James B. (James Brown) Johnston.

Place-names of Scotland online

. (page 8 of 26)
Online LibraryJames B. (James Brown) JohnstonPlace-names of Scotland → online text (page 8 of 26)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


in Co. Mayo, and Achiltibuie, Ullapool, fr. G. buidhe,
yellow.



PLACE-XAMES OF SCOTLAND. 7

ACHLUACHRACII (Fort William). ' Rushy field; ' G. luachrach,
fr. luachair, rushes.

ACHXACARRY (Fort William). 1505, Auchnacarre ; ' field of
the conflict,' G. carraid, or peril, 'of the cliff,' G. car-
raig.

ACHNASHELLACH (W. Ross-sh.). 1543, Auchnashellicht ;
1584, Achnasellache ; fr. G. seileacli, a willow, or fr.
sealg, seilg, stalking, hunting.

ACHNASTANK (Ben Rinnes). a. 1500, Auchynstink ; 'field
of the pool;' G. stung, gen. staing, a pool, ditch.

ACHXOSXICII (Strontian). 'Field of sighing;' G. osnaicli,
sighing, groaning ; in pi., blasts of wind.

ACHRAY, L. (Perth). ' Smooth field ;' G. reid/t, smooth,
level. Cf. REAY.

ACKERGILL (Wick). 1547, Akirgill ; also Acrigill. O.X.
a/a; O.E. cacer, accr, cognate with L. ager, lit. ' open
country, untilled land ;' hence Mod. Eng. acre, which
is literally ' tilled land.' Gill is Icel. gil, a ravine (see
p. Ixi).

ADD, R. (Crinan). In G. ablminn fhada, ' long river/
Ptolemifs Longus Fluvius. The f has disappeared
through aspiration. Cf. ATTOW, and Drumad, Ireland.

ADDER, Black and White (Berwicksh.). a. 1130, Sim.
Durham, Fluvius Edre; prob. G. fad dur, ' long water ;'
r/. above, and W. dio; water, a stream. The second
river's name is pron. Whitadder.

ADDIEWELL (W. Calder). Adie is dimin. of Adam; for
absence of sign of possessive, cf. MOTHERWELL.

ADVIE (Ballendalloch). Prob. G. f/iad abli, 'long river,'
Cf. ADD and AVIEMORE.

AFFRIC, L. and Glen (Inverness). Prob. G. abli b(h)raac,
' mottled, spotted water.' Cf. W. afon for A vox.

AIKET HILL (Urr). 1550, Aikhead. Sc. ail; O.E. ac, Icel.

elk, an oak ; -Jiead may only be a corruption of the

common suffix -et, as in thicket, BLACKET, and in

BIRKET'S Hill, near by.
AILSA CRAIG (Fr. of Clyde). G. aillse, a fairy ; but cf., too,

Old G. al, aill, a rock, rocky steep.



8 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

AIRD DHAIL (W. Butt of Lewis). 'Height' or 'cape of
the meadow.' G. <\ird-d(li)ail. Cf. 'the Aird of Sleet.'

AIRDS Moss (Ayr). Prob. fr. G. aird, a height, hill, as s
often adds itself to Gaelic names, cf. WEMYSS. Might
he fr. a man, Aird.

AIRDRIE. As accent is on first syll., proh. G. airidh, ' hill-
pasture,' the N". 'saeter' or summer hill-farm. In 1570
an ' Airdrie,' near Cromarty.

AIRLIE (Forfar). Perh. G. aird Uath, ' grey height.'

AIRTH (Larbert). 1296, Erth. G. airid/i, meaning here 'a

level green among hills.'
AIRTHRIE (Stirling). More correctly Aithrie ; a. 1 200, Athran,

also Atheran ; prob. G. ath-raon, ' water in the field ' or

'green.'

AITHSVOE (Cunningsburgh, Shetl.). Seems to be 'inlet of
the oath,' in Sc. ailh, Icel. eitltr ; voe is Icel. vor, a
little bay or inlet.

AKIN (Broadford). Generally Kyle Akin; 'straits of King
Haco,' or Akon, of Norway, who is said to have sailed
through here on returning from his defeat at Largs,
1263 ; and see KYLE.

ALCAIG (Dingwall). Prob. Icel. elgr, L. alces, an elk, + aig,
bay, as in ARISAIG, ASCAIG, &c.

ALDCLUNE (Blair Athole). G. allt-cluain, 'glen of the
meadow.'

ALDER, or AULER BEN (Perthsh). Prob. G. allt-dur (dobhar\
' valley of the water,' with form Auler, cf. AULTBEA, &c.

ALDIE (Buchan, also name of part of Water of Tain). Prob.
G. alltan, ' little stream.' There is a Balaldie, in Fearn
parish, near Tain.

ALDNAVALLOCH (L. Lomond). G. allt-na-bhealaich ( = BAL-
LOCH), ' water of the pass.'

ALDOURIE (L. Ness). Either = ALDER, or with second syll.
fr. pre-Celtic root, meaning 'water.' See URR.

ALE, R. (Roxburgh), c. 1116, Alne; might be connected
with G. aluinn or ailne, exceedingly fair, lovely. Cf.
ALLAN and ANCRUM.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 9

ALEXANDRIA. Dates from c. 1760.

ALFORD. c. 1200, Afford; 1654, Afurd. Looks like a
tautology ; G. atli + Eng. or 0. E. ford, both with same
meaning. Ford here formerly, over R. Leochel. Perh.
the first syllable is G. abli, water, and the second, G.
ord, gen. hird, a hill, or bbrd, gen. buird, a board, plank ;
hence 'water by the hill' or 'ford with the plank.'

ALGUISH (Ullapool). Perh. G. allt-giusaicli or giitthas, 'river
of the pine-wood.'

ALINE, L. (X. Argyle). G. ahiinn, exceeding fair or beautiful.

ALLAN, R. (Stirling), and ALLEN (Fearn). 1187, Strath-
alun ; might be as above, or more prob. G. aitean, a
green plain ; but, on Allan Water, Melrose, also called
Elwand, see ELVAN. None of these is, as some have
thought, Ptolemy's Alauna, which is the R. Lune.

ALLANTON (Berwicksh.). Prob. G. ailean, a green plain,
+ Eng. -ton ; but quite possibly ' Allan's village.'

ALLOA. Prob. Old G. al, aill, a rock or height, referring to
Ochils, + dbli, water (the R. Forth); 'w r ater beneath
the hills.'

ALLOWAY (Ayr). Prob. G. allt-na-blieath (pron. vay), ' river
of the birches.' Cf. DARN A WAY.

ALMANACK HILL (Kirkcudbright). G. alU-manach, ' monks'

glen.'
ALMOND, R. (Perth and Edinburgh). Edinburgh A., 1178,

Amonth, inCaramonth ( = CRAMOND), also Awmon. Perth

A., 1461, Almond; 1640, Amond; prob. G. abhuinn, river ;

and so = AVON. For suffixing of d, cf. Drummond, fr. G.

droman, a ridge. ISTear Huddersfield is an Almondbury.

ALNESS (Invergordon). Prob. ' cape at mouth of the river '
Rusdale, f r. G. allt + Icel. ties, Dan. na>s, a cape or
ness, lit. a nose.

ALTASS (Bonar Bridge). G. cdlt-eas, ' burn ' or ' stream
with the waterfall.'

ALTNABREAC (Caithness). G. al/t-nrt-bric, ' burn with the
trout,' G. breac. Cf. Troutbeck.

ALTNAHARRA (Sutherland). G. aUt-na-charraigJ/, 'stream
with the pillar or rock.'



10 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

ALTRIVE BURN (Selkirk). Prob. G. allt-fsnaimli, ' stream
with the swimming-place.' Cf. ARDENTRYVE.

ALTVENGAN BURN (Aberfoyle). G. allt-mlienrjain or matli-
tjliamhuinn, a bear.

ALTYRE (Elgin). 1492, Altre; 1573, Alter. G. allt-tir,
river land ; and cf. TUAQUAIR.

ALVA (Alloa). 1195, Alveth; prob. G. ailbheacJi, rocky, fr.
ailbhe, rock, flint.

ALVAII (Banff), a. 1300, Alueth ; as above.

ALVES (Moraysh.). Perh. as ALVAII, with Eng. s. Cf.
DORES.

ALVIE (Aviemore). Prob. = ALVA.

ALWHAT HILL (E. Ayrsh.). G. aill-chdtt, hill, 'rock of
the wild cat.'

ALYTH (Forfar). Prob.\> ALVA (1195, Alueth). Perh. G.
al bheitJi, ' rock of t e birches,' bh lost by aspiration.

AMISFIELD (Dumfries and Haddington). Dumfries A., a.
1175, Hempisfiekl ; looks as if fr. Dan. liamp, Icel.
hampr, hemp. But the Haddington name is prob. fr.
the personal name Ames.

AMPLE GLEN (Balquhidder). Cf. Amplcforth, Yorkshire ;
near by the glen is Edinample. Can it be fr. G. team-
pulj a cell, church, ' temple ?' For loss of t, cf.

KlLLEARNAN.

AMULREE (Perthsh.). G. ath-Maolrnbha, 'ford of St Maol-
rubha,' the patron saint of the district. Cf. MAREE, and
see p. xcvi.

ANCRUM (Roxburgh). c. 1116, Alnecrumba; a. 1300,
Alnecrom ; 1275, Ankrom, ' the crook or bend on the R.
Alne or ALE;' fr. Old G. crumbadh, Mod. G. cromadh,
a bending, fr. crom, crooked. Cf. ABERCROMBIE and
Alnwick.

ANDAIL, L. (Islay). Perh. G. abhuinn (pron. avn, Tin)
dail, ' river of the meadow.'

ANDREWS, St (Fife, Elgin, Orkney). Fife St A., 1158, St
Andrae; c. 1160, 'apud Sanctumandream;' 1272, ' Epis-
copatus Sancti Andree ;' 1434, Sanctandrowis. It was



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 11

prob. King Kenneth M 'Alpine, c. 850, who first named
St Regains' church here ' St Andrew's.' Its old name
was KILRIMONT. The patron saint of Scotland also
gives his name to the parish church of Lhanbryd, Elgin.
N.B. Before 800 the Saint of Scotland Avas St Peter.

ANGUS, or FORFAR. a. 1200, Enegus ; a. 1300, Anegus.
Said to be fr. Anegus, Aengus or Ungust, son of Fergus,
and King of Picts, 729 A.D.

ANNAN, R. and Town. Sic 1300, but on coin a. 1249,
' Thomas on An.' The article is very rare in G. names,
but see AN-STRUTHER. This looks like an abhuinn,
'the river;' but the accent should then be on second
syllable. See also next.

ANNANDALE. c. 1124, Estrahannent ; a. 1152, Stratanant ;
c. 1295, Anandresdale. Estra-, c. 1124, is W. ystrad
= G. strath, valley; cf. YESTER. The -dre in c. 1295
looks like dur or dolhar, Old G. for water ; cf. ADDER.
The -hannent or anant might have some connection
with G. ceanann (cean-jio?m), ' white headed, bald.' But
evidently there has been early confusion as to the real
Avord.

ANNAT (Inverness and Appin) and ANNAIT (Dunvegan). G.
anait, 'a parent church.' There is a well of Annat or
tobar-na-h'-annait at Strath, Skye, and Calligray, Harris.
Cf. also Balnahanait in Glen Lyon.

ANNBANK (Ayr).

ANNICK WATER (Irvine). Might be G. abhuinn, river,
+ O.E. wic, bay (c/, WICK), referring to the bay at
Irvine. There is Prest?a>/i; not far off. Cf. Alnwick.
Or the -ick may represent G. achadh, a field.

ANSTRUTHER. 1231, Anstrother; 1362, -oythir. G. an
sruthair, ' the stream.' Xow often pron. Anster,
Ainster.

ANWOTH (Kirkcudbright). 1575, Anuecht ; doubtful, but cf.
CARNWATII.

AONACH, MHOR, and BEAO (hills near Ben Xevis). Big and
Little Aonach, which in G. means ' a height) a heath,
a desert place.' Cf. OXICH.



12 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

AONAIN, Port (Mull, lona, Lismore). Harbour of St
Adamnan (see p. xcv).

APPIN (Argyle ; also a burn in X.~\V. Dumfries). Spelt in
G. Apuinn. Old, Apthania or Apthane, ' the abbey-
lands ' of Lismore. See ABDEN.

APPLEBIE (Wigton). As in Westmoreland (1131, Aplebi), fr.
O.X. cepli or apli, O.E. cappeJ, apple, + Dan. or Xorth.
O.K. bi, by, town. Cf. Apploton (five in England).

APPLECROSS (TV. Ross-sb.). c. 1080, Tighernac, aim. 673,
Aporcrosan; ann. 737, Apuorcrossan ; 1510, Appill-
croce ; 1515, Abilcros. This is just aber-crossan, ' the
confluence of the Crosan ' ( = little cross), a burn there.
All who have seen Appledore, X. Devon (in 893,
Apulder), will recognise it to be aber-dor, place at the
confluence of R. Taw and R. Torridge. Similar is
Appul-dur-combe, near Ventnor, pron. Appledic6m.be.
See aber, p. xxvii.

APPLEGARTH (Dumfries). Old, Apilgirth ; 1578, Aplegirth,
'apple garden' or orchard. Icel. garftr, O.E. gecird
(a. 1300, yartli), a yard, court, enclosure. In the
Catholicon Anylicanum, 1483, is ' Appelle garth
pometmn'

AQUIIORTIES (Kintore). 1390, Athquhorthy ; a. 1500,
Auchquhorty. There is old mention of an Achorthi in
the barony of Troup, prob. same name. Might be G.
achadh-na-mliortaidli, 'field of the murdering.' But, of
course, G. ath is a ford, or fordable river.

ARAY, R. (Inveraray). G. abh-reid/i, ' smooth river,' same as
AYR.

ABBIULOT (Forfar). 1250, Aberelloch, 'ford on R. ELLIOT.'
See aber, p. xxvii.

ARBOLL (Fearn). Sic 1507 ; but 1463, Arkboll. G. earbil,
point or extremity of land (here the Tarbat peninsula).
Cf. Urbal, common in N. Ireland, and Darnarbil, Kirk-
cudbright ; boll, of course, has been influenced by the
common X. ending -bol, fr. hoist a&r (see p. Ixiv).

ARBROATH. c. 1272, Aberbrothoc ; a. 1300, Abbirbroth.
G. abcr-brothacli, 'filthy, muddy confluence;' Old G.
broth, a ditch. See aber, p. xxvii.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 13

ARBUTHNOTT (Fordoun). 1202, Abirbuthenot(h) ; ? con-
nected with G. buthainnich, to thump, beat ; and see
aber, p. xxvii.

ARCHERFIELD HOUSE (X. Berwick).

AECHIBSTON (Moray). Founded 17GO. Archie is short for
Archibald.

ARD, L. (Aberfoyle). (1. ainl, arJ, a height, head, pro-
montory.

ARDALANISH (Mull). G. tiird-glieal, white cape, + Xorse
ness; thus tautological; for a G. name ending with
nish, cf. MACHRAHANISH.

ARDALLIE (Aberdeen). G. aird-aillc, ' height ' or ' head of
the cliff.'

ARUARGIE (Perth). G. aird ; and see AHEHARGIE.
ARDHEG (Rothesay). G. mrd-bewj, 'little height' or 'cape.'

ARDCIIALZTE (Breadalbane). G. aird-choille, 'height of the
wood.'

ARUCHATTAX (Argyle). 1296, Ercattan, 'height of Cattan '
or Ch'.tttmt, an abbot, and friend of Columba. Ardchat-
tan's other name Avas Balmhaodan or SSt Modan's village.'

ARDCHULLERIE (Ben Ledi). (r. aird-choille-uiridh, 'high
shoaling or hut in the wood ' (coill\

ARDCLACH (Nairn). G!. dird-elachach, 'rocky height.'
ARDEEU (Ayr). (!. aird-iar, 'west cape' or 'height.'

ARDEI.VE (Lochalsh). G. aird-ailbhe, 'height, cape of the
rock or flint.'

ARDEXTIXXY (L. Long). G. uird-an-teine, ' cap<>, height of
the (beacon-) tire ; ' peril, some reference to lire-worship.
Cf. Achateny, X.W. Argyle.

ARDENTRYVE (Kerrera, Oban). (J. dird-an-fsnaimJi, 'height
or point of the swimming-place.' Cattle used to be
swum over here (cf. COUXTKAIVE). The t eclipses the
y, and n changes into its kindred liquid // thus is
t'snaimh pron. tryve.

ARDEOXAIG (L. Tay). Pron. Arjonaig. 'Height of little St
Adamnan ' (see p. xcv) ; -ai>j is a G. diminutive.



14 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

ARDEOKAN* (on R. Tay). As above, without diminutive,
Eonan being a contraction fr. Adamnan. Cf. Balvoulin
Eonan, or 'mill-village of Eonan,' in Glenlyon.

ARDERSIER (Nairn). This, or its like, was also the old name
of Cromarty; 1227, Ardrosser; 1570, Ardorsicr; 1661,
Ardnasier. G. aird-rois-iar, 'high western promon-
tory ' (ros).

ARDFIN (Jura). ' White cape ; ' G. Jionn, white.
ARDFERX (Argyle). ' Height of the alders ; ' G. fearn.

ARDGAY, or BONAR BRIDGE. 1642, Ardgye (so now pron.).
' Windy height ; ' G. gaoith, wind. Cf. MILXGAVIE.

ARDGOUR (L. Linnhe). 1479, Ardgovre; 1483, -gour.
' Goats' height ; ' G. gobhar, a goat.

ARDKIXGLAS (Inveraray). According to Prof. M'Kinnon,
G. aird-a-clioin-gldais, ' point ' or ' height of the grey
dog ' (cu, gen. con or chain}.

ARDLAMONT (Firth of Clyde). 1550, Ardlawmonth, 'La-
ment's height.' A Lauman is found at Kilmun, c.
1240. Cf. Kerrylamont, Bute.

ARDLER (Forfar). 1384, Ardillar ; prob. G. aird-chuill-
Ifirach, 'farm or house or ruin in the high wood ' (coill}.
Cf. ARDCHULLERIE. Ardlair, Perthsh., is just nird-lnr
or larach.

ARDLUI (L. Lomond). Prob. G. a/rd-htib, 'height of the
creek' or 'bend of the shore;' or fr. luilth or Iti/dlt, a
plant, herb.

ARDMADDY (L. Etive). ' Height of the dog or wolf ; ' G.
madadli.

ARDMILIJVN HOUSE (Girvan). ' Height of the mill ; ' G.
muileain.

ARDMORE PT. (Islay ; also in ]S T .W. Mull, &c.). G. airdmor,
'big cape' or 'height.'

ARDNACROSS BAY (Campbelton). ' Height ' or ' cape of the
cross ; ' G. crow.

ARDNADAM (Kilmun). ' Adam's height.'

ARDNAMURCHAN (N.W. Argyle). Adamnan, Ardnamuirchol ;
a. 800, Ardalbmurcol ; 1292, Ardenmurich; 1309,



PLACE-XAMES OF SCOTLAND. 15

Ardnamurchin. Name evidently changed ; now prob.
G. air d-na-mor-cl linn (gen. of cemin), 'height over
the great headland,' rather than 'of the huge seas'
(cliuan) ; hut the -cltol or -col of Adamnan, &c., is prob.
G. coill, a wood.

ARDOCH (Perth and Kirkcudbright). ' Height of the field ; '
(1. acJiad/t or aucli. Of. Auchter- and Ochter-.

ARDOW (Mull). 'Height over the water;' Old G. alii.
Cf. AWE.

ARDPATRICK (Knapdale). 'Height of St Patrick;' in G.
Padruif).

ARDRISHATG. ' Height of the briers ; ' G. driseaij, dimin. of
dris, a thorn.

ARDROSS (Invergordon). 'High land' or 'moor.' The
whole mountainous centre of Ross used to be called
Ardross ; G. aird-rois. Cf. ARDERSIER.

ARDROSSAX. Sic 1461. 'Height of the little cape;' G.
rosan,

ARDTORXISH (Sound of Mull). 1390, Ardthoranis; 1461,
-tornys. G. aird-t(li)orr, 'cape of the hill,' + Norse ness,
nose or cape. Cf. ARDALAXISH.

ARDTUX (Mull). Pron. in G. aird-tunna, 'height or cape
like a tun. or cask.'

ARDVASAR (Ornsay, Inverness). Prob. G. aird-Wiusar or

ba^i/thor, ' fatal headland.'

ARDVERIKIE (L. Laggan). Said to be ' height of the roar-
in;' G. Wiuiridh. Final dh often is almost = /r.






ARDWELL ("\Vigton). Prob. 'stranger's height;' G. 'jail,
foreigner, Lowlander. Cornwall is just 'horn' or
'peninsula of the foreigners' or 'Welsh.' Cf. WAL-
LACETOWX.

ARGYLE. Pid. Citron., Arregaithel; Old Ir. MS., Erregaithle;
in L. citrons., Ergadia ; 1147, Errogeil ; 1^92, Argail ;
Wyntoun, c. 1425, Argyle. 'District of the Gaels,'
i.e., Scots fr. Ireland. Skene says Sc. form is Earr-
(jaoidheal, fr. earr, limit, boundary ; in Ir. Airer-Gaedhil
(pron. arrer (/ale). JJefore this it was called, in the
Albanic Duan, Oirir Allan, or ' coast lands of Alban,'



16 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

fr. oirthir, coast, border. Albainn is now the regular
G. name for .Scotland, but was till <. 1100 the name of
Pictavia or kingdom of Scone. Gf. ' Duke of Albany.'

ARISAIG (X.W. Argyle). 1250, Arasech ; 1309, Aryssayk ;
1506, Arrisak. Either all X. and = AROS + dig, a bay,
or G. aros, house, mansion, + aiy.

ARKAIG, L. (Fort William), c. 1310, Logharkech ; 1516,
Locharcag. ? G. aird-caoch, ' blasted height.' "With
c. 1310, logh, cf. Ir. lough.

ARKLET, L. (L. Katrine). Skene thinks Loirgeclat (i.e.,
L. Irgeclat), scene of battle mentioned by Tit/Jiernac,
arm. 711, is L. Arklet. Ar- will be G. dird, height,
and dot or Met prob. is death, a prince or chieftain.

ARLARY (Kinross). Old chart. Magh-erderrly ; prob. G.
aird-laraiche, ' height of the site, ruin, or farm.'

ARMADALE (Bathgate, Skye, and Farr). Evidently N". ;
prob. O.N. armr, O.E. arm, arm, which can mean not
only ' arm of the sea,' but also ' arm of the land,' i.e.,
spur or branch, as of a dale or valley, Icel. and Sw. dal.

ARXAGOUR (Coll). ' Height of the goat ;' G. aird-na-goWiair.
Cf. ARDGOUR.

ARXCROACH (Elie). ' Height of the stack -like hill ;' G. cruach.
Cf. CRUACHAN, and Croach, in Galloway.

ARNGASK (Kinross), c. 1147, Arringrosk ; 1250, Ardgrosc.
G. aird-na-croisg, ' height of the pass ' or ' crossing.' Cf.
Ardingrask or -grosk, near Inverness.

ARNHALL (S. Kincardine). Pron. Arnha ; so prob. G. aird-
na-lt'abh, 'height over the water ;' cf. BALMAHA, and
for a similar corruption, HALLEULE.

ARNISDALE (Lochalsh). Prob. after some Viking named Ami.

ARXISORT (Skye). As above ; -ort or -art or -worth are all
corruptions of N. fjord, a firth, sea-loch. Cf. SNIZORT,
&c.

ARXOTHILL, (Falkirk). Prob. fr. G. ornarJit, barley. Cf.
Knoekharnot, Leswalt; also 1541, ' Arnothil,' in Liddes-
dale.

ARNPUIOU (Kippen). ' Height of the prior,' referring to



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 17

Inchmahome on L. of Monteith. .lust to "\V. is tlie curi-
ous name Arngibon, fr. G. gibean, a liunch on the Lack.

ARXSHEEX (Ayr). ' Heiglit of the foxgloves ;' G. nion (pron.
sheen). Of. AUCHXASHEEX.

AROS (Mull). Said to be = Dan. Aarluis, 'mouth of the
rivulet,' aa ; but spelt Aros, 1449, which means in G. a
house, mansion.

ARPAFEELIE (Cromarty).

ARRAX (Island, also loch in Kirkcudbright). 1154, Four
Masters, Arann ; <;. 1294, A van; 1326, Arram. Mod. G.
Arrain, which some think ' lofty isle.' Dr Cameron of
Brodick, a high authority, said prob. fr. G. ara, gen.
aran, a kidney, which exactly gives Arran's shape.
The proper spelling of the Irish group is 'Arann Isles.'

ARROCHAR (L. Long). Old, Arachor, Arathor, which is G.
and Ir. corruption of L. aratrum, a plough, ' a carrucate,'
used as a land-measure = 104 or 160 acres. We also find
a Letharathor, i.e., a half carrucate.

ARTAFALLIE (Munlochy, Inverness). 1526, Ardirfalie ; c.
1590, Arthirfairthlie ; 1599, Ardafailie ; prob. G. nird-
a-thir pheallach (fr. peall, a hide, 'fell'), 'height of the
rough or shaggy land ' (tir).

ARTFIELD* FELL ("\Vigton). Fonts map, Artfell ; prob. G.
<\ird, a height, to which is tautologically added Icel.
fell, a hill, Dan. fjd'i, a mountain. Thus Artfield Fell
is a triple repetition of a word for ' hill ! '

ARTHURLEE (Barrhead). 'Arthur's meadow,' O.K. leali,
pasture, Dan. dial, let, fallow.

ARTHUR'S Oox (formerly at Carron and in Tweeddale). 1 293,
Furnum Arthuri ; 1727, A.'s Oon ; lit. 'Arthur's Oven'
(O.E. ofen, Icel. ofn], popularly thought to be mounds
or cairns in memory of King Arthur's battles. His
battle of Eassas was prob. fought at DUNIPACE, near
Carron ; the mound perh. referred to by the Geographer
of Ravenna (7th century) as Medio Xemeton, named
being Ir. for 'sanctuary.' Cf. BESSIE Yox.

ARTHUR'S SEAT (Edinburgh) and BEN ARTHUR (Arrochar).
Xo real reason to doubt named fr. the famous Kin< r



18 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

Arthur of 6th century. Skene thinks four of his battles
fought near L. Lomond. At Arthuret, X. of Carlisle,
the battle of Ardderyd was fought, 573.

ARTXEY GLEN (S. Perthsh.). In G. always pron. Arter =
Arthur (see above).

ASCAIG, L. (Sutherland), ASCOG (Bute), and PORT ASKAIG
(Islay). Bute A., 1503, Ascok ; 'ash-tree bay;' O.X.
askr, O.E. cesce, an ash, + X. aifj (or -og or -o/i), a
bay.

ASHAXESS, or ESHA XESS (Shetland). 'Ash-cape,' might
either be fr. O.X. aska, Dan. aske, ashes, or O.X. askr,
O.E. cesce, the ash-tree ; ness, see p. Ixiii.

ASHDALE (S. Arran), ASHKIRK (Roxb.), ASHTOX (Greenock).
All Eng. and fr. O.E. cesce, the ash-tree ; prob. all
three somewhat recent.

ASHIESTEEL (Melrose). Prob. ' place of the ash-trees,' fr.
O.E. steall, steel, a place, then the ' stall ' of a stable ;
and cf. STEELE.

ASLOOX (Alford). 1654, Asloun. First syllable either G.
eas, waterfall, or ath (tli mute), water or ford ; and
second, either leamlian (pron. louan), the elm, or
sleamhuinn, slippery ; cf. Craigslouan, ' the elm rock,'
Xew Luce. I have not been able to ascertain if there
be any waterfall here.

Ass OP THE GILL (ravine on R. Cree, Kirkcudbright). G.
eas, a waterfall, and Icel. and X. gil, a ravine. Curious
name, yet so simply explained !

ASSYXT (Sutherland). 1343, Asseynkt, Askynkte ; 1455,
Assend ; 1502, Assent; 1584, -schin. Very difficult
word. Possibly fr. man named Eas-aonta, i.e., Discord,
lit. 'without license;' but that tradition does not
square with the earliest forms. In Icel. and X. place-
names ass often means a rocky ridge ; but the second
syllable is puzzling. In 1632 we read of ' the chapel of
Assind in Brakadaill,' in Skye.

ATHELSTANEFORD (Haddington). c. 1200, Alstanesford ;
1 250, Elstan- ; 1461, Athilstanf urd. Said to be the place
where Atlielstane, general of Eadbert of Xorthumbria,
was defeated by Angus, king of the Picts, c. 750.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 19

ATHOLE. Bk.Deer, Athotla; Tighernac, aim. 739, Athfhotla;
e. 1140, Norse Atjoklis; a. 1200, Adtheodle ; c. 1320,
Atholie. G. ath-Fhotla or Fodla (but in Pict. Chron.
called Flodaw), ' ford of Fodla,' one of the seven sons
of the famous legendary Cruithne. The name is more
perfect in the place-name Badfothel, found a. 1300 in
Registr. Aberdon. Another version is that F. was wife
of an early Welsh prince ; certainly Fodla was an old
poetic name for Ireland. Cf. BANFF.

ATTADALE (Ross). 1584, Attadill. G. fhada, long, / dis-
appearing through aspiration, + Icel. and X. dal, a dale ;
with -dill, cf. dell.

Arrow BEN (Ross). As above ; final a in fliada taking
common sound of aw.

AUCHELCHANZIE (Crieff). Prob. ' height of Kenneth,' fr. W.
uchel, high, -(-aspirated form of Kenneth, in O.Ir. Canice.
Cf. CHONZIE and OCHILS.

AUCHEN CASTLE (Moffat). Prob. pi. of G. acli, a bank, or
of achadh, a field, pi. achanna.

AUCHENAIRN (Glasgow). G. achadh-an-iaruinn (O.Ir. tarn,
W. haiarn), ' field of the iron.'

AUCHENCAIRN (Kirkcudbright). 1305, Aghencarne. G.
acliadli-na-cairn, nom. earn, ' field of the cairn ' or
' barrow.'

AUCHENCLOICH (Kilmarnock) and AUCHENCLOY (Stoneykirk).
' Field of the stone ; ' G. cloiche, nom. dach.

AUCHENCROW or -CRAW (Ayton). c. 1230, Hauchincrew,
' field of the sheep pen ' or fold or hut ; G. cro, lit. a
circle. Note how Anglian influence has identified
the G. achadh with the Eng. or Lowl. Sc. hauyh ;
-crew might quite prob. be G. crubha, haunch, shoulder
of a hill.

AUCHENDINNY (Penicuik). Prob. 'field with the woody
glen ;' Old G. dinat (cf. DENNY) ; though often said to
be ' field of fire,' G. teine. Cf. ARDENTINNY.

AUCHENGRAY (near Carstairs and Kirkcudbright). Perh,
' field of the level moor or high flat ;' G. greaich (pron.
graigh). Cf. IRONGRAY.



20 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

AUCHENHEATH (Lanark). Second syllable only perhaps the
O.K. haeth, Icel. heithi, a heath.

AUCHENMALG BAY (Wigton). -indlf/ might be = G. millcach,
flowery (see ABERMILK) ; but mealy in G. is the milt of
a fish, so the name might refer to the manuring of the
field.

AUCHINBLAE (Kincardine). Prob. ' field of the flowers or
blooms,' G. Hath; G. bldilli, is 'smooth, level.' AuchtVz-
and Auchew- constantly interchange ; both, of course,
represent the article na or an.

AUCHIXCREOCH (Kinross). ' March ' or ' boundary field ;' G.
crioch. Cf. CRIECH.

AUCHINCRUVE (Ayr and Kirkcudbright). ' Field of the trees,'

G. craoibhe, or ' of the shoulder or haunch,' G. crubha.

Cf. Dalcruivc, Perthshire.
AUCHINDACHY (? Aberdeen). ?' Field of the meeting;' G.

dail, gen. dalach, also, a fastness. DALLACHV, near

Aberdour, is called Dachy.



Online LibraryJames B. (James Brown) JohnstonPlace-names of Scotland → online text (page 8 of 26)