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MIXXIGAFF, or MOXIGAFF (Xewton-Stewart). Old, Monegoff,
Munygoiff. Possibly G. muine gobha, 'thicket of the
smith.'

MIXTLAW (Peterhead). Prob. G. moine t'laclia, 'moss of the
wild ducks,' as there is a moss here, but no ' law ' or
hill. Cf. MIXISHAXT and MOXTROSE.

MIXTO (Roxburgh) and MIXTO HILL and CRAIGS. Sic 1275 ;
1296, Mynetowe; c. 1320, Minthov. Prob. G. moin-
teacli, a mossy spot, + Sc. how, O.E. hoik, holy, a
hollow, a hole.

MOCIIRUM (Port William), c. 1341, Mochrome, Mouchrum.
Prob. G. mayli chrom, 'crooked plain,' or inagh chruim,
' plain of the circle.' Cf. MEARXS, MOY.

MOFFAT. 1296, Moffete. Prob. G. mwjli fada, 'long plain,'
its very site ; cf. above.

MOIDART, MOYDART (Arisaig). 1309, Modworth ; 1372,
Mudewort; 1532, Moydort. Prob. 'muddy frith' or
'fjord;' Icel. mod, dust, Sw. model, mud; and see

KXOYDART.

MOLEXDIXAR BURX (Glasgow). 1185, Jocclyn, Mellindonor.
Said to be Rivus Molendinarius, 'the millers' stream;'
but 1185 looks like G. meall na dhuinne (or donri) ard,
'hill with the brownish eminence,' i.e., the Necropolis
hill.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 183

MONADHLIATH MOUNTAINS (Inverness). G. = ' grey moor '
or 'mountain' (monadli).

MONAN'S, St (Elie). Said to be fr. Monamis, Archdeacon of
St Andrews, killed on 1st May 871. St Moinenn was
Bishop of Clonfert, died 571 ; and St Monyn or Mod-
wenna was a friend of St Patrick, died 519.

MONCRIEFP HILL (N. of river Earn), a. 1100, Tighernac,
aim. 726, Monid Croib ; ami. 728, Monagh Craebi. G.
monadli craoibh, ' hill of the trees,' or crubha, ' of the
haunch' or 'hoof.' Of. CRIEFF and DUNCRUB.

MONCUR, MONQUHUR (Carmylie). Prob. Ulst. Ann., ann.
728, Monitcarno, which will be G. monadh cdrnaich,
' hill of the pagan priest,' or 'in the rocky spot;' but
-cur seems to be fr. G. car, cuir, a turn, bend, cf.
STRACHUR.

MONDYNE (Kincardine). 1251, Monachedin. G. monacli

aodain (W. eiddyri), 'hilly slope' or 'face.'
MONESS (Aberfeldy). G. monadh eas, ' hill of the water-fall.'

MONEYDIE (Perth). 1294, Monedy, and so still pron. G.
monadh aodain (W. eiddyn), l face ' or ' slope of the
hill.'

MONIAIVE (Thornhill). The ai pron. like i in ivy. Old,
Minnyhive. Possibly G. moine ghabaidh, ' dangerous
moss,' gh lost by aspiration.

MONIFIETH (Carnoustie). c. 1205, Monifod; c. 1220, Muni-
feth, Monifodh, -foth. G. moine fodha, ' lower, under
moss' or 'moor.'

MONIKIE (Carnoustie). Pron. Moneeky. c. 970, Pict. Chron.,
Eglis Monichti i.e., prob. G. eanlais manaich-tir/h, 'church
of the monk's house;' form Monichi is also found.

MONIMAIL (Ladybank). 1250, Monimel; 1495, Monymeal.
Prob. G. moine mil, 'moss' or 'moor by the mound' or
' hill,' G. meall.

MONIMUSK (Aberdeen). Sic 1315; but c. 1170, Munimusc.
G. moine mus(g)ach, 'nasty, filthy bog.'

MONKLAND, Old and New (Glasgow). 1323, Munkland.
The land belonged to the see of Glasgow.

MONKTON (Prestwick). Pron. Munton. Four in England.



184 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

MOX(T)QUHITTER (Turriff). Peril. G. monadh mhiodair,
'hill with the pasture ground.' Cf. DALWHIXXY.

MOXREITH (Wigtown). Old, Murith, Menrethe. Perh. G.

moine riabhach, ' grey moor.'
MOXTEITH, Lake of (Aberfoyle). a. 1200, Meneted ; c.

1 200, Menteth. Prob. G. moine te.ic.lddh, ' moor of the

flight.' The river Teith in G. is T(h}aich.
MONTEVIOT, or MOUXTEVIOT (Jedburgli). See TEVIOT.
MOXTROSE. a. 1200, Munros ; 1296, Montrose ; 1322, Mon-

ros; 1488, Montross. G. moine frois, 'moss on the

peninsula.'
MOXYNUT WATER (Berwick). Prob. G. moine cnuith, 'moor

with the (hazel) nuts;' influenced by O.E. hnut, a nut.

MOXZIE (Crieff). Pron. Monee. Prob. G. monadh fheidh,

' hill of deer.' Cf. next. The z is the old Sc. y.
MOXZIEVAIRD (Crieff). 1251, Moeghavard; 1279, Mor-

goauerd. G. magh, 'plain,' often in names as Mo- or

MOY, or monadh, l hiH,' a-bhdtrd, 'of the bard' or 'rhymer.'

The r in form 1279 must be an error.
MOOXZIE (Cupar). c. 1230, Mooney, and so now pron. ; it

seems to be the old Monechata (cf. MOXIKIE). 15ut jierh.

G. muin fhcidh, ' the deer's back ; ' mum is lit. the back

of the neck. Cf. DRUM and MOXZIE.
MOORFOOT HILLS (Midlothian). a. 1150, Morthwait,

-thuweit. Icel. mor ]weit, ' moor-place.' Cf. MURRAY-

THWAITE.

MORAXGIE (Tain). 1457, Morinchy ; 1520, -inch. G. mar
innis or innse, 'big inch' or 'links' or 'pasture.' It is
now pron. Morinjy. Cf. 'Morinche,' found in 1550,
near Killin.

MORAY, c. 970, Pict. Chron., Morovia; Ulst. Ann., ann.
1085, Muireb; a. 1200, Muref; Orkney. Sag., Maer^
haefui ; c. 1295, Morref. Possibly G. mbr abli, 'big
water,' referring to the river Spey.

MORAY FRITH. In Orkney. Sag., c. 1225, Breidafjord.
O.K = ' broad frith.'

MORDIXGTOX (Berwick). 1250, -tun. Perh. Martin's ton
(see p. Ixxiv) ; cf. mord for G. mart, an ox, in Ardni-
mord, Galloway.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 185

, Ben (Perth, Mull, Assynt, Lewis). G. Idnn mur,
' big mountain.'

MOREBATTLE (Kelso). 1116, Mcrebocla ; 1170, Merebotle ;
1575, Morbottle; 1639, Marbotle. O.K. mere-lotl, 'lake-
house ' or ' dwelling.' Boil is cognate with the O.X.
hul so common in Sc. place-names. Of. XEWBATTLE, a
similar corruption, and Harbottle, near Rothbury. The
-lioda in 1116 is an early form of booth, earlier than
any in Dr Murray's dictionary ; cf. O.Icel. baft, Dan.
and Sw. lod, a booth, dwelling.

MORHAM (Haddington). Sic 1250. O.E. mor-lidm, 'moor-
house ' or ' village.'

MORMOXD (Fraserburgh). G. mor monadh, ' big hill.'
MORXIXGSIDE (Edinburgh and Bathgate).

MORTLACH (Dufftown). a. 1300, Morthilache ; also 3Iuir-
thillauch; 1639, Murthlack. G. mor tulacli, 'big
hillock.' Cf. MURTHLY.

MORTOX (Thornhill) and HALF ^loRTOX (Canonbie). Prob.
fr. O.E. and Iccl. mur, a moor, + ton; see p. Ixxiv.

MORVEX (X. Argyle). G. mur 1/licinn, ( big mountain ; ' so
]\[orar, Arisaig, is ' big height,' G. anl.

^IORVERX (X. Argyle). 1343, Garwmorwarne (G. r/arlili,
rough); 1475, Morvarne ; . 1500, Bit. Clanranald,
^Eorbhairne. Prob. G. mor carrann, ' great division ' or
' province.'

MOSSAT (Aberdeensh.). Prob. ' mossy-place,' fr. Dan. mos,
O.E. meu*,+ -et. Cf. AIKET, thicket, &c.

MOSSBAXK (Lerwick), -END (IFolytown), -GREEX (Crossgates).
O.E. meuf, Icel. mosi, Dan. mos, a moss or bog.

MOSSKEXXAX (Peebles), c. 1260, Mospennoc; 1296, Mes-
]>ennon. Prob. hybrid ; ' moss by the bheinnan, 1 G.
for ' little mountain.' The p marks the name as
Brythonic. Pennoe is a tautology ; W. pen and G. cnoc,
both meaning ' hill.'

MOSSPAUL (Ewes "\Vater). Prob. also hybrid ; ' moss with
the pool, hole, or bog ; ' G. poll, puill.

MOSSPEEBLE BURX (Ewes Water). Prob. 'moss' or 'bog by
the tents ; ' "W. pebyll. Cf. above, and PEEBLES.



186 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

MOTHERWELL (Hamilton). 1362, Modynvaile ; 1373, Moder-
vale. Prob. G. mathair-bhcrile, ' mother's house ' or
' village,' influenced by O.E. mudor, Dan. and Sw.moder,
Icel. muthir, mother ; and cf. BOTHWELL, close by. The
Mother- is prob. the Virgin Mary (cf. LADYWELL and
MARYWELL) ; but the O.E. icell, u-ella, a well, would not
give us -waile or -vale.

MOULIN (Pitlochry). G. muileann, muilinn, a mill. Cf.
O.E. mylen, a mill, and the name Milne.

MOUND, The (Dornoch). This modern mound or breakwater
at the head of Loch Meet must not be confounded with
The Mounth (i.e., the Grampians), G. monadh, a hill,
so frequently mentioned in early Scottish history.

MOUNT FLORIDA and MOUNT YERNON (Glasgow). Recent.
Mount Vernon is mentioned in the Glasgow Directory,
1787.

MOUNTHOOLY (Aberdeen). Perh. G. monadli clntile, 'hill
with the corner ' or ' nook ' (cuil) ; cf. Knockhooly or
-hillie, Colvend. But Tomnahulla, Galway, is the Ir.
and G. tnam na Ji'ulaidh, 'mound of the altar tomb,' or,
in Scottish G., rather 'grave with the treasure;' and
-liooly may be fr. this.

Mous A (Shetland). Sa<jas, Mosey. 'Moss-isle;' Icel. mosi,
Dan. and Sw. nios, + ay, cy, island (cf. ' Xethmnous-
land,' c. 1500, near Stromness). Xot likely to be fr.
Icel. miis, a mouse.

MOUSWALD (Ruthwell). c. 1340, Musfold. Prob. O.E.

meos-foild or Dan. mos-fold, ' moss-grown enclosure.'

Cf. FAULDIIOUSE.
MOY (S. of Inverness, and near L. Laggan). Inv. M., 1497,

Moye ; in G. Mhaigh, i.e., mayh, maigh, a plain. Cf.

MOCIIRUM.
MOYNESS (Forres). 1238, Moythus ; c. 1285, Motheys ;

1 295, Moythes. 1 G. inaoth eas, ' soft, gentle water-fall.'

MUASDALE (Argyle). Prob. Dan. mum-dal, 'valley of the
field-mice ; ' cf. O.E. and Icel. mils, a mouse.

MUCHALLS (Aberdeen). (Castle Fraser, Monimusk, used to
be called Muchals or Muchil ; in 12GS, Mukual). Prob.
G. muc-al, ' boar's (or pig's) cliff,' with Eng. plural s.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 1ST

The old name of the district east of St AndreAvs, Avhere
' Boarhills ' now is, used to be ' Muicros ' or ' Muckross '
(as at Killarney), i.e., 'boar's promontory.'

MUCK (Hebrides). G. muc, a whale, generally called muc-
mhara, lit. 'sea-pig.'

MUCKAIRN (Taynuilt). 1527, Mocarne. Peril. G. maah
cairn, ' plain, field of the cairn ; ' as likely muc-earrann,
'swine's portion' or 'lot.' Cf. MORVERX.

MUCKIIART (Dollar). 1250, Mukard. G. muc-ard, 'boar's'
or ' sow's height.' Cf. AUCHTERMUCHTY and DOCHART.

MUGPOCH (Dumbarton). 750, Irith citron., ]\lagedaue.
Prob. G. mfy-a-dabJiaich, 'Held of ploughed land.'

Cf. DOCIIART.

MUGDRUM, I. (Xewburgh). Island like 'a sow's back;' G.
runic, druim.

MUGSTOT (Skye). 'Monk's place;' Icel. mnk-r, for munli-r,
a monk, + X. stad-r ( = Ger. stadt), = the G. Baile mhan-
aiclt, Uist.

MUICHDIIUI, Ben (Braemar). G. leinn muicli dttibhe, 'moun-
tain of the black boar ' (rime).

MUIBAVON and -AVOXSIDE (Polmont). 'jNToor of the river
AVON ;' O.E. and Icel. rtinr, Dan. inoer, a moor, swamp.

MUIRDRUM (Carnoustic). ' Hill-ridge 011 the moor ' (see
DRUM). Moor (see above) is almost a G. word.

MUIRKIRK (Ayrsh., see above), Mum of ORD (Beauly, see
ORD), MUIRTOWN (Inverness).

MUIRNEAG (Lewis). G. diminutive of muirn, cheerfulness,
joy. ]S'ame of a beautifid hill ; the only one near here,
which the fishers can see far out at sea.

MULBEN (Elgin). G. maol leinn, 'bare hill.'

MULL. c. 120, Ptolemy, Maleas ; a. 700, Adam nan, 'Malea
insula;' Saf/as, Myl ; Act. Sand., Mula ; 1542, Mowill.
These forms well illustrate the varying sound of the
G. diphthong ao (cf. KYLE SKOW) ; G. maol, bald, bare.

MULL OF DEERNESS, or MOULIIEAD (Orkney). Sagas, Muli.
MULL OF GALLOWAY; 1375, Barbour, Muller Snook;
&c. G. maol, 'brow of a rock, a cape;' prob. cognate
with maol, bare.



188 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

MUMRILLS (Falkirk). Possibly G. mam righle, ' round hill of
the reel ' or ' dance ; ' with P^ng. plural

MUNCHES (Dumfries). 1527, -cheiss. G. moine cheis,
'moss, bog of the furrow' or 'of the swine.'

MUNGALL MILL (Falkirk). Prob. G. moine calla, ' bog, moss
of loss, disaster/ or perh. fr. gall, gaill, a stranger.
There was once a large bog here.

MUNLOCHY (Fortrose). 1605, Mullochie. Either G. maol
lochan, 'bare little loch' or 'bay,' or moine lochain,
' moss, bog by the little loch.'

MURKLE (Caithness). Old, Myrkhol. Icel. myrk-r hoi, ' dark,
dusky hole ; ' cf. ' mirk ' and ' murky.'

MURLAGAN (R. Spean). G. mur lagain, ' the house ' or ' wall
of the little hollow ' (lag).

MURRAYFIELD (Edinburgh) and MURRAYTHWAITE (Eccle-
fechan). Eccl. M., a. 1300, Moryquhat. Both mean the
same, thwaite being the Icel. ]rveit, = ' place.' Common
south of Carlisle Braithwaite, Crosthwaite, &c. The
surname Murray comes from MORAY.

MURROES (Dundee), c. 1205, Muraus; 1250, Moreus. 1 G.
mar uisg, ' big water.'

MURTHILL (Tannadice). 1360, Murethlyn ; c. 1 390, Morthyll.
G. mbr tulaclian or tulach, ' big hillock,' cf. next. But
the ending has plainly been conformed to the Eng. MIL

MURTHLY (Dunkeld). G. mur tulach, ' big mound ' or ' hill,

= MORTLACH.

MURTLE (Cults). Prob. G. mbr tuil, 'big stream' or 'flood;'
re the river Dee. Cf. DUTHIL.

MUSSELBURGH (Portobello). 1250, Muskilburk. From Fr.

muscle, meaning, as here, 'a mussel;' also 'muscle.' On

burgh, see p. Ixxiii.
MUTHILL (Crieff). 1199, Mothel. O.E. mut-hill, 'hill of

the meeting' (cf. 'the Mute Hill,' Scone; 'a moot

point ;' and Witenagemot).

MUTTONIIOLE (Edinburgh). Humorous name, found as early as
a map of 1680. Now usually called Davidson's Mains.

MYLXEFIELD (Dundee). The name Mylne is fr. G. muileann,
a mill.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 189

MYRESIDE (Edinburgh). Icel. mijri, myrr, bog, swamp, the
Eng. mire. Cf. BOGSIDE and WHITEMIRE.



NACKERTY (Bothwell). Prob. G. cnac-dirde, 'height of the
fissure ' or ' crack ' (cnac).

NAIRN (river and town), c. 1200, Hoveden, Ilvernarran (i.e.,
Invern-); 1283, Inernarn ; 1583, Name. Thought to be
one of the very few cases of names where initial n repre-
sents the article; so perh. G. an arn, ' the loin' or ' flank;'
or an earrann, ' the division, province,' cf. MORVERX.

NAVER, E. (Sutherland). Prob. Ptolemy's (c. 120)Nabaros;
1268, Strathnauir; 1401, -navyr ; 1427, -nawarne.
Prob. G. naomli ard, 'holy height.' Cf. Elachnave or
eilean na naomli, an islet off Mull, = ' isle of saints.'
But Navar, Brechin, old, Netheuer, is said to be Celtic
neth var, 'whirling streams,' which is doubtful.

NAVIDALE (Helmsdale). Peril. Dan. nav-dal, ' valley like

the nave of a wheel.'
NAVITY (Cromarty). 1578, Navite. G. naomli aite, 'holy

place ' or ' spot.'
NEANT, R. (L. Etive). Looks like W. nant, a stream, or a

ravine ; but this is a very un-Brythonic region ; ? G.

neanntag, nettles.
NEIDPATH CASTLE (Peebles). Either fr. Dan. nod, ' neat-

cattle,' or W. nyddu, to twist, turn, referring to the

river Tweed. Path is the O.E. paeth.

NEILSTON (Barrhead). c. 1160, Xeilstoun; c. 1220, Neleston.
The O'Neils were a royal race in Ireland.

NELL, Loch (Oban). G. locli-nan-eala, ' loch of the swan.'

NEXTHORN (Kelso). 1204, Xaythansthorn. 1 Who was

Nathan.
NESS, R. and L. (Inverness, and in Lewis), a. 700, Adamnan,

river and loch, Nisa, Nesa ; a. 1 300, Nis. Can it be

G. nios, from below, up? Lewis N. is Icel., N., and

O.E. nces, cape, lit. nose.
NESTIXG BAY (Shetland). Icel. nes ]>ing, ' ness ' or ' cape of

the thing or meeting.'



190 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

XETHERBURN (Lanarksh.), XETHERCLEUGH (Lockerbie, see
BUCCLEUCH), XETIIER DALLACHY (Fochabers), XETIIER-
LEY (Muchalls, Ice, a meadow), XETHERTON (Bearsden),
XETHERURD (see KIRKURD).

X T ETHY, R. and Bridge (Grantown). See ABERNETIIY.
XEVIS, Ben aud R. (Fort "William). Sic 1532; 1552, Xevess.

Pron. Xeevush. Prob. G. nimli uisy, ' biting cold

water ; ' nimh is properly a noun.
XEW ABBEY (Kirkcudbright). 1301, La Xovelle Abbey.

Abbey of Sweetheart (Douce Coeur), founded here by

Lady Devorgilla in 1275.
XEWARK (Port Glasgow). (Of. ' Xewark one Spey,' 1492.)

= ' Xew work,' i.e., ' new castle.' There was a castle here.

Work, Sc. wart; does not occur in this sense in O.K. ;

but cf. 'outwork' and 'bulwark,' Old Germ, boltcerk,

Dan. bulvcerlc.
XEWARTIIILL (Motherwell). Prob. tautology, G. nuadh r<l

1 new hill.'
XEWBATTLE (Dalkeith). 1141, Xiwebothla; c. 1145, Xew-

botill; 1222, Xeubotle ; a. 1500, Xowbatile ; 1825,

Xewbottle. O.E. neowe botl, 'new dwelling.' Cf.

MOREBATTLE, and Xewbottle, Durham.
NEWBIGGING (Oxnam, Carnwath, Monincth, S. Ronaldshay).

Oxn. X., 1153, -bigginghe. A 'bigging' is a building,

Dr ^Nliirray's earliest quotation being c. 1250 fr. ' Genesis

and Exodus ; ' cf. Dan. byyae, to build, lj<jnin<j, a build-
ing. Four Xewbiggins in England.
XEWBUIDGE (Dumfries), XEWCASTLETON (Roxburgh), XEW-

HILLS (Aberdeen), XEWHOUSE (Airdric), NlWLANDS

(Peebles and Grangemouth), X"EWMAINS (Holytown, see

MAINS), XEWMILL (Keith), XEWMILXS (Kilmarnock, cf.

MILXHOLME), NEWPORT 1 (Dundee; nine in England).
XEWBURGH (Fife, Aberdeen). Fife X"., prob. a. 1130, Sim.

Durham, re aim. 756, Xiwanbyrig ; 1309, Xoviburgum ;

it is not, then, a very new burgh ! Burfjh sec p. Ixxiii.
XEWBURN (Largo). 1250, Xithbren, i.e., 'new burn' or

'stream.' See X'ITII and BURN OF CAMBUS. Also in

Northumberland.

1 This may or may not be the ' Newporth,' temp. William Lion, in
Mclrose Chartulary, i. 33.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 191

XEWHAVEX (Leith), 1510, Edinburgh Charter, ' The new
haven lately made Ly the said king',' .lames IV.

XEWSEAT (Peterhead). Cf. ATILLSEAT, in same district.

XEWSTEAD (Melrose). Stead is O.E. stale, Dan. stcd, a
place; cf. 'farm-steading.' Also in Xotts. Xear by is
Red Abbey Stead.

XEWTOX (Glasgow, Dysart, &c. ; thirty-four in England),
XEWTOX FERRY (Lochmaddy), XEWTOX GRANGE (Dal-
keith, see ABBOTSGRAXGE), XEWTOXHEAD (Ayr), XEWTOX-
HILL (Stonehaven), XEWTOX YEARNS (Glasgow), XEW-
TOX-OX-AYH, XEWTOX or KIRKNEWTOX (Mklcalder; 1200,
Xeutnn), XEWTOX OP FERINTOSH (Ross-shire), XEWTON
STEWART (modern).

XEWTOWX (Kirkcaldy, Dumbarton), XEWTOWX ST BOSWELT/S
(Roxburgh). Twenty Xewtowns in England.

XEWTYLE (Coupar Angus). 1199, Xeutile ; 1250, -tyl. G.
nuadli tulach, 'new hill.'

XIDDRIE (Musselburgh, TTinchburgh). 1572, Xidderir
Prob. G. nuadli (or W. wicijdd) niiirfn, ' new shealing
or summer shepherd's hut. Cf. BLIXGERY.

XIGG (Aberdeen, Invergordon). Abdn. X., 1250, Xig
Ross X., 129G, Xig. Prof. M'lvinnon's derivation, G
an uiy, 'the bay,' is only possible. Peril. G. and Ir. nilic,
a nook or corner.

XIXIAX'S, St (Stirling, &c.). Stirl. X., 1301, Seint Rineyan.
There are twenty-five chapels in Scotland dedicated to
St J^inian, or li/nf/an, of "\Vhithorn, c. 390, first
missionary in Scotland.

KISBET (.Tedburgh, P.iggar). Jed. X., 1298, Xesebit. ? ' Xess-
bit,' i.e., prominent, projecting site ; O.E. and Dan.
na-fi, Icel. w>>, a ness, cognate with no*c, O.E. ncfait,
Icel. no*, Dan. ntw, and (J.E. bit a, O.X. biti, Sw. bit. a
l)it, mouthful. Bit is used in Sc. for a piece of ground ;
see, e.g., Scott, Warcrleij, iii. 237.

XITII, R. (Dumfries). Sic 1327; c. 120, Ptolemy, Xovios ;
and found in JY/V-uari (Bede), tribe of Picts who
inhabited Galloway. Prob. same root as "\Y. neivydd,
L. norux, new. Cf. XEWBURX.



192 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

NITHSDALE. a. 1350, Stranith, Stranid, i.e., the strath of

the Nith.'
NITSHILL (Paisley). ?' Nuts' hill;' O.E. limit, Icel. knot,

Dan. nod, a nut.
NOBLEHOUSE (Peebles).

NOE GLEN (Ben Cruachan). Prob. G. nodha, now.
NORMAN'S LAW (Cupar). Law is O.E. hldeio, a hill.
NORRIESTON (Stirling). Norrie is a common Sc. surname.

Cf. Nome's Law, Largo.
NORTH WATER BRIDGE (Laurencekirk).
NORTON (Edinburgh), c. 1380, Nortoun. O.E. north, Sw.

and Dan. nord, north or nor'. Fifty-seven in England.
Noss OF BRESSAY (Shetland). Sayas, and 1539, Nos. Icel.

no's, a nose, akin to ness.
NOVAR (Dingwall). Perh. G. nodha bhan; ' the new hill '

or 'height.' Cf. NEWTYLE.
NUNTON (Lochmaddy). Cf. MONKTON and MUGSTOT.

o

OA, Mull of (Islay). In G. maol-na-Ho. Hardly fr. G.

ubh (pron. oo), an egg. Peril. Norse.
OAKBANK (Midcalder).

OAKLEY (Dunfcrmline). ' Oak meadow.' Three in England.
OATHLAW (Brechin). 1G35, Ouathlaw. G. abh nth, 'stream

with the ford,' rf. AWE, old Ow ; and see LAW.
OATLANDS (Glasgow). Also near "Weybridge.
OBAN. G. = ' little bay.'
OBBE (Portree). G. ob, uba, a bay.

( )CCUMSTER (Lybster). 1 ' Occam's place.' (Jn -ster, see p. Ixv.
OCHIL HILLS (Alloa). The Geographer of Ravenna has ' Cin-

docellun,' = ceann ochil (cf. KINALUIE), so Skene ; c.

850, Bk. Lecan, Sliab(e., hill) Nochel; 1461, Oychellis.

W. uchel, high. Cf. AUCHELCHANZIE and OGLE.
OCIIILTREE (Auchinleck and Galloway). Audi. O., a. 1200,

Okeltre; 1537-72, Vchiltre. Gall. O., old, Uchiltry.

W. uchel tre, ' high house.'
OCHTER- or AUCHTERTYRE (Crieff). G. nachdar tir (W.

uchder tir), ' high land.' Cf. AUCHTERARDER.



PLACE-XAMES OF SCOTLAND. 198

OCTAVULLIX (Islay). G. ochdamli-a-mliuilinn, 'the eighth
(cf. L. octaous) belonging to the mill.' On land
measurement, see p. Ivii.

ODAIRX, L. (Lewis). ? G. odha-carrann, 'the grandchild's
division' or 'share.' Cf. MORVERX.

OGILVIEGLEX (Forfar). c. 1205, Ogilvin. First sy 11. prob. AV.
uchel, high, and the second, G. Wieinn, a hill. Cf. OCHIL.

OGLE GLEX (Killin). = OCIIIL, and so Brythonic.
OLD ABERDEEX. Eight places called Old in England.

OLUHAMSTOCKS (Cockhurnspath). 1250, Aldhamstok ; 1567,,
Auldhaniesokkes. O.E. aid hum stoc(c), ' old home
stock ' or ' stump ' or ' block ' (cf. Dan. stok, Icel. stokk-r,
a block, cognate with stack and stick, and cf. the ' stocks '
on which a ship rests). The second syllable of Knock-
stocks, Galloway, must have the same origin.

OLD MAX OP HOY (Orkney). A striking high rock there.

OLLABERRY (N. of Lerwick). Saga, Olafsberg, i.e., ' King
Olaf's burgh' (see BORGUE, and cf. TURXBERRY). St Olaf
or King Olaf the Holy was King of Norway, 1015-30.

OLXAFIRTII (Shetland). FIRTH or ' bay like the forearm ; '
Icel. alin or oln, Sw. aln, = the Eng. ell. Cf. Olncy.

OLRIG (Thurso). c. 1230, Olricli ; 1587, -rik. Prob. 'alder-
ridge;' O.X. ulr, an alder; possibly fr. X. ale, old.
On rig, see BISHOPBRIGGS.

OMOA (Holy town). Presumably called after the, port of

Omoa in Honduras.
OXICH (Ballachulish). Said to be G. ochanaich, ' wailing

for the dead,' because the boats started from here for the,

island burial-places.

OxWEATHER HlLL (Twceddalc).

ORAX- or OROXSAY (Colonsay, TV. Skye, Bracadale, L.
Sunart, Coll, and Lewis). ' St Oraii's isle'(0.iS r . ay,
e>/, a) or ' isthmus ' (G. aol, see COLONSAY). Oran or
Odhran was an Irish friend of St Columba, died 548.

ORCHARD (Hamilton). 1368, 'Terrae do Pomario,' i.e.,
'lands of Orchard ;' fr. O.E. ortyeard, wyrtgeard, 'wort-
yard ' or 'garden.'



194 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

ORD (Caithness) and Mum OF ORD (Beauly). G. ord, ' a steep,
rounded height.' Thus Ordhead, Tillyfourie, is a tautology.

ORDIQUHILL (Banff). Local pron. Ordiftill. G. brd-a-bhuill,
'height in the plot of ground' (ball). Quis = w; cf.
LATIIEROXWIIEEL.

ORKNEY. Strabo, bk. ii., fr. Pytheas, c. B.C. 330, 'OpKas
(prob. earliest Sc. name on record). 45 A.D., Pompo-
nius Mela, Orcades ; c. 970, Pict. C/iron., Orkaneya ; <\
1295, Orkenneye; 1375, Orkenay ; 1420, Orkney; also
1115, ' jarl i Orkneyium.' ' Whale isles ;' Gk. opv, -vyo9,
L. orca, X. ore, a whale. On G. ore = L. porciis, a pig,
see p. xxvi. Ay, ey, a is O.X. for 'island.'

ORLOGE KNOWE (Wigtown). O.Fr. Iwrloye, L. horologium, a
sundial or water-clock. See KNOWE.

ORMIDALE (L. Riddon). 'Orme's valley;' X. dal.

ORMISTON (Tranent) and GLENORMISTON (R. Tweed). Tran. 0.,
.sz'c 1293; c. 1160, Ormystone. 'Orme's dwelling' or
'village;' O.E. ton, tun. Cf. Ormesby, Ormskirk, and
Great Orme's Head.

ORMSARY (Ardrishaig). ? 'Orme's shieling' or ' hut;' G. airidli.
Cf. GLASSARY.

ORPHIR (Kirkwall). c. 1225, Orkney. Say., Jorfiara ; but
other Saf/as, Orfiara ; c. 1 500, Orphair. Orjiris -ey, or
-a is the X. name for an island joined at low water with
the mainland.

DRR or ORE WATER (Leven). Peril. Ptolemy's town, Orrea.
G. odhar (pron. owr), grey, or air, a corner, edge.

ORTON (Fochabers). 'At the border' or 'edge of the hill ;'
G. oir duin. See ton, p. Ixxv.

(JRWELL (Kinross). 1330, Urwell. Perh. ' village (G. &(7t)atf)
by the water.' See URR, and cf. FARNELL.

OSPISDALE (Dornoch). Prob. 1384, Hospostyl ; 1583,
Obstuill. Prob. ' valley (X. dal] of the hospice ' or ' inn ;'
Fr. hospice, L. liospitium. Cf. DALXASPIDAL.

OSTAIG (Sleat). O.X. = ' east bay ; ' cf. Icel. aunt, O.K east,
the east.

OTTER FERRY (L. Fyne). Cf. Otterburn.

OTTEUSTON (Aberdour, Fife). Old, Otherston. Other was
a Saxon settler. See ton, p. Ixx.



PLACE-XAMES OF SCOTLAND. 195

OUTOX. ' Out-ton ' or ' hamlet,' outside the town of "Whithorn.

OVERTOX, -TOWN (Dumbarton, "NVisliaw, New Abbey).
' Upper village.' Six in England.

OXGANG (Grangemouth and Kirkintilloch). Prob. named
fr. a grant of land to a church or abbey of as much
land as an ox could plough or ' gang ' over in a day.
Sc. ganrj is ' to go.'

OXXAM (Jedburgh). c. 1150, Oxeneham ; 1177, Oxeham ;
c. 1360, Oxinghame. 'Home of the oxen;' O.E.
oxena-hdm. = Oxenholme, near Ivendal.

OXTOX (Lander). O.E. oxa, Icel. ox!, Dan. and Sw. uxe,
an ox cf. above. Three in England.

OYKELL, K. (Sutherland). 13G5, Okel; 1490, Ochell; 1515,
Akkell. Though this is a very un-Brythonic region,
perh. = OCHIL, fr. "NV. uchel, high. This is the Ekkials-
bakki or 'coast' or 'border of the river Oykell,' in the
Flateyjat'bok, c. 1390; but Dr Jos. Anderson thinks
Ekkialsbakki in Orkney. Say., Ixviii., is for Atjokls-
bakki, i.e., ' coast nearest ATIIOLE.'

OYXE (Insch). a. 1300, Ovyn. Prob. a form of G. abhuinn,
a river. Cf. ABOYXE.

P

PABAY (off P>arra). O.X. pap-ay, 'priest's isle,' = PAPA.
P and 1) often interchange, see p. xxvi.

PADAXARAM (Forfar). Fancy name, meaning Padan in


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