5, Lethrin.
Prob. G. Jar/lira)!, latllinm, ' prongs, forks.' Forms
1274-75 show it cannot be, as l)r jM'Lauchlau says, =
LORX. Latheronwheel is prob. G. lanhran-a-lhuill,
' the forks or divisions of the plot of ground,' fr. G.
lall, a spot, a limb. With this agrees the recorded
spelling 'Latheron-fu.il.' I eel. latra is a place where
seals, whales, &c., lay their young. It is common in
place-names, Latra-bjarg, Latra-heiSr, &c.

LATHOXES (St Andrews). Prob. G. hathad aonairh, ' the
slope of the hill ' or ' heath ; ' with the common Eng.
plural.

LATIIUISK (Fife). 1183, Loschiresk; 1250, Losresk ; a.
1400, Lothresk. Prob. G. loisgear uisge, 'swift water.'
Of. ESK.

LATJDALE (Strontian). Prob. 'low dale;' Icel. lagr, Dan.
lav, low, and Icel. and Dan. dal, a dale.



164 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

LAUDER and LAUDERDALE. 1250, Lawedir; Lauderdale,
1560, Lawtherdale, is the valley of the river Leader ;
c. 800, Leder ; c. 1160, Ledre, and prob. the names are
the same. Prob. G. Hath dobhar or dur, ' grey water '
or 'stream.' Cf. ADDER.

LAURENCEKIRK. Formerly Conveth. Prob. fr. St Laurcntiux,
the martyr, c. 260. Cf. next.

LAURIESTOX (in Edinburgh, and Glasgow, Cramond, Bal-
maghie, Kinneff). Laurie is corruption of Lawrence,
e.<j., Kinn. L., 1243, Laurenston ; 1461, Laurestoun.
Cram. L., 1590, Laurenstouii ; and a chapel to St
Laurence is mentioned in 1249 near Kinneff. Laurie-
ston, near Falkirk, was called Merchistown in 1774, and
was renamed after the late Sir Lawrence Dundas of
Kerse. Edinb. L. is fr. Lawrence, son of Edmund of
Edinburgh, to whom the Abbot of Kelso granted a toft
between the West Port and the Castle in 1160.
Larriston Fell, Roxburgh, is the same name. Cf. the
English ' Larry.'

LAW (Carluke). Sc. law, O.E. Idcdiv, a mound, hill; in England
usually -loiv, as in Marlow, Taplow, &c. ; cf. FERRIELOW.

LA WEES, Ben (L. Tay). G. latliar (pron. lur), 'a hoof,' with
Eng. plural. Ben L. = ' cloven mountain.'

LAXA (Shetland), LAXAY (Islay and Lewis). Isl. L., old, Laxa,
= LACHSAY, ' salmon river ' (c/. Laxay, Isle of Man,
and next) ; but Laxa, Shetland, is O.N. lax-ai/, 'salmon
isle.'

LAXFORD, L. (Sutherland) and LAXVOE. 1559, -fuird.
'Salmon frith, fjord, or bay;' O.N". lax, N, laclin, a
salmon. Cf. BROADFORD. Voe is O.X. rag-r, a bay.

LEADBURN (Peebles). Prob. fr. O.E. lad, a way, course,
canal; cf. 'mill-lade.'

LEADER, R. See LAUDEU.

LEADHILLS (S. Lanarksh.). Lead (( ).E. ttad) has been mined
here for at least 600 years.

LECROPT (Bridge of Allan), c.. 1550, Lekraw. G. lee, a
flagstone, tomb. Perh. + rath, a circle, rampart; but
cf. Ir. crapain for Ir. and G. cnapan, 'a little knob,
hillock ; ' as in Carrickcroppan, Armagh. G. has
craparra for cnaparra, stout.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 1G5

LEDAIG (Connel Ferry). G. Icif.l, laid, a water-course, +

O.X. ait/, a Lay.
LEDI, Ben (Callander). Commonly said to be the 'Mount

of God ; ' G. beinn le Dia. Cf. Cnoc Ledi, Tain.
LEE, Pen (Peeblessh.). Icel. Jtlfe, hie, Pan. Idee, O.E. Men,

shade, shelter, the 'lecside.' Pen is the Brythonic or

Welsh form of Ben, a hill.
LEEDS, Xew (Xe\v Deer). Leeds, Yorkshire, is ' Loidis ' in

Bede. Prob. ' people's place ; ' O.E. leoda, people.

LEFFEXBEG (Kintyre). G. leth-pliegliinn, 'a halfpenny/ a
land measure (see p. Ivii), + beay, little.

LEGERWOOD (Earlstoii). Sic 1158; 1160, Legerdswode.
Prob. f r. a man ; cf. the Eng. name ' St Leger.'

LEGSMALEE (Aberdour, Fife), a. 1169, Ecclesmaline ; later,
Egilsmalye, Egsmalye. ' Church of St Maline ' (rf.
Malines, Belgium). For a similar corruption, see LES-

MAIIAGOW. Cf. ECCLES.

LEITII (town, and "Water of) and LEITHEX, K. (Innerleithcn).

Leith is (c. 1145, Inverlet, IXVERLEITH), 1439, Leicht ;

1570, Leth. Prob.fr. AY. lleithio, to moisten, overflow (cf.

G. li/jlie, a flood). The -en in Leithen will be W. afon

or G. abhuhm, ' river.' Cf. Leet AYatcr, Coldstream ;

Lcaths, Buittle ; and Lethen Burn, branch of the river

Findhorn.
LEITHOLM (Coldstream). 'Meadow on the Leet.' See HOL.II

and LEITII.

LEXDAL WATER (Girvan). G. lean dail, ' marshy meadow.'
LEXIMORE (Caticol). G. Icana mnr, 'big, marshy flat.'
LEXXOX (Dumbarton) and LEXXOXTOWX (Kirkintilloch).

c. 1210, Levenax, -nach ; 1234, Lenox ; 129G, Levanaux;

Old G. MS., Lemnaigh. G. leamhan-acJtadJi, 'elm-field.'

Cf. LEVEX.
LEXTRAX (Inverness). G. Icana traona, ' marshy flat of the

corn-crakes.'

LEXY (Callander). G. l('ana, ' a marshy flat.'
LEXZIE (Glasgow), c. 1230, Lenneth; 1451, Lenyie. Prob. Old

G. lean-acliadh , swampy field ; or etli may as likely be G.

atJi, a ford. Cf. CLOVA. The z is just the Old Sc. y.

R



1GG PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

LEOCHEL CUSHNIE (Alford). r. 1200, Loychel; a. 1300,
' Loch el ' and ' Cuscheny ' are mentioned in Reyistr.
Aberdon. as separate places. L. prob. = LAOGIIAL, ' calf's
rock ;' and see CUSHNIE.

LERWICK. 1ST. Ieir-viJ,; ' mud-bay.' Cf. Lervik, Xorway,

LESLIE (Fife and Garioch). Gar. L., c. 1180, Lesslyn ; a.
1300, Lessly; Fife L. is named fr. this one. Malcolm,
son of Bardulf, Avas granted the lands of Lesslyn,
1171-99, and took his name fr. them ; though a
Bartholomew Lesly is said to have come to Scotland in
1097. l Prob. G. lios linne, 'garden by the pool.'

LESMAIIAGOW (Lanarkshire). 1144, Ecclesia Machuti; but
c. 1130, Lesmahagu; 1316, Lesmachute. ' Church of St
Machute,' disciple of the missionary Brendan ; went with
him to the Orkneys, 6th century. Cf. ECCLESMACHAN
and LEGSMALEE.

LESSUDEN, now St Boswell's. See under LASSODIE.

LESWALT (Stranraer). 1580, Loch Swaid ; 17th century,
Lesswoll, -Avad. Perh. ' garden (G. lios) at the base '
of the hill. W. givaelod, ' base, bottom,' could have,
originated all the early forms. For w. = <jw or yu, cf.

KlRKQUNZEON. Cf. LASSWADE.

LETHAM (Forfar, Collessie, Larbert, Dunfermline). (1250,
' Capella Brigham Letham,' Berwicksh.) G. leth, a half,
a share, + O.E. ham, home, house.

LETHENDY (Blairgowrie) and LETHEXTY (Inverurie). 1285,
Lenthendy. ? G. leathan tir, 'broad land,' or 'broad
house,' tiyh.

LETIINOT (Brechin). 1275, Lethnoth ; 1359, Lethnotty ; but
1328, Petnocy. ' Bit of land on the hillock ;' G. leth lit.
means ' a half,' then ' half a township ' or villula, then
perh. simply 'a piece of land,' = pit, pet (see PETTY). The
second half would seem to be G. cnocan, a little hill.

LETTERFEARN (L. Duich). Sic 1509. ' Alder-clad slope,' fr.
G. leitir (Icth-tir}, Ir. Icitar, ' land on the slope of a
glen,' and G. fearna, an alder ; or perh. fr. leth-oir, ' the
one side or edge ' (oir) ; cf. ' Letherpen,' a harbour in
Argyle, in an Old Irish MS. (Skene, Celtic, ScotL, ii.
203). A 'Letter' is marked on a 1745 map, north-
1 Sibbald's History of Fife, edit. 1710, p. 370.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 167

west of Campsie. Common in Ireland, Letterfrack,

-kenny, &c. Cf. BALLATER, DULLATUR.
LETTERFIXLAY (L. Lochy). 1553, Lettirfinlay. ' Land on

the slope belonging to Einlay ;' see above.
LETTERPIX (Girvan). ' The slope of the hill ' (pin =pen or

leu] ; cf. above, and PIXMORE.
LEUCHARS (St Andrews), a. 1300, Locres ; 1639, Leucheries.

Prob. G. luacliair, 'rushes/ with Eng. plural. Cf.

Leuchar, Skene ; Luichar Loch, Lewis ; and Ardlougher,

Ireland.
LEUCHAT (Aberdour, Fife), c. 1214, Lowchald. Prob.

G. luaclirach aUf, 'rushy glen' or 'stream.'
LEVEX (lochs, Kinross and Argyle ; river, Dumbarton ; town,

Fife). Kin. L., a. 1100, Loclilevine; 1156, Lohuleuene.

Arg. L., a. 1100, Tifjliernac, ann. 704, Glenlemnae.

Fife L., c. 1535, Levin. Dumb. L., c. 1560, Levinus.

G. leamlian, an elm (cf. LEXXOX ; also Leven, Hull;

Levens, Westmoreland). Ptolemy, c. 120 A.D., calls

Loch Long, L. Lemannonius, evidently the same word.

LEVEXHALL (Musselburgh) and LEVEXWICK (Shetland). See
above. Wick is X. vik, a bay. If the Shetland name
be really partly Gaelic, it is almost unique.

LEVERX (Paisley). Prob. = LEVEX. Cf. MORVEX and MOR-
VERX.

LEWIS, a. 1100 (Gaelic MS.), Leodus ; Sagas, LyoShus ;
c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Liodhus ; 1292, Lodoux. Com-
monly said to be Icel. liljuth hits, O.E. Idud hits, 'loud'
or ' resounding house.' Martin and Prof. M'Kinnon
say fr. G. leoir/, 'a marsh,' which is appropriate, but
has no support from early forms.

LEYSMILL (Arbroath). Prob. fr. a man Leys or Lees.

LHANBRYDE (Moray). G. lann Brid, 'church of St Bride.'
See LAMLASH and KILBRIDE.

LIBERTOX (Edinburgh and Carnwath). Edinb. L., c. 1145,

and Carnw. L., c. 1186, Libertun. 'Leper-town;' G.

lobhar. Sometimes called ' Spitaltown,' i.e., place of

the leper hospital.
LIDDESDALE (Roxburgh). 1179, Lidelesdale, 'Glen' or 'dale'

(O.E. duel, Icel. and Dan. dal) of the Liddel Water, c.



168 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

1160, Lidel; c. 1470, Ledaill. Perh. G. Hath dail,

'grey field,' or fr. U, coloured, tinged. If so, 'Lidcles-

dale ' is not a reduplication.
LIFE (Dundee). 1250, Lif. Perh. G. Hath, grey ; butClonliff,

Ireland, is Ir. and G. duain luilh, ' meadow of herbs.'
LILLIESLEAP (Selkirk). 1116, Lilleseliva; 1296, Lilleslyve.

Prob. just ' lily's leaf ; ' O.E. lilie, L. lilium, a lily, and

O.E. leaf, a leaf.
LIMEKILNS (Dunfermline), LIMERIGG (Slamannan, cf. BONNY-

RIGG, &c.), LIME ROAD (Falkirk).
LINCLUDEN (Dumfries). Sic 1449 ; 1452, Lyncludene.

' Pool (W. llyri) on the river CLUDEN.'
LINCUMDODDIE (hamlet in Peeblessh., now extinct). Prob.

W. Hyn cam, ' crooked linn or water,' + dodd, daddy,

a rounded hill, see DODD.
LINDEAN (Selkirk). Also old name of Galashiels. 1275,

Lyndon; 1353, Lindene. W. llyn din, 'linn' or

' water by the hill ; ' but influenced by den or DEAX.

LINDORES (.Newburgh). 1199, Lundoris ; c. 1203, Londors;
1639, Lundors. Prob. W. llyn dwr (G. linne dobhair),
'pool' or 'loch near the water' (the Tay), with Kng.
plural s. Cf. Poldores Burn, Carsphairn. Hardly fr.
G. doran, an otter.

LIXDSAYLANDS (Biggar). The Lindsays held lands in Clydes-
dale in the 12th century. The first known of the family,
' Randolph do Limesay ' or ' Lindesey,' was a nephew of
William the Conqueror, and came over with him. The
name means ' lime-tree ' or ' linden isle,' N. ay, ey.

LINGA (Shetland). Sagas, Lyngey. Icel. and Dan. lyng-ay,
' ling ' or ' heather isle.' Cf. Lingholm (see HOLM),
Stronsay, and Lingrow, Scapa.

LINLATHEN (Dundee). Prob. G. linne leathan, 'broad linn'
or 'pool.'

LINLI'THGOW. 1147, Linlitcu; 1156, Lillidchu ; c. 1160,
Linlidcu ; 1264, Lenlithgow; and contracted as still
popularly 1489, LythgoAv; also Lithcow. Linlidcu is
plainly Brythonic = 'dear, broad lake;' W. llyn, Corn.
lin, Ir. linn, G. linne, a ' pool ' or ' loch ; ' W. lied,
broad, and W. cu, dear. Cf. GLASGOW.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 169

LINNIIE, L. (X. Argyle). G. linne, a pool, enclosed sea-
loch ; thus Loch Linnhe is a tautology.

LINN OF DEE, &c. G. linne, a pool. See under LINLITHCOW.
LINTMILL (Cullen). O.E. linet, lint, fr. O.K. line, L. linum, flax.

LIXTON, East and "West (and near Kelso). East L., 1250,
Lintun. West L., 1 507, Lyntoun. ' Hamlet by the linn '
or pool. See LINLITHGOW. Five Lintons in England.


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