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Syria. See Genesis, xlviii. 7.

PAISLEY. 1157, Passeleth : 1158, Paisleth ; c. 1550, Passele.
Prob. ' at the front of the slope,' which suits the site of
the old town, fr. G. bathais (tit, mute, and with the
Erythonic p for I), brow, front, and Ivathad, a slope,
declivity. Cf. Howpasley, Koberton, Roxburgh.

PALDY'S WELL (Fordoun). Fr. Palla<liu*, missionary from
Kome, said to have been here c. 430 A.D.

PALIXKUM (Kirkmaiden). I'l-ob. Brythonic, poll l/jnn earn,
'stream with crooked pools.'

PALXACKIE (Dalbeattie). Prob. G. poll an acliaidh, 'stream
in the field.'



196 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

PALNURE (Xewton Stewart). Old, Polncwyir. G. and Ir.
poll n'iubhar, 'stream of the yews.' Cf. Xewry.

PANBRIDE (Arbroath). c. 1200, Pannebrid; 1485, Panbrid.
Ban or pan is a G. prefix = ' female,' ' she-.' Bride is St
Bridget ; see KILBRIDE.

PANMURE (Forfar). 1286, Pannemore. Prob. G. ban, baine,
white, light in colour, waste, + O.E. and Icel. mur, Sc.
muir, a moor, almost a G. word.

PAPA, LITTLE, and STOUR (Shetland), PAPA STROXSAY and
WESTRAY (Orkney). Saga, Papey litla ; 1229, Papey
stora ; c. 1 225, Orkney. Sat/., Papey ( = P. Westray). 0. X.
pap-eij is ' priest's isle,' strictly that of a monk from lona. 1
Pap is same root as pope and papa. Litill, litla is O.X.
or Icel. for 'little ;' stor (pron. stour), stora is O.X. for
' great ; ' WESTRAY means ' western isle ; ' and cf.
STEONSAY.

PAPILL (Unst and Yell) and PAPLAY (Mainland and S.
Eonaldshay, Orkney). PapL, c. 1225, Orkney. Sag.,
Papuley, Papuli ; 1369, Pappley ; 1506, Pappale.
'Island of the papulusj i.e., little 'pope' or priest.
C/. above, and the Papyli of Iceland.

PAPS OP JURA. Hills so called fr. their shape.

PARDOVAN (Linlithgow). Pron. -duvan ; a. 1150, Pardufin.
G. barr dubliain, ' height like a hook or claw.'

PARENWELL (Kinross). Well of the saint called in W.
Piran, and in Corn. Peran ; but in Ir. Kieran, of Clon-
macnois, 6th century. Cf. KILKERRAN, and Peranwell
and Peranzabuloe ( = in sabulis), Cornwall.

PARK (Banchory, Old Luce, Lewis, &c.). G. pairc, W.
parwg, O.E. pear-rue, an enclosed field, park.

PARKFOOT (Falkirk, &c.), PARKGATE (Dumfries ; three in
England), PARK HE AD (Glasgow), PARKIIILL (E. Koss
and Dyce).

PARTICK (Glasgow). 1136, Perdyec ; 1 1 58, Pertheck ; 1483,
Perthic. A difficult name ; peril. G. barr dim uiye,

1 Cf. 'Sanctus Patricius, papa noster,' in letter of Cummian, 634



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 19v

'height of the dark nook' or 'cave,' but this does not
seem very apposite. Possibly aper dim ec, Celtic for
' at the confluence ' or ' mouth of the dark water ' (see
PERTH, ECK, ECKFORD) ; Kelvin and Clyde join here.
Gf. p. xxix.

PARTOX (Castle-Douglas). G.iwrtan, ' little port' or ' harbour.'
Cf. Parton, AYhitehaven ; and Parteen, several in Ire-
land.

PATHSTRUIE (Forgandenny). 1 G. loth sruthain, ' house on
the little stream ' (cf. BATHGATE and STRUAX). Possibly
fr. G. poit, and so ' cauldron, pool on the little stream.'

PATXA (R. Doon). Presumably after Patna on the Ganges.

PAXTOX (Berwick). 1 ' Place ' or ' village of the packs ;' Dan.
pak, pakke, G. and Ir. pac, a pack or bundle.

PEAT Ixx (Ceres) and PEAT HASS (Carsphairn). Our Eng.
word peat is not, as some dictionaries say, the same as
the Eng., especially Devonshire, beat, 'the rough sod of
the moorland.' Hass means 'gap, opening,' prob. same
as M.E. halse, Icel. and Dan. hdls, the neck ; and as
haicse, the hole in a ship's bow.

PEEBLES. 1116, Pobles ; 1126, Pebles. AV. paleU, plural
pelyU, a tent. The s is the Eng. plural.

PEFFER, R. (E. Ross-sh.), and PEFFER BURN (Duddingston).
Ross. P., 1528, Paferay. Dr Skene says, corruption of
G. aifrenn, 'offerer.' See IXCHAFFRAY.

PEXCAITLAXD (Haddington). a. 1150, Pencatlet ; 1250, -kat-
land. 'Land of the hill (W. pen) of Cat' or 'Che.'
See IXCIIKEITH, KEITH.

PENDRICH (Tweeddale and Perthsh.). 'Hill of the view'
("YT. drych, a spectacle), or peril, 'of the meteor' (G.
drear/, drciije). Pen is the AV. or Brythonic form of
the G. leinn. Cf. PITTEXDRIECH.

PEXICUIK (Midlothian). 1250, Penicok ; 129G, -ycoke. W.

pen-y-cog, ' hill of the cuckoo.'
PEXXAX (Fraserburgh). Sic 1654. Prob. = G. l>einnan, 'a

little hill ' (cf. BIXXY). The only Pen- north of Perth.

PEXXILEE (Paisley). Quite possibly ' penny-lea ' or ' meadow ; '
on the old land measures, see p. Ivii. If Celtic, perh.
pen na lithe, ' hill of the spate.'

T



198 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

PEXXINGHAME (Newton Stewart). 1576, Pennegem. O.E.
peneg ham, 'penny holding' or 'land;' O.E. also has
the form penning. The penny was a frequent land
measure in the west of Scotland ; cf., too, Merkland,
Dunscore, and Poundland in Parton ; also Pennington,
Ulverston. In the south-west of Scotland are also
Pennymuir and Pennytown.

PENNYGANT (Tweeddale). Prob. "VV. pen y <jan, ' hill of the
thrush;' also in Yorkshire. Cf. PENICUIK.

PENNYGHAEL (Argyle) and PENNYGOWN (Mull). Here penny
is the diminutive of W. pen, or G. beinnan, ' little hill '
'of the Gael,' and 'of the smith;' G. f/obhann. Cf.
PENXAN and BINXY; also 'Pennyfurt' (sic 159G), in Lorn.

PENPONT (Thornhill). Pron. -punt ; W. pen y pont, ' hill of
the bridge,' L. ports, -Us. Cf. ' Ivinpunt,' Eoxburgh, sic
in 1316.

PENTLAND FIRTH and PENTLAND HILLS. P. Hills, sic 1250;
but a. 1150, Pentlant ; Sayas, Petlands fjord (they
tell that the Norsemen learnt this name from the natives);
1403, Mare Petlandicum. Generally thought to be a
corruption of ' Picts' or Pehts' land.' Land is so spelt
in Icel., Dan., and O.E.

PENVENNA (Tweeddale). ? W. pen banau or ban, ' hill with

the peak ' or ' beacon.'
PERCEBIE (Dumfries), PERCETOX (Ayr). ' Percy's dwelling '

or 'village;' northern O.E. and Dan. bi, by. Cf.

p. Ixiii.

PERCLEWAN (Dalrymple). Prob. G. pairc Icamlian, 'park
with the elms.' Cf. BLALOWAN.

PERSIE (Blairgowrie). G. pearsa, a person, 'a parson.' The
-ie may represent G. achadh, a field (cf. Persebus, Mull,
' priest's place ' or ' farm '). On bus, see p. Ixiv.

PERTH. Sic a. 1150; c. 1178, Pert; 1220, 'St Johnstoun
or Perth;' 1527, Boece, Bertha, which shows Boece
thought the name was the G. barr Tha, 'height over
the Tay,' i.e., Kinnoull Hill. Possibly it means 'at the
confluence of the TAY, with. the Almond or Earn.' Abcr
could easily become per. See p. xxix, and cf. ' Ber-
geveny ' (sic 1291) for Abergaveny, and PARTICK.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 199

PETERCULTER. Perh. corruption of pette cul tire, 'plot at the
back of the land.' See PETTY and COULTER ; but cf.
MARYCULTER.

PETERHEAD. Old charter, Petri promontorium ; 1654, R.
Gordon, ' Oppidulum Peter-head.'

PETTICUR (Kinghorn). Old G. pette cuir, 'bit of land at the
bend ' or ' turn. ' (car). See PETTY.

PETTIXAIN (Carstairs), c. 1150, Pedynnane ; c. 1180,
Padiniian, -uenane ; c. 1580, Pettynane. Prob. G. pette
n'en, ' bit of land with the birds,' en (pron. ain), a bird.

PETTY (Fort George). Cf. a. 1000, 13k. Deer, ' Pette mac
Garnait,' i.e., homestead of Garnait's son. Pette, also
found in names as Pedy, pett, peth, pith, put, is Pictish,
meaning 'bit of land,' then 'hamlet;' in G., i.e., the
dialect of the Dalriad Scots, which afterwards became
the universal speech, often rendered by laile. Cf.

PlTLOCHRY, &C.

PHILIPSTOUN (Linlithgow). Sic 1720.

PHILORTH (Buchan). tiic 1361 ; but a. 1300, Fylorthe.

Perh. G. feille glwrt, ' market-field,' <jli quiescent. G.

feill is a feast, fair, market, holiday.
PHYSGILL (Glasserton). Old, Fishcegil. Dan. fisk <jil, ' fish

gill ; ' cf. O.E. fisc, and AUCHINGILL.
PIEROWAAL or -WALL (Westray). Hardly 'the pier on the

bay ; ' O.F. piere, Mod. Fr. pierre, L. and Gk. petra, a

stone. On O.N. vag-r, a bay, here wall, see KIRKWALL.

Perh. 'Peter's bay;' but prob. 'little bay,' Sc. pewie.,

little, a word oommon in the Orkneys ; cf. ' The Peerie

Sea,' Kirkwall.
PILRIG (Leith) and PILTOX (Granton). "VV. pill, a moated

fort, a ' peel ; ' cf. Pihnore, St Andrews ; and see RIGG.
PINKIE, or -KEY (Musselburgh). Perh. cognate Avitli Old Sc.

I rink, l>inkie, a ' bank ' of earth.

PINMORE (S. Ayr). Brythonic form of G.leinn mbr, 'big-
hill.' The most northerly Pin- is Pinvally ( = l>einn

Wiaile), near Cumnock.
PINWHERRIE, -iRiiiE (S. Ayr). Prob. ' hill of the copse ; '

G. flioithre (pron. whirry), and see above.
PIRN MILL (~\V. Arran). Pirn is Sc. for a reel or bobbin.

Cf. Pirnhill, Innerleithen.



200 PLACE-XAMES OF SCOTLAND.

PITALPIN (Dundee). 'Land of King Kenneth MacAlpin,'

c. 850. See PETTY.
PITCAIRX and PITCAIRXGREEX (Perth). 1247, Peticarne.

Old G. pette cairn, ' field of the cairn ' or ' barrow.'
PITCAPLE (Aberdeen). ' Field of the mare ' (G. capuill ;

cf. KINCAPLE), or ' of the chapel ' (G. caibeil).
PITCORTHY (Carnbee). a. 1150, Petcorthyn; c. 1195, Peth-

corthing, Pitcortyne. Prob. ' field of the stingy fellow,

miser ; ' G. gortan, -ain.
PITCULLO (Fife). Sic 1517. Prob. 'field of Cullo;' the*

surname Kello is still found. Cf. Edenticullo, Ireland,

= ' slope of the house of Collo ; ' Ir. Ugh Colla.
PITFODDLBS (Forfar). 1525, Petfothellis. 'Field of the*

foundling or waif ; ' G. faodail, with Eng. plural s.
PITFOUR (Avoch). c. 1340, Pethfouyr. 'Cold field' or

'hamlet.' G. fuar, cold; = BALFOUR.
PITGAVENY (Elgin). Some think = a. 1100, Bothnguanan ;

1187, -gouane ; 1251, Bothgauenan, i.e., G. loth na

gobhainn, ' house of the smith ; ' but there seems no

other case of pit (cf. PETTY) being rendered by G. both.

Dr M'Lauchlan says, Bothnguanan is Boath, near Forrey,

and that the final syllables of a name often drop ; cf.

INVER. In any case the meaning is almost the same.
PITILIE (Aberfeldy). Pron. -eelie ; G. pit-a-dhile, 'hollow

of the water.' Cf. Cnocadile, Duncansbay.
PITKEATHLY, -CAiTHLY (Bridge of Earn). Prob. ' field of the

seeds ' or ' chaff ; ' G. caithlich.
PITKELLONY (Muthill). ?' Field of the multitude;' G.

coilinne, fr. coimh-lion, or ' of the truant, poltroon,' G.

coilleannich.
PITLESSIE (Ladybank). 'Bit of land with the garden;' G.

lios, -ise.
PITLOCHRY. In G. Bailechlochrie, ch quiescent ; either

'hamlet,' 'field of the assembly ' or 'convent' (G.

chlochar, -air), or ' of the stepping-stones ' (G. clochran,

-ain).
PITLOUR (Kinross). ' Village of the lepers ; ' G. lobhar.

Of., c. 1190, ' Petenlouer,' in Aberdeen.
PITLURG. ' Field on the slope' or 'little hill;' G. learg, -eirg.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 201

PITMEDDEN (Dyce). ' Middle, centre bit of land ; ' G.
meadhon, the middle.

PITMILLY (Grail). 1211, Putmullin. ' Land, hamlet of the
mill ; ' G. muileann, -inn.

PITRODIE (Errol). ' Land, hamlet by the wayside, or road ;'
G. rod, raid.

PITSCOTTIE (Cupar). ' Land of the small farm ' or ' flock ; '
G. sgotan, -ain.

PITSLIGO (Fraserburgh). Sic 1467. 'Shelly land;' G. and
Ir. slifjeach. Of. Sligo.

PITTEDIE (Kirkcaldy). ' Bit of land on the slope ' or ' hill-
face ; ' G. aodann, -ainn, W. eiddyn. But Killeedy,
Limerick, is fr. Ite or Ide, famous Irish virgin and
saint, c. 500 A.D.

PITTENDREICH (Denino). Of. a ' Petyndreih,' 1140, in
Chart. Neivbattte. Perh. Old G. pette na drioga, ' field
of the drop ' or ' tear ' (but see PENDRICH). Mr W. J.
Liddell says, 'land covered with heather;' G. fraoch,
fraoich.

PITTENWEEM (Anstruther). a. 1150, Petnaweem; 1528,
Pittenwemyss. ' Land, hamlet with the caves ; ' G.
uamh. Of. WEMYSS.

PLADDA (Arran). 1549, Flada; 1609, Pladow. Dan.flad-a,
' flat isle ' (cf. Icel. flat-r, and Sw. flat, flat ; also cf.
Fladda, Treshnish Isles, and Fladay, Barra).

PLAIDY (Turriff). Perh. G. plaid, -de, an ambush ; also cf.
DRUMBLADE.

PLAINS (Airdrie).

PLANTATION (Govan). In 1783, ' Craigiehall ' Avas purchased
by a John Robertson, who had made his money in the
West Indian plantations.

PLASCOW (Kirkgunzeon). Prob. W. plas cu, ' dear place.'
Cf. GLASGOW, LINLITHGOW.

PLEAN (Bannockburn). 1745, Plen, and so pron. still. ? G.
blian, 'the flank, groin, or as an adjective, 'lean,
starved.'

PLEWLANDS (Edinburgh and Peeblessh.). Edin. P., sic 1528.



202 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

' Ploughed lands ; ' plough, Dan. ploug, is pron. in Sc.
pleu, or pleugli, with gh guttural.

PLOCKTON (Strome Ferry). G. ploc, a large clod or turf, a
' block,' + Eng. -ton; but see p. Ixxv.

PLORA (Peeblessh.). Prob. G. blorach, noisy, fr. blor, a loud

noise.
PLUCKERSTON (Kirriemuir). Old, Locarstoun, i.e., ' Lockhart's

hamlet.' Cf. for the p, PEFFER.

PLUSCARDEN (Elgin). 1461, Pluscarty ; 1639, -cardy. Prob.
' place of the smith(s) ; ' "VV. plas, not in G., and G.
ccard, gen. ceirde, plural ceardan.

POCKBIE (?Berwicksh.). ?Fr. Sc. poke, Icel. polri, a bag,
sack, + northern O.E. and Dan. li, by, house, village.

POLES, The (Dornoch).

POLKEBUCK BURN (Muirkirk). G. poll cabaig, ' pool like a
cheese,' Sc. Icebbuck. Pool is in G., Ir., and Corn, poll,
in W. picll, Armor, poull, and these words may mean
either running or stagnant water, either ' stream ' or
'pool.'

POLKEMMET (Bathgate). See above. Kemmet is prob. G.
cam cdh, 'crooked ford ' or 'fordable river;' cf. IYENNET.
The river Almond meanders through this estate.

POLLOKSHAWS and POLLOKSHIELDS (Glasgow). 1158,
Pullock, Pollock, prob. = G. poll achaidli, 'pool in the
field.' In Malcolm IV. 's reign, Peter, son of Fulbert,
took the local surname of Polloc, and gave to Paisley
Abbey the church of Polloc. See SHAW, and for
-shields, i.e., ' shielings,' see GALASHIELS.

POLMADIE (Glasgow) and POLMADIE HILL (Barr). ' Pool ' or
' water of the wolf ' or ' dog ; ' G. madadh. Cf. Pul-
maddy Burn, Carsphairn ; but Polmood, Peebles, is fr.
Celtic mod, a gathering, court, fold.

POLMAISE (Stirling). Sic 1309 ; but 1147, Pollemase. Perh.

'beautiful water;' G. maiseach.
POLMOXT (Falkirk). Local pron. Powmon. 'Pool on the

moor ; ' G. moine.

POLNASKY BURN (Mochrum). 'Water of the eels;' G.
rfeasyann.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 203

POLSHAG BURN (Carspliairn). Peril. ' water of the hawks : '
G. aeobhac (pron. shock).

POLTOX (Lasswade). ' Hamlet on the water,' the river Esk.

Cf. LlXTOX.

POLWARTH (Duns). 1 250, Poulwrd ; 1299, Powelsworthe.

' Place on the water ; ' on M.E. icord, 'worth, a place, cf.

JKDBURGII.
POMATHORN (Peiiicuik).

POMOXA, or MAIXLAXD (Orkney), c, 1380, Fordun, Insulae
Pomonia3 ; 1529, Pomonia. Said to be fr. L. poinum, an
apple, because ' Mainland ' is, as it were, in the middle of
the apple, between the north and south isles. This is
dubious. The L. Pomona was goddess of fruit-trees,
and so not very appropriate for Orkney.

POXFEIGH (Lanark). Prob. G. ~bonn fiaidh or fiaiyh, ' low
place with the deer' (cf. BOXSKIED, &c.). But Bally na-
feigh and Rathfeigh are fr. Ir. faitche, G. faicJte, a level
green plot, a field.

POOLEWE (L. Ewe). See POLKEBUCK and EWE.

PORT BAXXATYXE (Rothesay). 'Mnian Bannachtyne,' of
Kames, granted lands here to his son Robert in 1475.

PORT CHARLOTTE (Argyle), ELLEX (Islay), ELPHIXSTOXE

(Inverurie), ivc.
PORTEHTCALZIE (Wigtown). 01<7, Portincailly. G. port nn

eaitticlie, 'nun's harbour.'
PORTEXCROSS or -XACROis (Ardrossan). G. = 'harljour of the

cross ; ' G. crois. Cf. Portnacroish, Appin.

I'ORTESSIE (Buckie). ' Harbour with the waterfall ; ' G. cos,

easan.
PORT-GLASGOW. Site feued here by the Glasgow Town

Council in 1G68.
PORTIXCAPLE (L. Long). 'Harbour of the chapel;' G.

cailieal, and cf. PITCAPLE.

PORTKXOCKIE (Culleii). 'Harbour by the little hill;' G.c.nocan.
PORTLETIIEX (Kincardine). Prob. G. port leathern, 'broad

harbour ; ' also cf. IXXERLEITHEX.

PORTMAHOMACK (Tain), a. 1700, I'ortus Columbi. G. port
machalmac or Mocholmoy, ' harbour of my own little



204 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

Column,' champion of the Celtic Church at the great
"VVhitby Conference, 664. See p. xcv, and cf. Kilma-
chalmag, Kincardine. The 1700 assertion, 'harbour of
St Columba/ is possibly correct ; see p. xcii.

PORTNAGURAN (Stornoway). ' Harbour of the brood of birds '
(G. gur\ or ' of the goats ' (G. gobhar).

PORTXAHAVEX (Islay). Pron. -nahdvvn ; not a tautology, but
G. port na h'abhmnn, 'harbour on the water.' Cf.
AVON.

PORTOBELLO. Portobello Hut was built in 1742 by an old
Scotch sailor, who had served under Admiral Vernon, to
commemorate his victory at Portobello, Darien, in
1739.

PORTPATRICK ("Wigtown). Fr. the famous St Patrick, 5th
century ; Ir. Padric, G. Padrutg, L. Patricius.

PORTREE (Skye and Portpatrick). ' Harbour of the king,'
G. port righe ; so called from James V.'s visit here. Cf.
Port-an-righ, Saddel, and Inchree, Onich.

PORTSOY (Banff). 1 ' Harbour of the warrior ' (G. saoi, saoidh),
or ' of the bitch ' (G. saigh, -he).

PORTYERROCK (Wigtown). Old, Portcarryk. ' Harbour of the
sea-cliff;' G. carraig (cf. CARRICK). The ?/ sound is
the result of the aspiration of the c. Dr Skene thinks
this is the Beruvik of Xial's Saga.

POSSIL (Glasgow). 1787, -el. Perh. 'the front' or 'face of
the wood ; ' G. pais (lathais) chnill, fr. coill, a wood.
See PAISLEY, and cf. I)ARVEL.

POTTERHILL (Paisley).

POWBURX (Edinburgh). Poiv is Sc. for a sluggish stream ;
W. pwl, G. poll, see POLKEBUCK. Cf. Pow, New
Abbey, Powmill, Plean ; also ' Pomon ' and ' Pomaise,'
local pron. of POLMONT and POLMAISE. Powburn is
thus a tautology.

POYXTZFIELD (Invergordon). Fr. a man.

PREMNAY (Insch). 1 ' Tree in the plain ' (cf. KEMNAY), fr.
W. }>ren, a tree, a word common in Ir. names as era//,
e.g., C ran cam, &c. On G. inayh, plain, = may, cf.
CAMBUS o' MAY.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 205

PRESHOME (Buckle). Prob. ' priest's home ' or 'house;' O.E.
predst-kdm; cf. christen, pron. chrissen.

PRESTON (Dumfries and Colvend). ' Priest's abode ' (cf.
above, and Prescot). Fifteen in England. See ton,
p. Ixxiv.

PRESTOXGRAXGE (Prestonpans). c. 1240, Grangia de Preston.
See above, and ABBOTSGRAXGE.

PRESTOXKIRK (lladdington).

PBESTONPANS (Musselburgh). 1625, Prestounepannis. Salt-
pans erected here by the monks fr. ?Aberlady.

PRESTWICK (Ayr). /cll58; 1160, ' Prcstwick usque Pul-
prestwick ' (put is \\ r . picl, pool, water); c. 1230,
Prestvick ; 1265, -wick. Either 'priest's dwelling' or
'village' (O.E. icic ; cf. BERWICK), or 'priest's bay'
(X. r//r).

PRIXLAWS (Leslie). Prob. AV. pren, a tree, + Sc. Jan;
O.E. lildew, a hill. Cf. BARXBOGLE.

PROSEX (see GLEXPKOSEX) and PULMAUDY (see POLMADIE).

PULCAIGRIE BURX (Ivells). ' A\'ater of the boundary ' (G.
coigriclie) ; and see POLKEBUCK.

PULIIAY BURX (Carsphairn). 'Water of the swamp;' G.
cliaeilhe (pron. have).

PULTEXEYTOWX (AVick). Founded in 1808 by the British
Fisheries Society.

PUMPHERSTOX (Midcaldcr). Puinplier seems an unknown
name.

PYATKXOWE (Biggar). Sc. = 'magpie's hill;' see KXOWE.
P'/at is the Eng. i_de, Fr. pia, L. pica, with the
diminutive -at or -et.

Q

QUAIR WATER (Peel)lessh.). 1116, Quyrd ; 1174, Cuer ;
1184, Queyr. Corn, quirt, later yicm' ; W. <j/n'i/<J,
green. Cf. ' The green, green grass o' Traquair kirk-
yard;' and cf. TRAQUAIR.

QUAXTERXESS (Ivirkwall). Fr. Icel. Kantari, i.e., 'Canter-



206 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

bury,' and meaning 'bishop.' It enters as an element
into a good many Scandinavian names. See KESS.

QUARFF (Shetland). Icel. Jivarf, O.Sw. liwarf, a turning,
a shelter. Cf. Cape WRATH, and the Wharfe, Yorkshire.

QUARRYWOOD (Elgin).

QUARTER (Hamilton and Galloway), WEST QUARTER (Fal-
kirk).

QUEEXSBERRY HILL (Drumlanrig). Prob. a corruption of
some Celtic word. But cf. TURNBERRY.

QUEENSFERRY, 1ST. and S. (Frith of Forth), e. 1295, Quene-
ferie ; 1461, Quenis Fery. So called because Princess
Margaret of England, afterwards wife of Malcolm
Canmore (1057-93), crossed here.

QUENDALE BAY (Sumburgh). Icel. Jcvan, a wife, Dan. qvinde,
a woman, O.E. civen, Sc. quean, a woman, + N., &c.,
da!, a dale, valley.

QUIEN, L. (Bute). ? Old G. cuinne, a corner, angle, meet-
ing.

QUINAG (mountain, Sutherland). Either G. cuinneafj, ' a
churn, milk-pail, 'fr. its supposed shape; or fr. G. caoinay,
diminutive fr. G. caoin, beautiful ; cf. Coshquin, Derry.

Quivox, St (Ayr). Fr. St Kevoca, holy virgin in Kyle, <.
1030; or peril, from the Ir. St Caemhan, in its pet form
(p. xcv) Mochaemhoc (pron. Mokevoc) ; also called
Pulcherius.

QUOICH, R. (Braemar). So called because the stream-bed is
full of circular holes ; G. cuach, a cup, ' quaich.'

QUOTHQUHAN (Biggar). It is a round hill. 1253, Cuthquen;
1403, Quodquen. Difficult; first syllable looks like W.
civt, roundness. Possibly ' woman's hut,' fr. W. cut, a
hovel, shed, + O.E. cwen, Sc. quean, a woman ; but
this is very doubtful.

QUOYLOO (Stromness). A quoy is an enclosure with turf or
stones, a fence. In the earliest Orkney rentals ' quoy-
land ' is very common ; also such names as ' Quoybew-
mont,' near Kirkwall, 'Gloupquoy,' Deerness, &c. Loo
is Dan. him, Icel. lilie, the same as O.E. Jilco, lihow,
' shelter ; ' cf. LEE.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 207



E

RAASAY (Skye). Saga, Hrauneyjar ; 1263, Raasa ; 1501.
Rasay. Peril. G. ras, a shrub, + K". ay, ey, a, an island.

RACHAN MILL (Biggar). G. mean, arable land.

RACKWICK ("Westray and Hoy). c. 1225, Orkney Sar/.,
Rekavik. Prob. 'bay full of wrack,' i.e., cast-up sea-
weed, fr. O.X. vile, a bay, and Icel. rek or vrek, Sw.
irrak ; same root as wreck. :

RAFFORD (Forrcs). Prob. G. rath, rampart, fort, +Eng. ford
(cf. Radford, Galway), which is in Ir. Ath-a-ratha, 'ford
of the fort.' Cf. ALFORD.

RAIIANE (Gareloch). Prob. G. rathain (prou. rahan), ' ferny
place.' Cf. Rahan, Rahin, Ireland.

RAIT (Errol). G. rath, a fort, rampart. Cf. LOGIERAIT.

RAITII (Kirkcaldy). c. 1320, Rathe ; as above. Cf. Raithby,
England, and O.Ir. rait/i, fern, bracken.

RAMORXIE (Cupar). 1439, Ramorgney. Possibly G. rath
mor gainimh, 'big rampart of sand' or 'gravel.'

RAMSEY (Whithorn). O.K. rammes i<je, 'ram's isle;' so Sir
II. Maxwell. Cf. Portramsay, Lismore.

RAXKEILLOR (Cupar). r. 1530, Rankilor. 'The part' or
'division (G. rann) on the river Keilor.' See IXVER-

KEILOR.

RAXXOCH (Perthshire). G. raineach, fern, bracken.

RAXZA, L. (Arran). 1433, Lochransay ; 1549, -renasay.
O.X. Rans-ay, ' isle of Ran,' giant goddess, queen of
the sea.

RARICIIIE (Fearn). 1333, Rarechys ; 1550, -echy. Prob.
G. riaracliax, or -wilt, distribution, a share.

RARXISII (Lewis). Nish is the X. nest*, promontory. Perh.
rar is cognate with O.K. rdrian, to roar, from the noise
of the sea ; but it is also spelt Ranish. Cf. RAXZA.

(Denny). G. rasaclidnnm, 'hill-ridge covered
with shrubs.' Cf. DRU.M.



208 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

RATHELPIE (St Andrews). 1183, Kathelpin. Tort (G. rath)
of King Alpin.' Cf. PITALPIX.

RATHEX (Lonmay). a. 1300, Rathyn. Prob. G. rathain,
'ferny place,' O.Ir. raith, fern. Cf. RAHANE.

RATHILLET (Fife). a. 1200, Radhulit. Prob. G. rad-a-
h'ulaidh, ' road of the treasure ' (or fr. rath, a fort).

Cf. MOUNTHOOLT.

RATHMURIEL (Garioch). 'Muriel's fort.'

RATHO (S. Queensferry). 1250, Ratheu; 1292, Radchou ;
1293, Rathou ; 1316, -oe. G. rath, a fort ; second syllable
doubtful. Cf. STOBO.

RATHVEX (Buckie). G. rath llieinn, ' fort on the hill.'

RATTRA (Borgue) and RATTRAY (Blairgowrie). Perh. 'fort-
town,' fr. ire, tra, trev, Corn, and W. for ' town ' or
'house.' Sir H. Maxwell thinks that the former is fr.
G. rath toruidlie (pron. tory), ' fort of the hunter ' or ' out-
law.' Dr Jos. Anderson thinks Rattar Brough, Caithness,
is the Rauda Biorg, or ' red headland,' of the Sagas.

RAVELRIG (Midcalder). Ravel is prob. a man's name ; cf.
Ravelston. On rig, see BISHOPBRIGGS.

RAVEXSTRUTHER (Carstairs). Perh. G. rabhachan sruith-ard,
'beacon on the height by the river ;' G. rabhachan, a
beacon, warning ; cf. AXSTRUTHER.

RAWYARDS (Coatbridge). Prob. corruption of G. rath airde,
'fort on the height.' Cf. BARXYARD, MA we ARSE, and
Benraw, Ireland, = beinn rath, 'hill of the fort.'

RAYXE (Garioch). a. 1300, Rane. G. rann, rainn, a part,
division.

REAWICK (Shetland). ? 'Bay (Icel. vik) with the reef or
rocks;' Icel. rif, Dan. and Sw. rev.

REAY (N. Sutherland), c. 1230, Ra ; c. 1565, Hay. G.
reidh (pron. ray), ' smooth, level,' or ' a plain.'

REDCASTLE (Dingwall and Arbroath). Ding. R., 1455, -castell.

REDDIXG and REDDIXGMUIRIIEAD (Polmont). Prob., like
Reading, Berks, called after some man.

REDGORTOX (Perth). G. ruadh gort, 'reddish field,' + Eng.
-ton, see pp. Ixxiv, Ixxv.



PLACE-XAMES OF SCOTLAND. 209

REISS (Wick). Prob. G. riasg, rt'isg, moorland, morass. Cf.
Kisk, Minigatf.

RELUGAS (Dunphail). Old, Rclucos. Locally interpreted,
' shieling of the throat,' referring to ' Randolph's
Leap/ a narrow passage of the river Findhorn here.
Perh. G. ruith luaitli gais, ' flowing (stream) of the swift


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