James B. (James Brown) Johnston.

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AUCHINDOIR (Aberdeen). Prob. ' field of the chase or dili-
gent search;' G. toir.

AUCHINGILL (Caithness). Now pron. Oukingill. ' Field of
the gap or opening ;' Icel. gil, a gap ; rf. Sw. gal or
gel, tisli-gill. ' Gill ' is either a ravine or a little bay.

AUCHINLECK (Ayrshire and Xewton Stewart). ' Field of the
stone ;' G. lee, properly a tombstone or flat stone.
Same as the name Affleck, in 1306, Aghelek.

AUCHINLEYS (Ayr and Perth). 'Field of the glimmering
light ' or torch ; G. leus.

AUCHINLOCH (Lanark). 'Field with the loch.'

AUCHINTORLIE (Dumbarton). ' Field of Sorlie ' or Somerled,
in G. t'sltomhairle ; the t has eclipsed the x.

AUCHLECKS (Blair- Athole). ' Field of the flat stone ' or
tomb ; G. he, with Eng. pi. s.

AUCHLEVEN (Aberdeen). ' Field with the elms ;' G. leam-
han.

AUCHMACOY (Kllon). Perh. G. achadh-na-choille, ' field by the
Avood.'



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 21

AUCHMEDDEX (Aberdeen). Pro!>. 'middle field,' fr. G.
miadhon, the middle. Of. ' Middlefield ' and PITMEDDEX.

AUCHMITHIB (Arbroath). 1434, Achmuthy. Prob. G. achadh
imdhaidli, 'field of the herd.' But Meath in Ireland,
old Mule, was so called because 'mid' or centre pro-
vince.

AUCHMULL CASTLE (Forfar). 'Bare field;' G. inaol, bald,
bare.

AUCHXACRAIG (Mull). ' Field with or under the crag.'

AUCHXAGATT (Aberdeen). Prob. ' field with the gate,' G.
ffcata ; or 'of the wild-cat,' G. cat, as in Carnagat,

Ulster.

AUCHXASHEEX (Koss). 1548, -schene. Prob. 'field of the
foxgloves ;' G. sion (pron. sheen). There is an Aucheii-
sheen, near Dalbeattie.

AUCHTARSIX (L. Rannoch). G. acJtadh tarsuinn, 'oblique
field.'

AUCHTERARDER. 1330, Huchtirardoi' ; 1597, Ochterardour.
G. uachdar-aird-tir, 'upper highland,' lit. G. uar.hdar, W.
uchdar, is the top, summit, and mrd is a height, peak,
or cape. But Rhys thinks in -arder may be a trace of
Ammianus' (c. 360) ' Yertur-iones,' and Sim. Durham's
(c. 1130) ' Wertermorum.' Certainly A. is in the old
land of Fortrenn, which name is = Vertur-iones.

AUCHTERBERRAX (Kirkcaldy). G. uachdar-doirean, ' high
land with the thickets or groves.'

AUCHTERGAVEX (Perth). G. uaclidar-ganiliainn, 'high land
(or, simply, 'field,' as aucliter often means) of the
yearling cattle.'

AUCIITERHOUSE (Forfar). a. 1300, Hutyrhuse; 1461, Uchtir-
house ; -house (here pron. hoos) may be a corruption,
perh. fr. G. fuathaa, a spectre or apparition.

AUCHTERLESS (Aberdeen), a. 1300, Octhrelyss ; c. 1280,
Uchterless ; 1364, Othyrles. Prob. G. uaclidar-lios,
' high land Avith the garden on it.'

AUCHTERMUCHTY (Fife). 1250, Hucdirdmukedi ; 1293,
Utermokerdy; 1294, Utremukerty. ' Field of the swine-
pen.' The G. uachter or uachdar must here mean

H



22 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

simply 'field;' and '-mukerdy' is muc-fffiradh 'pig-
enclosure' (cf. BALMUCHY). Forms 1293-94 give the
' .Sassenach's ' pron. of auckter- to this day.

AUCIITERNEED (Stratlipeffer). 1447, Wethirnyde ; 1619,
Ochterneid. ' High field with the nests ;' G. neade, L.
nidus. With form 1447 >/. Bally water, 'upper town,'
Wexford.

AUCHTERSTRUTHER (Largo). >: 1150, Ochtcrstruther. But
temp. Robert III., c. 1400, we find a curious form,
Auchterutherstruther. ' High field by the stream ;' G.
sruthair.

AUCHTERTOOL (Kirkcaldv). 1 178, Ochtertule ; a. 1200, Octrc-
tul. ' Field upon the hill;' G. tulac/t.

AUGUSTUS, Fort. 80 called in 1716, after William Augustus
Duke of Cumberland.

AULUBAR (Forfar). 1250, Aldebar. Prob. G. allt-a-barra,
glen by the height ' (allt).

AULUEARX (Xairn). c. 1340, Aldyrne (see EARN). As it
stands, looks like G. allt-fkearna, 'glen with the alders ;'
but in Registr. St Aivlrci.cs, re ann. 954, Ulurn, whicli
might be allt-chuim, 'glen of the cairn;' G. earn.

AULDGIRTH (Dumfries). Prob. G. aUt, glen, + X. garth,
garden. Cf. APPLEGARTH, in 1578, Aplegirth.

AULISTON PT. (Sound of Mull). Doubtful ; the -ton is prob.
'hill or castle,' G. dun; cf. EDUERTOX.

AULTBEA (Poolewe). G. aUt-beath (pron. bay), 'glen with
the birches.'

AULTMORE (Banff). 'Big glen;' G. vior, big.

AVEN WATER (Kincardine), R. (Lanark), L. and Ben (Banff).
See AVON.

AVICH (Lorn) and AVOCH (Cromarty). Crom. A., c. 1333,
Auauch; 1481, Avauch; 1493, Alvach ; 1580, Awach,
now pron. Audi. G. abh-acltaidh, 'water in the
field.' But forms 1481-93 arc - ALVA.

AVIE.MOIIE (Inverness). G. abh rnor, ' l)ig river,' i.e., the Spey.

AVON, R. (Linlithgow and Banff) and L. (Ben Macdhui).
The Loch is pron. A'an ; the R. is prob. the Haefe in



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 23

O.E. Chron., ami. 710. Strathaven in Si in. Durham
(a. 1130), re ami. 756, is Ovania. G. abkuinn, water,
river ; Vi. a/on (for Antona, now Avon, trib. of R.
Severn, in Tacitus, Ann., xii. 31, should be read
Aufona). Same root is seen in Gnadi-a?za in Spain, in
Dan-M&e, and in Punj-aiib ('live rivers') ; and prob. in
Aa, name of several European rivers. Evan in Tweed-
dale; is the same word ; see also AVEX. Five Avons in
S. Britain.

AVOXBRIDGE (Slamannan), AVOXDALE (Lanark).

AWE, L. and K. a. 700, Adamnan, Aba; 1461, Loclupvaw;
also Ow. G. abh, water.

AYR (town and county take name fr. the river). 1197, Are ;
<: 1230, Air; c. 1400, Aarc ; prob. G. abh-reidh,
'smooth river,' same as AHAY.

AYTOX (Berwick), c. 970, Atlian ; 1250, Aytun. G. ath-
dlikuinn, 'ford on the river' (Eye). Old form Eitun
occurs, which shows it was then thought ='town on
the Eye.' There are also Aytons in Yorks. Cf. YTHAX.



BACK (Lewis, burn S. of Ilawick). X. bac, 'a bank;' but
same root as O.E. tw, ( ).X. bed; back, (). Icel. bahki,
a ridge, l)an. ba/d'c, Sw. bncfa, a hill, hillock. Cf.
Backford and Backworth in England.

BACKIES (Golspie). As above, with diminutive and Eng.
pi. x. Cf. ' The Lochies,' Arc.

liADDixscii.h (Peebles). ' Baldwin's gill' (cf. baldric and
baudric). ' Baldewinus the Fleming' occurs in a local
deed c. 1150 ; Iccl. <jil is a mountain recess, dale.

BADEXOCII (Inverness). 1290, Badenaghe ; c. 1300, -nan;
1379, -nach ; 1522, Badzenoch. Prob. G. badanach,
bushy, abounding in groves.

BADEXSCOTH (Aberdeen). G. Ind/t ax nf/otha, 'creek, harbour

of the boat.'

BAILLIESTOX (Lanark).

BAIXSFORU (Ealkirk). Old, Brainsford. Here Brianja//,



24> PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

Knight-Templar, stuck fast while trying to cross Mungal
Bog, and was slain in the Battle of Falkirk, 1298. The
story is found in the contemporary chronicler Trivet.
No real ford ever here.

BAINSHOLE (Insch). From some man Bain.

BALACLAVA (Johnstone and Portmahomack). The former is
a village founded in 1856, two years after the famous
Charge ; latter's old name was Balnuig.

BALADO (Kinross). G. bail, baile, a hamlet, village, house,
farm (cf. Sc. use of ' toun'); ball- and balla- are common
in Manx names, and bal- and bally- in Irish ; not in
Welsh ; ado is prob. G. fliada, long. Cf. ADVIE and
HADDO.

BALAGIECH (S. of Renfrew). Might be G. baile-na-yeadaiy,
1 village with small spot of arable ground.'

BALALLAN (Stornoway). See ALLAN.

BALBEGGIE (Perth). ' Little village ; ' G. beay, with Eng.
dimin. -ie.

BALBIRNIE (Markinch). Sic. 1517. Prob. G. laile-Brcndon
or Brandon. See BIRNIE ; and cf. KILBIRNIE.

BALBLAIR (Eoss-sh.). ' Village of the plain ; ' G. liar.

BALCAITHLY (Denino, Fife). Prob. G. baile-cliathaclt, 'farm
on the side of the hill,' fr. cliath, breast, chest. Cf.
BALELIE.

BALCARRES (Colinsburgh). 'Village of the contest;' G.
carraid or carrais.

BALCARY PT. (Kirkcudbright). Peril. ' village of the stand-
ing-stones ; ' G. caithre (pron. carey).

BALCASKIE (Anstruther). 1296, Balcaski. ?' Village of the
stopping or checking ; ' G. casgadh.

BALCOMIE (Crail). 1297, Balcolmy. Prob. 'village of St
Colman,' perh. he of Xorthumbria, 7th century ; just as

BALCONY (Kiltearn), 1333, Balkenny, is fr. St Cainnech or
Kenneth, friend of Columba.

BALDERNOCK (Dumbarton), c. 1200, Buthirnok ; c. 1400,
Buthernock; 1745, Badernock. Perh. ' Buthar's



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 25

knoll,' G. cnoc (cf. BUTTERSTOXE) ; more likely, ' the
road or laue in the field,' G. bothar an acliaidh ; cf.
DORXOCK.

BALDOVIE (Broughty Ferry). 1 ' Village of the deep pool ; '
G. duMiagan. Cf. PARDOVAX.

BALDRAGOX (Broughty Ferry). 'Village of the dragon,' a
word adopted in Gaelic.

BALELIE (Deniiio). ' Other farm ; ' G. eilc, as contrasted
with BALCAITHLY.

BALERXO (Midcalder). Perh. 'village at the end of the
field ; ' G. earr-an-acliaidh. Cf. EARXOCK.

BALFOUR (Kirkwall and Markinch). ' Cold village ;' G. fuar.
In first case prob. modern. Xo G. names now in Orkney.

BALFROX (Stirling). a. 1300, Bafrone. G. baile-bhron,
'house of mourning.'

BALFUXXIXG (L. Lomond). a. 1300, Buchmonyn. Perh.
' village of the heathy expanses ;' G. monadhean. For
Buch-, see BUCHANAN.

BALGEUIE (Kinross). See BALAGIECH, only here d, being
unaspirated, remains.

BALGOXIE (^larkinch and Aberdeen). Markinch B., 1163,
-gone. Aberdeen A., prob. a. 1300, Palgoveny, 'village
of the smith.' G. and Ir. yobJia, yobhann, or ' Gow.'
Cf. Ballygow and -gowan, Ireland.

BALGOWAX (Perth, Kirkcudbright, &c.). Prob. as above.

BALHARVIE (Kinross). G. baile-thairbh, village of the bull
(tarbJi) ; Eng. dimin. -ie.

BALIXTORE (Fearn). Prob. same as Ballindore (]\Itickairn,
Argyle) ; G. haile-an-Dearaidk ( = Dewar), ' village of
the stranger ; ' surname of St Maelrubha (cf. KIXTORE).
But Ballitore and Tin tore, Ireland, are fr. Ir. tuair,

bleaching-green.

BALISHARE (Lochmaddy). ? G. baile-na-shearraidh, ' village
of the slaughtering or reaping.'

BALLACHULISH (Argyle). 1522, Ballecheles. G. bail-na-
chaolais, ' village on the straits.' Cf. EDDRACHILIS and
KYLE.



26 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

BALLANTRAE (S. Ayr). ' Village OH the shore ; ' G. ami Ir.
bail-an-traiylt. Cf. Ballintrae, Antrim.

BALLATER (Aberdeen). 'Village on the hill-slope;' G. leitir
(fr. leth, a half or part, and tir, land), Ir. leitar, as in
Letterfrack, &c. Cf. LETTERFEARN.

BALLINDALLOCH (Moray), c. 1300, Balinodalach. 'Village
in the field ;' G. dalacli.

BALLING ALL (Kinross). 1294, Balnogal. G. bail-na-gaill,

' village of the stranger or Lowlander.'

BALLINGRY (Lochgelly). a. 1400, -yngry. Pron. Bingry ;
prob. = Irish Ballingarry, ' house with the garden ; ' G.
garradh. Might be 'house of the flock ;' G. greigh.

BALLINLUIG (Pitlochry). ' Village in the hollow ; ' G. lay,
gen. luig ; also in Ireland.

BALLINTUIM (Blairgowrie). ' House by the grave ; ' G. and
Ir. hiaimm. Cf. Knockiedim (Galloway) and Tuam.

BALLOCH (L. Lomond, lochlet near Muthil, and old name of
Taymouth, sic 1570). G. bcalacJi, a pass. Cf. AY.
bwlch, a gap, a pass.

BALLOCHINRAIN (Killearn). 1745, Balackinrain. 'Passat
the division ; ' G. rann, gen. rainn, a part or division.

BALLOCHMYLE (Ayr). ' Bare pass ; ' G. maol. Cf. Craigmyle
House, Glassel.

BALLYGRANT (Islay). = GRANTSHOUSE ; G. baile. Bally- is
very common in Ireland ; and in Arran, as BaUykine,
-menach ( ' middle-house ' ), -michael, &c.

BALLYNAVIN (Perthsh.). 'Village on the river;' G. na
h'amhuinn.

BALLYOUKAN (Pitlochry). Prob. ' village with the graves ; '
G. uaghaichean, pi. of uagh.

BALMACARRA (Lochalsh). Prob. 'village of the erect rock
or pillar ; ' G. carragh.

BALMACLELLAN (New Galloway). < Village of John M'Lellan,'
whose charter is of date 146G.

BALMAGHIE (Castle-Douglas). (Cf. 1420, 'Balmaceth' or
'Balmagye,' Fife.) Prob. G. bail magach, 'house,
village with many arable fields.'



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 27

BALMAHA (L. Lomond). 1806, Bealmacha. Prob. G. bail-
mayli-abh, 'village on the plain, by the water;' or mi
h'ab/i, ' village on the water.'

BALMERIXO (X. Fife). Pron. now Bamernie ; c. 1200, Bal-
merinach ; 1227, -morinach ; 1629, -merinoch. G.bail-
mor-an-achadli, 'large farm in the field.'

BALMORAL (Braemar). Prob. ' house by the big cliff or rock;'
G. mor-al or aill.

BALMUCHIB (Fearn). 1529, Balmochi. ' House or farm of
swine ; ' G. muc, gen. muic.

BALMUXGO (St Andrews). ' Mungo's house or farm.'

BALXAB (twice in Galloway, and Islay). ' House of the
abbot ; ' G. ab, aba. The two first are, or were, near
Whithorn and Saulseat Priories respectively. Cf.
Lochanabb, Kildonan.

BALNABRUAICH (Tarbat, &c.). 'Village on the bank or shore ; '
G. bruach. Cf. TIGHXABRUAICH.

BALXAGOWAX (Invergordon and Appin). Invergordon B.,
1475, Balnagovin ; 1490, -gown. 'The smith's village.'
See BALGOXIE.

BALXAKILL (Kintyre). ' House in the wood ; ' G. coill, or
' church,' rill. Cf. Ballinakill, Ireland.

BALQUHIDDER (Callander). G. baile-chuil-tir, ' farm on the
backlying land,' chl, the back. But formerly it was
called Buchfudder, cf. BUCHAXAX and ORDIQUHILL.

BALRUDDERY (Forfar). ' Place of the ritter or knight ; ' G.
ridire. Cf. Kilruddery, Bray.

BALTA SOUXD (Shetland). Sagas, Baltey ; ' belt-isle,' O.JS r .
balti, Dan. baclt + eij or aij or a, island.

BALTHAYOCK (Kinfauns). Prob. G. baile-thathacli, 'house
of the guest or visitor,' an inn. Cf. Tayock, Montrose.

BALVEXIE (DufFtown). c. 1200, Balbegno. G. baile-JBhaine,

' house of St Beyne,' first bishop of Mortlach.

BALWEARIE (Fife). Prob. G. baile-iaracli, 'west house.' Cf.
Blaw Weary (west plain) and Castle Weary, in Galloway.

BAMFLAT (Biggar). Old, Bowflat ; 'flat or field for cattle' (see
BOWLAXU). Bam- is a curious and unexplained corruption.



28 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

BAXAVJE (Fort William). 1606, Banvy. G. Ian abh, 'white
or clear water' (cf. AVIEMORE). Prob. this is not
' Vicus Eaiuiavem,' <: 450 A.D., in Patrick's Confessions.

BAXCIIORY DEVEXICK and BAXCHORY TERNAX (W. from
Aberdeen), a. 1300, Banchery defnyk ; 1361, Ban-
chory deveny : a. 1300, Bancheri-tarny ; 1489, Ban-
quhori-terne ; also <. 1 300, Benchorin. Banchory is G.
heinn ;/(h)eur, ' sharp, pointed ben or hill,' same name as
Bangor in Wales and Ireland (Ir. Beannchor, peaked hill
or pinnacle ; "W. banr/or, upper row, high circle), for
which the Lat. adj. is Benchorensis, as in Ulst. Ann.,
ann. 671, 'Maelrubha Benchorensis.' Devenick is fr.
St Devinicns, said to be contemporary of St Columba,
who laboured in Caithness. Peril, same name as is
seen in Lan-dewednack, near Lizard Point. St Ternan's
date was c. 500 ; he was prob. a disciple of Palladius.

BANFF. 1 290, Bamphe ; 1291, Banffe. Banba, according to
Irish Xennius, was a Welsh or Irish Queen, reported to
have come fr. Scotland. Banba is also an early poetic
name for Ireland ; connection with Banff cannot be
proved. Prof. M'Kinnon thinks, possibly fr. Ir. banbk,
a sucking-pig, as in Bannow, Wexford. Cf. Baniff
AVell, Coupar- Angus, and Bamff House, Perthshire.

BANKEND (Dumfries), BANKFOOT (Perth), BAXKHEAD (Lanark,
<tc.). O.E. bane, a bank, hillock, cognate with bench.

BANXOCKBURN (Stirling). Sic 1314 ; 1494, Bannockys-
borne. G. ban cnoc (also Ir. cnoc), 'white hill;' same
as Banknock, The Haggs, not far off. Cf. KXOCKBAIX,
and Whitehill, Aberdour.

BAXTASKIX (Falkirk). 1617, Pantaskon ; 1745, Pentaskin ;
1774, Bantaskine. Peril. G. bun t'easyan, 'low place
with the eels' (cf. Pollanaskin, Mayo, and Pantaskel,
Farnell). Pen-, of course, refers to the hill to the south.
Quite possibly the second half is the same as in BOL-
ESKIN.

BANTOX (Denny). Prob. G. ban dun, 'white hill,' = Bank-
nock not far away. For ton = dun, cf. Edderton.

BARCALDIXB CASTLE (L. Crerar). Prob. G. barr calltuinn,
'height of the hazel.' Cf. CAT.TOX.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 29

BARDOWIE (Baldemock). G. barr dubli, ' dark or black height '

(barr). Cf. DOWALLY.
BAREMMAN (Roseneath). Prob. G. barr-Adamnan, ' height

of A.' See p. xcv.
BARGEDDIE (Coatbridge). ' Height with the little field.' See

BALGEDIE and BALAGIECH.

BARGREXXAX (Xewton Stewart). 'Height of the castle,' or
chief's residence ; G. yrianain. Cf. Arngremian, Tung-
land.

BARJARG (Closeburn). 'Red height;' G. dhearg, red.

BARLIXXIE (Glasgow). 'Height by the pool;' G. Untie, a
pool. Cf. LIXXHE.

BARMEKIK, THE, OP ECHT (S.E. Aberdeen). Here was an
old British hill-fort. B. means the outer fortification
or barbican of a castle, also a turret; found c. 1340 in
the romance of Alexander, 'barmeken.' Dr J. A. H.
Murray thinks perh. fr. O.X. barmr, brim, border, wing
of a castle, but cannot explain -kin; perh. the diminutive.

BARXAICH (Alva). G. bdirneach, a limpet, name of a house
clinging to the hillside.

BARXBOGLE CASTLE (Dalmeny). c. 1320, Prenbowgal; 1481,
Bernbougale. G. barr-an-baoghatt, 'height or cape of
danger ' (cf. Barnbauchle, in Galloway), or -aiirboglain,
' in the marsh.' Pren is "NY. for a tree (cf. PRIXLAWS).
First syll. possibly G. beam, a gap.

BARXIIILL (Glasgow and Forfar). May be plain English.
Perh. G. barr-na-choille, ' height with the wood ' (coill).
Cf. Barnhillic, formerly Barnkylie, in Kirkcudbright.

BARXSMUIR (Crail). Cf. KIXGSBARXS, near by.

BARXTOX (Edinburgh). c. 1400, Berntoun, 'barn town,'
toun here in its Sc. usage. O.E. bere-ern, 'barley place,'
M.E. beren, mod. bam.

BARXYARD (Irongray). Popular corrup. of G. bearnwlt nird,
'height with the gaps or fissures' (G. beam, Ir. bearna,
a gap, a notch). Cf. Craigbernoch and CRAIGIEBARXS.

BARR (Ayr). (!. ban; the top, 'a height.'

BARRASSIE (Troon). 'Height of the waterfall;' G. easa.

BARRA(Y) (Hebrides). llth century, Gaelic MIS. Barru,



30 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

Sagas Barey ; 1292, Barrich. In 1549 the parish is
called Kilbarr. ' St Ban's isle ' (Icel. ey). See DUNBAR.

BARRHEAD and BARRIIILL (Ayr, &c.). Both tautologies,
formed by English speakers who did not know that G.
barr means head or hill.

BARROCK (Thurso). Prob. G. barr-achaiflh, 'height in tho
field.' Cf. ARDOCII.

BARROGILL CASTLE (Caithness). ' Height on the gill ;' Icel.
gil, a ravine.

BARRSHAW (Paisley). Hybrid, ' height with the wood ; '
O.K. scaga. See SHAW.

BARRY (Forfar). Sic 1234. ?G. barrach, brushwood, birch,
or = BARROCK ; also in S. Wales.

BAKSKIMMING (Mauchline). 1639, Barskinning. Perh. 'grace-
ful height,' fr. G. sgeimheach, handsome, fr. sy&imlt,
beauty. Cf. Craigskimming, Sorbie.

BARTHOL (Old Meldrum). 'Head of the hollow;' G. barr
thuill, fr. toll, a hole, hollow, crevice.

BARVAS (Lewis). 1536, Barwas. flight be 'streaked height ;'
G. barr bhasach.

BASS ROCK (Firth of Forth). Perh. G. batJiait>, ' forehead,
front,' fr. the curious shape of the rock (cf. PAISLEY).
G. bais or bass also means a mound which looks artificial,
but is really natural (cf. DUNIPACE). A man Bass is
mentioned in Bli. of Lecain (Chron. of Picts and Scots,
p. 48).

BATHGATE. c. 1160, Bathchet; 1250, -ket; 1316, -getum.
Prob. G. both Chef, ' house of diet,' Ce or Got, one of
the seven sons of Cruithne. Cf. CAITHNESS and DAL-
KEITH. The Eng. bath was so spelt fr. earliest times.

BATTOCK, Mt (Kincardine). Doubtful ; G. bnthach is a cow-
house ; but cf. BEATTOCK.

BAVELAW (Currie). c. 1240, Baucley. First syllable perh.
same as Bavan, common name in Ireland, = Ir. bad/nin, a
strongly-fenced enclosure for cows. Law is Sc. for hill
(see p. Ixxvi); ley is lea, a meadow.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 31

BAYBLE (Lewis). Prob. corruption of X. papulcy, 'little
priest's isle.' See PAIM.AV.

BAYHEAD (Lochmaddy). flight be fr. G. beat//, a birch
(pron. bay).

BEALACH-XAM-BO (Aborfoyle). G. 'pass for tbe cattle.' On
the article nam, see p. xxxvii. ; and cf. BALLOCII.

BEALLACIIAXTUIE (Kiutyre). G. bedtacTi-an-fsuidhe, 'pass of
the seat,' Cf. p. xl.

BEAM, The (farm, Bonnybridge). Prob. fr. O.K. brant, a
tree. Cf. the ' hornbeam.'

BEAXCROSS (Falkirk). Pron. bean-corse, prob. = -carse. It
stands in the CARSE of Falkirk, where beans are largely
grown. Cf. board, Sc. broil.

BEARSDEX (Glasgow). O.K. denu, 'a den,' is closely akin to
dene, Eng. dean, Sc. den, a valley.

BEATII (Dunfermline) and BEITIE (Ayr). Ayr B., 117^,
Beth. G. heath or beith, a ' birch ; ' final th here pre-
served, lost in AULTBEA.

BEATTOCK. Prob. G. beath-arhadlt, 'birchficld.'

BEAULY. 1230, Prioratns de Bello Loco ; a. 1300, Beaulicu;
1497, Beulie ; 1639, Beawly (so now ]ron.). Fr. beau
lien, ' beautiful spot ' (cf. Beaulieu, pron. Bewly, in
Hants). Monasteries in both ; that in Beauly founded
by the monks Valli* umbrowi', c. \'1'1Q.

BEURUI.E (Jedburgh). 1275, Badrowll ; 1280, liulebethok ;
1310, Bethocrullo j a. 1600, Bethrowll ; still sometimes
pron. Bethorule ; 'lands of Bethoc on the river RULE.'
B. was wife of Kadulph, earliest known lord of the manor
here, c. 1150. A Kynbethok is found in Reg Mr.
Aberdon., a. 1300.

BEESWING (Dumfries).

BEGBIE (Kirkcudbright). Prob. G. bea<j, little, + Dan. Lac,
by, town, village.

BELHAVEX (Dunbar). Fr. bel, beau,+O.V.. haefeii, Dan.
hacn. 'fine haven.'

BELIIELVIE (Xew >fachar). 1292, Ballieluy : 1293, -helwy ;



32 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

1450, Balhelfy. Pro!). G. bailfi-chailbhe, ' village by the
headland.' G. calbh is lit. a bald pate.

BELIVAT (Nairn). Perh. G. baile-liobli-aite, ' hamlet in the
smooth place.' Of. Eelclare, Belfast, &c., in Ireland,
and GLEXLIVAT.

BELLAHOUSTON (Kenfrew). 1818, Billyhouston House;
? baile-na-Houston, ' HOUSTON'S village.'

BELLIE (Fochabers). Perh. G. baile, a village, house.

BELL EOCK (off Arbroath). Fr. the warning bell formerly
hung on the ' Inchcape ' reef.

BELLSHILL and BELLSIUE (Lanark).
BELLSQUARRY (Edinburgh).

BELMONT (one of the Sidlaw Hills, and in Unst). Fr. bel
mo?it, fine hill.

BELSES (Hawick). 1541, Belsis ; fr. l)e Bel Assize, a
Xorman knight.

BEXARTY HILL (Kinross). Chartul. St Andr., Cabennartye,
perh. first part = Caesar's Cebenna, the Cevennes, W.
cefn, a ridge ; second part perh. = Arthur. Cf. ARTXEY.

BENBECULA (Outer Hebrides). 1449, Beanbeacla ; 1495,
Bendbagle; 1549, Benvalgha, Buchagla ; c. 1660, Ben-
bicula ; also, 1535, Beandmoyll, and 1542, Beanweall
(prob. G. maol, bare). jNlight be G. beinn-na-faoghail,

'mountain of the fords,' or better, beinn-na-faoyldacb,
' hill by the strand,' an appropriate name ; but, as Prof.
M'Kinuon says, how comes its modern shape ?

BENDERLOCH (L. Etive). Old Bcndraloch, 'hill between
(G. eadar) the lochs' (i.e., L. Etive and L. Creran).
Cf. DORXOCH and P^DDRACIIILIS.

BEXDOCHY (Coupar- Angus). c. 1130, Bendacthin. ? Fr.
Old G. daochan, anger, horror.

BEXDOURAX (Tyndrum). More correctly doircann, 'mount
of storms.'

BEXIIAR (Lanarksh.). Prob. fr. G. fjltar, 'near hill.'

BEXHOLM (Kincardine). Perh. St Choi urn or 'Columba's
hill.' See p. xcii.



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 33

BEXJOCK (Stobo). ? 'Hill of the drink;' G. d(h)eoch (cf.
BARRJARG). Prof. Veitch says, this with Benrig (Rox-
burgh) and Mt. Bengerlaw (to which add Benhar) are
the only Lowland 'bens.'

BEXXACARRAIGAX (Kilmory, Arrau). G. = ' hill of the cliffs.'
Cf. CAURICK.

BEXXACHIE (Insch) and BEXXOCHY (Kirkcaldy). Insch B.,

c. 1170, Benychie. Perh. 'hill in the field' (G.

achadli] ; or, G. beannachadh, blessing. Cf. Tigh
Beannachadh on Gallon Head, Lewis.

BEXTPATII (Langholm ).

BEXVIE (Dundee). 1 = Ben-avie (G. abh), 'hill over the-
water.'

BERXERA (Inverness). Sajas, Bjaruar-ey, 'Bjorn's (lit.
'bear's') isle.'

BERRIED ALE (Caithness). Mayas, Berudal ; 1340. Beridale ;
and most prob., says l)r Jos. Anderson, the Bcruvik in
Orkney. Mag., v. and xciv. Bern- is doubtful ; Icel.
and O.X. dal, is a dale ; pcrh. Berriedale, like Birgidale,
S. Bute, = BORRODALE.

BERVIE (Kincardine, town and river). Mic 1199; c. 1212,
Bervyn ; 1290, Haberberui. G. bear or Lior is a spit or
pin ; but this is prob. abhir abh (cf. AVIE.MORE, &c.) or
abhuinn, 'at the mouth of the river.' Cf. 'Bergeveny,'
in 1291, for Abergaveny, and METIIVEX.

BERWICK, also XORTH BERWICK. a. 1150, Berewic, Ber-
wich ; 1187, Suthberwyc ; c. 1225, Orkney. Sat/., eh.
xcii., Beruvik ; 1303, Berwik : 1250, Xorthberwyk (cf.
too, 700-15, Chart. Wihtred, 'Bereueg' in Kent; 1060,
Chart. Ed ic. Confessor, ' Uppwude cum Kavelega bere-
wico suo '). O.E. beretcic, a demesne farm, fr. O.K.
bere, barley, bere, + -wic, a dwelling, village; so same in
meaning as the Eng. place-name Barton. Cf. Berwick
St James and St .John, both near Salisbury.

BESSIE Yox (Glasserton, Wigton). ' Bessie's Oven ; ' in
Yorks. yoon, O.E. ofeit. Cf. JSc. y/yt = one.

BETTYIIILL (Farr). Market knoll, called after Elizabeth,
Marchioness of Stafford, c. 1820.



;}4 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND.

BIEL (J)rem). Prob. = ' bicld ; ' in sense of shelter, refuge it
is fr. O.K. beldo, boldness, but this sense is not found till
c. 1450. So prob. fr. M.E. bt/lde, a building, fr. verb
build; old past tense, Meld; O.K. In/blan. For lost c?,
cf. kin and kind. Also in Northumberland.

BIELU, The (Tweedsmuir). Peril, fr. O.K. bcldo, bfddo, bold-
ness ; though in Sc. a bifid always means ' a shelter,



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