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Place-names of Scotland online

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SLEWCREEN (Kirkmaiden). G. sliabh crion, ( withered heath '
or 'moor.'

SLEWNARK (Portpatrick). G. sliabh n-arc (ore), ' hill of the
pig,' or other large beast.

SLIDDEKY (Arran). Sc. for 'slippery.' Cf. O.E. sli'lan, to
slide, and Slidderick, Wigtown.

SLIGACIIAX, -ICHAN (Skye). G. = 'abounding in little shells;'
G. sligeag, diminutive of slige, a shell.

SLIX, L. (Tain), c. 1560, Locliislyne. Prob. G. deaiuhuinn,
smooth. Cf. SLAIXS.

SLIOCH (mountain, L. Maree). Prob. G. sleagh, a spear.

SLOCKGARROCH (Portpatrick). G. sloe carracli, ' rough, rocky
gulley ; ' G. sloe, a pit, a hollow.

SMAILHOLM (Kelso). 1250, Smalham. Either 'small house'
(O.E smcel ham), or home, village of a man called Smail
or Small. On the freqiient interchange of -ham and
-holm, cf. HOLM ; also see next.

SMEATOX (Ormiston and Carsphairn). Prob. ' smooth village ; '
O.E. smethe, wnnethce tun or ton. Cf. Smeaton, Ponte-
fract, and Kirksmeaton, Xorthallerton.

SMEHUY (Kintyre). Prob. Icel. smd-r bi, 'small house' or
'hamlet.' On -lj, cf. CAXISBAY.

SMOO, Cave of (Durness). 1 Fr. Icel. smjuga, to creep (same



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 223

Possibly fr. Dan.



SXAPE (Coulter). Prob. Dan. and), a beak, Sc. neb (</. Snab
Hill, Kells), or fr. Dan. xmppe, a snipe. TAVO in
England.

SXIZORT (Skye). 1501, Sncsfurd ; 1526, Sneisport ; 1662,
Snisort. 'Fjord, frith of snow;' G. xneaclul, Dan. xnee,
or 'of rain' (G. anii'lli, sntili). See KXOYD-ART.

SOAY (Hebrides). 1549, Soa. Dan. and SAV. so, a sow, a
]>ig, + ay, a, island.

HOLLAS (Loclmiaddy). G. sohm, a (beacon-) light. Of.

RESOLIS.
So], WAY FRITH, c. 1300, Suhvay; also SulliA-a ; also called

Tracht-Romra, fr. G. trcighadh, ebbing, and Scottwade,

or ScottisAvathe, i.e., 'Scots' ford' (N. and Dan. u-atJi).

Sohvay is thought to be fr. the tribe Selgovac, jierh.

meaning ' hunters,' fr. G. scalg, hunting ; so Prof.

^['Kinnon. j\Iore likely fr. O.K. sol-vfif/r, ' muddy bay,'

O.K sol, mud, that Avhich ' sullies.' Cf. SCALLOAVAY.
SOXACIIAX PORT (L. AAVC). Dimin. of G. sonnaclt, a castle,

a Avail, a palisade.
SOOXHOPE (Peeblessh.). c. 1200, SAvhynhojie. ' Valley of

the sAvine ; ' O.E. swin, Icel. srAn, Dan. xviin; but soon

is Sc. plural of sno, a SOAV, O.E. sit (cf. shoe, pi. shoon).

On the strict meaning of hope, see HOBKIRK.
SORUIE (Wigtown) and SOROIBY (Tyree). Tyr. S., 1461,

Sourbi ; 1561, Soiribi ; 1615, Sorbi. Prob. 'east

village;' G. xoir, scur, east, + Dan. /;/, Ly, dwelling,

hamlet. Cf. Sourby, EAvisdale.

SORX (Mauchline). G. soru means a snout or a kiln.
SOURIX (Raasay), ? G. suirmn, sea-nymphs, syrens.
SOUTHDEAN (Jedlmrgh, see DEAN), SOUTHEND (Campbeltown).
SOUTIIWICK (Dumfries). O.E. svth wic, 'south house' or

'dAvelling.' Four in England.
SOUTRA (S.E. of Dalkeith). 1455, Sowtra ; 1461, Soltra (rf.

the SUTORS). Perh.fr. Icel. wt-rauti-r, ' soot-red,' i.e.,

dark red.
SPEAX, Pi. (Fort AVilliam). 1516, Spayng; 1552, Spane.

Tlie xp indicates a non-Gaelic, prob. Pictish, origin.



224 PLACE-XAMES OF SCOTLAND.

Prob. 'gloaming, flashing' river, cognate with G. sgian,

a knife. 1
SPELVE, L. (Mull). Prob. Pictish, 'stony,' cognate with G.

sgealbach, abounding in splinters or fragments of rock ;

fr. sgealb, a fragment. 1
SPEY, R. Sic 1492; 1235, Spe. Prob. connected with G.

sceim, sgeith, to vomit, to ' spue ; ' so "Whitley Stokes. 1
SPIGIE, L. (Shetland). Icel. spik, blubber of seals, whales,

&c., or spik, a spike. Of. spigot.
SPIXXINGDALE (Ardgay). 1464, Spanigidill ; 1545, Spanzi-

daill. The word peril, means just what it says. Cf.

Icel. and Sw. spinna, to spin ; but it is prob. fr. Icel.

spaning, temptation.
SPITALFIELD (Murthly). Spital is the old form of 'hospital,'

in G. spideal.
SPITTAL (Watten, two in Galloway), SPITAL OF CRAIGLARD

(Campsie Hills), SPITTAL OF GLENSIIEE.
SPOTT (Dunbar). G. spot, a plot of ground, or Icel. spotti,

spot-r, a bit, piece. Cf. Spotland, Lancashire.
SPOUTHEAD (Kirkintilloch).

SPRINGBANK (Glasgow, &c.), SPRINGBURN (Glasgow), SPRING-
FIELD (Cupar), SPRIXGHOLM (Dalbeattie, see HOLM),

SPRIXGSIDE (Kilmarnock).
SPROUSTON (Kelso). c. 1150, Sproston; a. 1250, Sproues-

ton. Prob. fr. some man (cf. Sprowston, Norwich).

There is a surname Sprott, just possibly from it.
SPYNIE (Elgin), c. 1295, Spyny. Prob. Pictish, akin to G.

sginneadh, a projection ; fr. sr/inn, to protrude. 1
STACKS (often in Caithness). O.N. stak, G. stac, a cliff, an

isolated rock, cognate with Eng. stack.
STAFFA (Mull). X. staf-ey, ' isle with the staves,' i.e., its

basaltic columnar rocks.

STAFFIN (Portree). Prob. G. stacfionn, 'white cliff ' or ' preci-
pice,' influenced by X. staf, for the rocks here are very

similar to those at STAFFA.

STAIR (Ayr). G. stair, stepping-stones, path made over a bog.
1 These are all good illustrations of "Windisch and Stokes' classifica-
tion of Celtic languages, into the p group, Welsh, Pictish, Cornish.
&c., and the c (or g or q) group, Sc. and Ir. Gaelic. Cf. PBBANWELL,

PUESINAY, &C.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 225

STANHOPE BURN (Borders). O.E. stem, a rock, stone. On

hope, an enclosed valley, see HOBKIRK.
STANLEY (Perth). May be ' rocky lea ' or ' meadow ; ' but

here Stan- might be G. stang, a pool, ditch, or staon,

awry, askew. Five in England.
STAPLEGORTON. Old name for Langholm ; c. 1180, Stapel-

gorton; 1493, Stabilgortoun. In M.E. a 'staple 'is a

mart or market (cf. Barnstaple). Gorton is prob. G.

gort, a garden + Eng. -ton, cf. LINTON.
STAR (Markinch). Sc. starr, sedge, Sw. sfarr, a rush. Cf.

Starcross, Exeter, Starbeck, &c.

START POINT (Sanday). O.N. = ' the tail ' (cf. the bird red-
start). Also in Devon.
STAY-THE-VOYAGE (Kh'kcowaii). Cf. ' Kest-and-be-Thankful,'

Corstorphine Hill.
STEELE EOAD (Hawick). Jamieson says the Sc. steel is ' a

wooded cleugh or precipice;' but O.E. stael means

' place.' Cf. ASHIESTEEL, and Steel, Hexham.
STEMSTER (Wick). 1557, Stambustar. ' Place like the stem

or prow of a ship ; ' Icel. stamn, stemni ; and see,

bolstafir, p, Ixiv.
STENHOUSEMUIR (Larbert). Local pron. Stanismare. 1293,

Stan has, i.e., O.E. for 'stone house.'
STENNIS, -NESS (Orkney). c. 970, Steinsness ; c. 1500,

Stanehous (an ignorant Anglicising); 1700, Stennis.

' Rocky ness ' or ' cape ;' Icel. steinn, Dan. and Sw. sten,

stone, + Icel. and N". nces or ness, a cape, lit. nose.
STENSGHEL (Portree). Prob. N. for ' stone shieling ' or

' booth.' See above, and GALASHIELS.
STENTON (Haddington). a. 1150, Steinton. Icel. steinn,

Dan. and Sw. sten, stone, +Eng. -tun, village.
STEPPS EOAD (Glasgow).
STEVENSTON (Ayrsh.). 1246, -enstoun. 'Stephen's ' or

' Steven's place.' Two Steveiitons in England.
STEWARTON (Ayrsh.). 1201, -toun. Place of Walter, High

Steward (O.E. stiweard, lit. a sty-keeper) or Seneschal

of David L, c. 1140.
STICHILL (Kelso). 1250, Stichil. Prob. 'sty-shieling;' O.E.

sti, stige, a sty ; and see GALASHIELS.
STIRKOKE (A\ r ick). Perh. G. sturrach acliadh, ' rugged field '



226 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

(cf. GARVOCK, &c.). It is not easy to see how it can bo
fr. Icel. stirk-r, strong ; l)ut cf. Stirchlcy, Birmingham.

STIRLING. 1147, Strivelin; c. 1250, Estriuclin ; 1295,
Estrevelyn ; 1455, Striviling; 1639, -veling. In W.
Ystreueh/n, 1 ' dwelling (yatre) of Melyn,' or Meling, old
Sc. form of MELVILLE. The same name, perh. the
same man, is found in DUNFERMLINE, 1295, Donifrem-
elyn. In G. it is Srutldinn, lit. ' river-pool,' a mere
'shot' at this Brythonic name by a Gael. St Berckan
(a. 1100) mentions another Sruthlinn, near Perth.

STOBINEAX (mountain, Perthsh.). Perh. 'the little stump of
the birds ; ' G. stoban ian.

STOBO (Peebles), c. 1116, Stoboc ; 1170, Stubho; 1223,
Stobohowe ; 1296, Stubbehok. Prob. G. stob-achadh,
' field enclosed with stobs ' or ' stakes,' but with the
second syllable confused with HAUGH, ' pasture ' (cf. the
forms of SAUCHIE). There is a Poltenstobbo in the same
parish, c.1200, ' Poltenstobbeh.'

STOBS (Hawick). G. stob, a stake or stump, with Eng. plural.

STOCKBRIDGE (Edinburgh and Cockburnspath). A wooden
bridge formerly there, made of stocks, stakes, or sticks
(the root is the same). Also in Hants.

STOCKING HILL (Old Luce). Lowl. Sc. stoken, ' enclosed,' fr.
verb steek, to fasten, cognate with to stick.

STOER (Lochinver). c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Staur. DrJoass,
Golspie, thinks fr. X. staftr, place, but this always
becomes -ster ; see p. Ixiv. Perh. X. stor, a steep peak.

STONEHAVEN, STONEHOUSE (Larkhall, two in Kirkcudbright,
and two in England). O.E. stdn, a rock, stone.

STONE YBYRES FALL (Lanark). Byre in O.E., as now in Sc.,
was a ' cow-house,' cognate with bower ; but this name
is very prob. a corruption, ? of what. Cf. next.

STONEYHAUGH (Liddesdale). 1376,Stanyhalch. See HAUGH.

STONEYKIRK (Stranraer). 1725, Stevenskirk. 'Steenie's'
or ' St Stephen's church.'

STONEYWOOD (Dyce).

STORMONTH (Perthsh.). 1292, Starmonthe. Prob. G. sfarr-

monaclh, 'distorted, crooked hill.'
1 Vdyn would be spelt in G. Mlielin, with the same sound, only a

little more nasal aspiration.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 22 /

STORXOWAY. 1511, Stornochway ; a. 1630, Steornway; 171G,
Stornbay. 'Steep peak (X. siur) on the Lay' (O.N.
vayr). Cf. SCALLOWAY.

STOW (Galashiels). O.E. nfoir, a place, town ; prob. one
enclosed with a stockade or 'stobs.' Cognate with
/StoJi'e, so common in English names. Four in England.

STRACATHRO (Forfar). c. 1212, Stracatherach. The G.
aratli (in Old G. also srcul} is usually spelt in Eng.
strath ; hut, as the final /// becomes mute, we often find
only stra. The t is only an English device to aid
pronunciation, for sr is always pron. sr in G. In one
case, a. 1200, we find scrad (see STRATIIMIGLO).
'Strath' in "\V. is yetrad (cf. AXXAXUALE and TESTER).
Stracathro is 'valley of the fort' or 'the seat;' G.
ratltair, catJirai'J/.

STRACHAX (Banchory). Pron. Strawn. Prob. G. arathan,
1 a little strath.'

STRACIIUR (L. Fyne). 13G8, Strachore ; 1500, Strotpdmr.
' Strath with the twist or turn ;' G. cor, cJiur.

STRAITOX (Edinburgh, Alayhole). Edinl). S., 129G, Straton.
Prob. 'straight village.' Straiyld is really the past
participle of the verb stretch (O.E. strecean). Perh. f'r.
Icel. strtf, O.E. streau 1 , straw.

STRALACHUX (Strachur). Prob. 'dun-coloured (G. lacluluini)
strath.' See STRACATHRO.

STRAXKAER. c. 1320, Stranrever ; 1 GOO, -raver. Sir H. !M ax-
well thinks G. sron reamhar, 'thick point,' lit. nose;
perh. referring to Loch Ryan peninsula.

STRATH (Broadford). See STRACATHRO, and cf. DALE and
GLEX VILLAGE.

STRATHARDLE (Skyc). c. 11 GO, -erdel; 1542, -ardol. 'Glen
with the high rocks' (G. ardul); or 'of the high wood,'
(<).rd choil] cf. DARVEL.

STRATIIAVEX (Lanarkshire). Pron. Straven. 1522, Straith-
aAvane. 'Valley of the AVEX.'

STRATHBLAXE (GlasgoAv). c. 1200, Stracliblachan, -blahane ;
1253, -blathane; c. 1300, Strablane. '(den with the
(little) flowers;' G. bldtkan; and cf. bladhach, iiowcry.

STRATHBUXGO (Glasgow). Pron. Strabi'mgy. G. smtlt
Mhunya, 'valley of St Mungo ' or Iventigern, c. 550.



228 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

STRATHCARROX, -DOX, -FILLAX, -ORD, -PEFFER, -TUMMEL, &c.

See CARROX, &c.
STRATHEARX (Perthsh.). a. 1200, Sradeern, Strdeern. See

EARN.
STRATHEXDRY (Leslie), a. 1169, -enry. = EXDRICK or

Strathendrick (Stirlingsh. ).
STRATHKIXXESS (St Andrews). 1156, Stradkines. 'Valley

at the head of the waterfall ; ' G. ceann or cinn an eas.

In 1156 Kinness is Kinninis.
STRATHMARTIX (Forfar). 1250, Stratheymartin. 'Little

glen (G. srathan) of St Martin' of Tours; cf. KILMARTIX.
STRATHMIGLO (Auchtermuchty). a. 1200, Scradimigglock ;

1294, Stramygloke ; 1517, Strathmiglo. ' Valley of the

swine-pen;' G. mudacli. Cf. DRUM.MUCKLOCK.
STRATHY (Thurso). G. srathan, 'little valley.'
STRATHYRE (Callander). ' Valley of the land ' (G. tlr), t lost

by aspiration ; so Rev. J. M'Lean, Pitilie.
STRAVITHIE (St Andrews). 1156, Struuithin. Prob. '.rich,

fertile (G. m(li)eitli) strath.' Cf. AUCHMITHIE,
vSxRiCHEX (Maud). Perh. G. stribclian, 'a little streak' or

'line;' or G. srath chinn, 'valley of the headland,' (1.

ceann, a head.
STROMA (Pentland Firth). Sic 1455 ; but /Sa^as, Straumsey.

'Island in the current' or 'stream.' Here the Firth

runs like a river. Icel. straum-r, Dan. strum, stream,

+ ay, etj, a, island. Cf. Stromoe, Faroes.
STROME FERRY (W. Ross). Sic 1472; 1492, Strome-

carranach (i.e. ' of L. Carron '). ' Stream ;' see above.

Cf. Sbrome, Reay.
8TROMXESS (Orkney). Sar/as, Straumsness. ' Xess, cape on

the current' or 'tide.' See STROMA.
STROXACHLACHAR (L. Katrine). G. sron na chlachair,

'cape (lit. nose, cf. "ness") of the mason ;' but Strone

clachan, Kiilin, is ' promontory of the village.'
STROXE (Firth of Clyde), c. 1400, Stron. G. sron, nose,

beak, cape. Cf. the two Stroans in Kirkcudbright,

and Stronehill, near Luss.
STROXSAY (Orkney). c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Stiornsey ;

1529, Jo. Ben, ' Stronsay vel Sdronsay;' c. 1225, must



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 229

mean 'star-like island' (Icel. xfjarna, a star); 1529,
looks as if there had been G. influence, for sdron
certainly suggests G. sron, nose, cape.

STROXTIAX (W. Argyle). Prob. G. sron tiadhain, 'promon-
tory of the little hill.'

STRUAN (N. Perthsh. and Skye) and STROWAX (Crieff).
Crieff S., c. 1210, Struin. G. srutlian, ' a little stream.'
Three Stroans in Ireland. Stru(e)y, in South Arran, is
the same word.

STRUMINOOH (Xew Luce). G. sron meadlwnacli (pron.

mennach), ' middle height, promontory.'
STUARTFIELD (Mintlaw).
STUC A CHROIX (Ben Voirlich). G. stuc is a projecting,

little hill, a horn ; and crann, gen. croinn, is a plough

or a tree.
SUAIXABOST (Butt of Lewis). ' Swain's, boy's place ; ' Icel.

sveinn, Sw. sven, O.E. swan. Possibly fr. King Sweyn

of Denmark and England, died 1014. See p. Ixiv.
SUILVEX (mountain, Lochinver). Prob. G. suil-bheinn,

1 eye-like hill,' from its shape.
SULLAM (Lerwick). ' Home of the gannets, solan geese ; '

Icel. sule + heim-r,0.1Ei. ham, home, house. Cf. BODDAM;

also Sule-skerry, west of Stromness, and Sulby Man.

tSuMBURGH HEAD (Shetland). Sayas, Sunnboejar hofSi,
Svinborg; 1506, Swynbrocht. Prob. ' the swain's castle '
or 'hold' (see SUAIXABOST, BORGUE, and BROUGH). But
see, too, SWANXAY. HofKi, of course, is Icel. hiifuft, the
head. Sumburgh Eoost is fr. X. rust, 'a whirlpool,' lit.
strife.

SOOIERHILL (Aberdeen, and three in Galloway), SuMMERSTON
(Glasgow). Summers is a common surname.

SUMMERTON (Xew Luce). Also near Oxford.

8uxART, L. (Alorven). King ' tiweyn's fjord ' or bay. 1 Ic
died 1014. See KXOYDART.

SUXXYSIDE (Lanark, Coatbridge, Falkirk, &c.).

SUTHERLAND, c. 1250, Suthernelande; 1300, Sutherlandia;
in X., Sudrland, 'southern land,' compared with the
Orkneys or Xordreys. Cf. Sudrt'i/s, X. name for the
Hebrides.

X



230 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

SUTORS OF CROMARTY. Two cliffs at the firth's mouth, on
either side. N. skuti, shelter, formed hy jutting rocks,
fr. skuta, to jut out, shoot. Form influenced by Sc.
sutor, a shoemaker.

S WANNA Y (Kirkwall). c. 1260, Torfceus, Sviney, i.e., 'isle
of the swain, boy ' (Icel. sveinn-r, Sw. sveri), or ' of
swine' (Icel. svin ; cf. SWONA). But the name now is
' isle of swans ; ' Icel. svan-r, Sw. svan, a swan. Cf.
' Swanbustar,' c. 1500, in Orphir.

SWERDALE (Criech). 1275, Swerdisdale. 'Valley (X. dal)
of the green sward' or 'turf;' Icel. svord-r, Dan. svaer.

SWINEY (Lybster). Sic in Orkney. Saga. Dr Jos. Anderson
thinks it was so called from being the property of Grim
of SWONA. Cf. Svinoe, Faroes.

SWINTON (Duns). 1250, Swyntun. Prob. 'village of the
swine;' O.E. swin, Icel. svin, Dan. svun. Cf. DAL-
SWINTON. Two in England.

SWONA (Orkney). Orkney. Say., Sviney (see SWANNAY) ;
other Sagas, Swefney.

SYMINGTON (Ayr and Lanark). Ayr S., 1160, 'Inter terrain
Simonis Loccardi Prestwick ;' 1293, ' Symondstona
in Kyi.' Lanark S., c. 1189, Villa Symonis Lockard ;
a. 1300, Symondstone. 'Abode, village of Simon Lock-
hart,' a local knight. Cf. MILTON LOCKHART, and see
ton, p. Ixx.

T

TAENDORE (Cromarty). Prob. ' house by the water ; ' G. Ugh
(gen. teighe) an dobhair or dor; cf. TAYINLOAN, and W.
ty, a house.

TAIN (E. Koss-sh.). 1227, Tene ; 1483, Thane ; 1505, Tayn.
Prob. Icel. tying, a meeting. Cf. DINGWALL.

TALISKER (Raasay). 1 G. talamh uisge drd, ' high land by
the water ' (uisge). Cf. ESK. The -sker might also be
N. skjaer or G. sgbr, a rock, a ' skerry.'

TALLA (Tweeddale). Fr. W. root tal, ' that tops or fronts, '
'a brow;' a name, as Prof. Veitch shows, very appro-
priate to this precipitous burn. Cf. Taliessin of Strath-
clyde, i.e., ' The Bright-browed.'



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 231

TALMIXE (Tongue). G. talamh mln, 'smooth, level land.'

TAMFOUR (Falkirk). 1617, Thomfour. G. tomfuar, 'cold knoll.'
Form 1617 is an ignorant association with Thomas.

TAXXADICE (Forfar). 1250, Tanethais ; 1322, Thanachayis.
1 G. deanaclidacli, rough, fierce.

TAXXER WATER (Aberdeen). G. teannair is 'the noise of
the sea in a cave ; ' possibly this may be ton airde, ' the
backside, rump of the height.' Cf. Tandoo, Galloway.

TAXXIEROACH (Old Luce). Perh. G. and Ir. tamnach rnadh.
(here pron. roch), ' reddish meadow.' Cf. Tamnymartin
and Tawnyeely, Ireland.

TAXTALLOX CASTLE (X. Berwick), c. 1300, Dentaloune; 1481,
Temptallon; 1572, Tomtallon (G. torn, a knoll). Prob.
G. dim (\V. din) talain, 'hill,' or 'fort of the feats of
arms,' or peril, 'of the hall' (talla, -ac.lian). For change
of d into t, cf. DUBTOX and EDDERTOX.

TARBAT (E. Eoss), TARBET (L. Lomond and Kirkmaiden),
TARBERT (L. Fyne, five in Mull, &c.). Ross T., 1227,
Arterbert, i.e., 'high Tarbat.' Fyne T., Sagas, Torfnes.
G. tairbeart, ' an isthmus,' lit. place over which a boat
can be drawn, contracted fr. tarruing-bata or -bad,
'boat-draught,' fr. tarruinij, to draw (cf. O.W. bat, a
boat). Both King Magnus Barefoot and Robert the
Bruce dragged their galleys across Tarbert, Kintyre.

TAKBOLTON (Ayrsh.). Hybrid ; G. torr, a hill, mound, castle,

+ BOLTOX.

TARFF (Kirkcudbright). G. tarbh, a bull.

TARFSIDE (Edzell). Cf. above. The Tarf is a violent stream.

TARLAXD (Aboyne). 1183, Tarualuncl ; a. 1300, Taruelayu,

Tarhlund. Looks like G. tarbh-alacliain or -uin, ' bull's

keeping-place.' Can it be so ? The letter d is fond of

suilixing itself (see p. xxxvii). Land is spelt land in

O.E., Icel., Sw., and Dan.
TARRADALE (Conon Bridge). 1240, Taruedal; c. 1320,

Tarrodall. Hybrid; 'bull's valley;' G. tarlJi + S. da/.
TARREL (Tarbat, Eoss). 1571, Tarrall ; 1579, -ell. Prob.

G. torr al, 'tower on the cliff.'
TARVES (Buchan). 1287, Taruays ; a. 1300, Tarvas. Prob.

G. torr lltais, ' mound of death ' (/A./,*).



232 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

TARWILKIE (Balmaclellan). G. tlr g nil each, 'rushy land.
Cf. LYNWILG.

TASSIESHOLM (Wamphray). Prob. G. tais, -se, moist, damp,
soft, + HOLM, a riverside field.

TAY, R. c. 80, Tacitus, Tavaus ; c. 600, Amra Columcille,
Toi, Tai; a. 1100, St. Berclian, Toe; a. 1150, Tey ;
1199, Thay; c. 1300, Tay. G. tamh, rest, quiet, slug-
gishness, W. taw, smooth (cf. river Taw). Perh. G.
t'abJi, ' the river,' cf. AWE.

TAYCHREGGAN (L. Awe). G. tigh-a-chreagain, ' house by the
little crag ' or rock.

TAYINLOAN (Argyle). Prob. G. iigli (gen. teighe) na loin.
'house in the meadow,' or 'marsh.'

TAYNUILT (L. Etive). In G. ti/jh an milt, 'house on the
burn ' or brook ; G. allt, gen. uillt.

TAYPORT (]S". Fife). ' Harbour on the river TAY.'

TAYVALLICH (Crinan). G. Ugh (gen. teighe) l(h}allach,
' lofty- walled ' or ' spotted house.'

TEALING (Forfarsh.). 1639, Telin. ? G. Ugh linne (W. llyn),

' house by the water ' or ' pool.'
TECHMUIRY (Fraserburgh). Prob. ' leper's hospital ; ' G.

Ugh, teiglie, a house, and muire, leprosy. Cf. LIBERTOX.

TEE, Ben (Fort Augustus). Locally pron. Hee. 'Hill of
peace,' G. slth or slti ; i.e. ' tame-looking hill.'

TEITH, K. (S. Perthsh.). In G. Thaich; prob. fr. G. taic,
strength, vigour.

TEMA, R. (tributary of Ettrick). "\V. tamh, spreading, quiet,
still. = Thames.

TEMPLAND (Lockerbie). ' Land of the Knight Templars ;'
or fr. G. teampull, a church, + O.E. land, land.

TEMPLE (Gorebridge) and TEMPLELANDS (Strathmartine).
Lands belonging to the Knight Templars. But G.
teampull, L. templum, 'a church' built of stone, occurs
as a name in Colonsay, Tyree, lona, Skye ; also Team-
pull Columchille, Benbecula.

TEXANDRY (Blair Athole). Prob. G. tigh nan doire, ' house in
the grove.' But tenandry is also a charter-term, = tenancy.

TERERRAN (Moniaive). G. tlr iaran, ' western land' or ' farm.'



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 233

TERREGLES (Dumfries). c. 1240, Treueger ; prob. = G.
treabhadh-garradh, ' ploughed land-enclosure,' i.e., ' a
farm;' but 1350, Travereglys, i.e., G. treamliar ear/lai*
(W. eglicys), 'farm by the church;' also 1461, Tor-
riculis, Torrekillis. Of. TRAXENT, TRAQUAIR.

TEIOT WATER. Pron. Teiit. Name of the valley of the
Teviot above Hawick, not applied to the river Teviot
itself. Of. GALA WATER.

TEVIOT, E. (Hawick), TEVIOTDALE, and TEVIOTHEAD. la.
600, AveUenau, Teiwi ; c. 1100, Teuegetedale ; c. 1150,
Teswetadala ; c. 1160, Teuiot ; a. 1300, Tyvidale. Prob.
fr. "W. tyWj ' spreading around ' (cf. river Teifi in "Wales,
prob. = ' spreading stream'). Mention of the names Tyici,
Teifi is common in the earliest "Welsh and Strathclyde
literature. Dale is the O.E. dael, O.N. dal, a valley.

TEXA (Islay). c. 1380, Fordun, Helan (G. eilean, island)
texa ; 1549, Munro, ' In. Erische,' i.e., Gaelic, 'Tisgay.'
? G. teas-yaoth, a parching wind, fr. teas, heat, warmth.

THAXKERTOX (Carstairs). c. 1180, Villa Thancardi, Tan-
cardestun; c. 1320, Thankaristone. 'House' or 'village
of Thancard.' Cf. Loch Thankard, old name of the
Loch of Kilbirnie. Also formerly called Woodkirk.

THIEVESHOLM (Orkney). See HOLM. The public gibbet
once stood here.

THOM, L. (Greenock). G. torn, a hill, knoll. Cf. TAMFOTJR.

THORNHILL (Dumfries, and E. of Monteith ; three in Eng-
land), THORXILEE (Renfrew; c. 1340, -yle), THORXLIE-
BANK (Glasgow), THORXTOX (Dysart, Keith; 1292,
-tone ; twelve in England), THORNTONHALL (Busby).

THORXKIP (Colvend). Fr. G. ceap, a stump, block. Cf.
KIPPFORD, and Makeness Kipps, Eddleston.

THREEPXEUK (Kirkcudbright) and THREEPWOOD (Lauder).
Fr. M.E. threap, a scolding contest, fr. O.E. ]>reapin,
to reprove, afflict. Neuk is, of course, Sc. for ' nook,'
corner.

THREPLAXD (Biggar and Banff). Big. T., 1296, Threpeland.
See above.



234 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

THROSK (S. Alloa). Prob. O.E. tlirisc, Icel. throst-r, a thrush.
Cf. Throston, HartlepooL

THRUMSTER (Wick). ? Icel. tyruma, a thunder-clap, + -ster
= staftr, ' place (see p. Ixv). Peril, fr. a man, Thrym.

THURSO (river and town). 1152, Thorsa (river); c. 1200,
Hoveden, Turseha (town); c. 1225, Orkney. Say.,
Thorsey (town) ; 1547, Thorso. O.N. Thorsaa, the
god 'Thor's river.'

THURSTON (Berwick). 1292, Thureston. ' Thor's village.'
Cf. Thurleigh, Thurlow, England.

TIBBERMORE, -MURE (Perth). G. tiobar, a well, + moor. See

MUIRAVON, MUIRDRUM.

TIENDLAND (farm, Elgin). Tiend is Sc. for 'tithe;' Icel.
tiund, Sw. tiende, a tenth. Cf. Merkland.

TIGHARRY (L. Eport). G. tigh cliarraigh, 'house on the
rock,' eh lost by aspiration.

TIGHNABRUAICH (Kyles of Bute). G. = ' house on the bank,
or slope.' Cf. Balnabruaich, Portmahomack.

TILLICOULTRY (Dollar). Old, Tuligcultrin. G. tulacli cuil
tire (W. tre), ' hill at the back of the land,' i.e., the
carse of the Forth. Cf. COULTER.

TILLIECHEWAN (Alexandria). G. tulacli cumhann, ' narrow

hill.'
TILLITUDLEM (Lanark). Fancy name of Sir "YV. Scott's in

Old Mortality. The castle's real name is Craignethan.

TILLYFOUR, -RIE (Alford). G. tulacli fuctr oi fuaraid/i, ' cold,

chilly hill.'
TILLYMORGAN (Aberdeen). Here prob. G. teaglacli (pron.

tella) Morgan, lit. 'the family,' hence, 'the ground

belonging to the family, of Morgan.'

TILT, E. (Perthsh.). 1564, 'Glentilth.' Kev. J. M'Lean,
Pitilie, does not recognise this as Gaelic ; but surely it
looks like G. tuilteach, flooding, overflowing, adjective
fr. tuil, a flood. Perh. = G. t'allt, 'the river' or 'glen.'
Cf. TAT.

TIXGWALL (Scalloway). Saga, Thingavoll, and Orkney. Sag.
mentions a Thingavoll (c. 1500, Tyngwale) in Kendale,



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 235

Orkney, = DINGWALL, 'meeting of the Thing.' For
interchange of t and d, cf. Trondhjem and Drontheim.

TIXTO (hill, S. Lanark), c. 1320, Tintov. Prob. hill of 'the
(signal-) fires, by the water,' i.e., the R. Clyde ; G. teinte-
abli (cf. AWE, old Ow). The Mod. G. plural of teine,
fire, is tdntean, but the Ir. phiral is teinte (cf. Tulla-


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