James Balfour Paul.

The Scots peerage; founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom online

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under her Early Kings, 309; Fordun a Goodall, i. 490. ' Cal. Docs.
Scot., Nos. 874, 878, 879. » Caledonia, iii. 485, 486, 530, 531.


He took part with King John of England, who calls him
his cousin or kinsman, in his wars in Ireland. He also
captured Matillidis de Haj^a, wife of William de Braosa,
her son and daughter, who had fled from Ireland to Scot-
land, and handed them over to the English King.' He
was present when Alexander ii. took his oath to marry
Joanna, eldest sister of Henry iii.^ Duncan is said to have
been created EARL OP OARRIOK by King Alexander ii.
between 1225 and 1230,' on condition that he resigned all
claim to the lordship of Galloway. The descendants of
Duncan and his son Neil appear to have taken the name
of de Oarrick. Earl Duncan died 13 June 1250." He carried
off in 1200, and probably married, Avelina, daughter of Alan
Pitz-Walter, then High Steward of Scotland.' His seal, as
attached to various original charters, bears the device of a
griffin or dragon, not on a shield.' He had issue : —

1. Neil, who succeeded.

2. John de Oarrick, who had the lands of Straiton. The

Ohurch of Straiton had been granted by his father to
the monks of Paisley, a grant which was confirmed
by King Alexander ii. in 1236.' In the previous year,
however, John had taken part in the revolt of the
Galloway men, and had harried several churches in
the diocese of Glasgow. In return for a pardon from
the Bishop of Glasgow, Johu de Oarrick granted to him
a piece of land in Straiton with the right of patron-
age of the Ohurch, but this last grant was invalid
because of Earl Duncan's charter to Paisley. John's
grant was confirmed by his father and King Alex-
ander II. in 1244." Sir John, Knight, son of the Earl,
is also named as a witness in a charter by Earl
Duncan of an annualrent from the lands of Barbeth.'
Sir John de Oarrick was probably the father of
(1) Roland de Carrick, who obtained from Neil, Earl of Carrick

1 Cal. Docs. Scot., i. No. 480. 2 Ibid., i. No. 762. 3 This is the date
assigned by Chalmers, and it is not improbable, but in a writ to the monks
of Melrose, the date of which must be before or in 1196, he is described as
'Duncanus, Alius Gilberti fllii Fergus, Comes de Karic,' and in other writs
about and after 1200 he is styled Earl of Carrick (Ibid. , i. 172), but his stj'le
varies. Liber de Melros, i. 25. ^ Seg.Epis. Glasguen.,n.616. ^Chronica
Rogeri de Hovedcn, Record Ser., iv. 145. '^ See Carte de Northberwic, pp.
i, xxxi. ' Eeg. de Passelet, 427. * Reg. Epis. Glasguen., i. 151, 152.
" Carte de Northberwic.


(before the latter's death in 1256), a charter granting to him
and his heirs the headship of the whole clan, as well in ' cal-
umpniis ' (Caupes),i ^s in other articles and things pertaining
to the 'Kenkynol,'2 with the oflBce of bailiary of the country
of Carrick, and the leading of the men thereof, to be held
under the Earl and his heirs for ever.^ This 'Kenkjaiol'
could only be held by the male head of a Gaelic clan, and
therefore Earl Neil could not transmit it to his daughter
Marjory. No doubt he handed it over to Roland as his
nearest heir-male, which strengthens the probability that
Roland was the son of John of Carrick. In 1260 there is
mention of a .sum owing to the Crown per reUvium of
Roland of Carrick, probably denoting his entry to lands.*
Unfortunately the name of the lands are not given. He was
dead before 30 April 1275, leaving a widow Matildis or
Matilda de Carrick, who was one of the co-heirs of Helwisa
Levington, wife of Eustace Baliol. By her, who died
before 30 March 1308, he had issue one son named Roland,^
and probably by an earlier marriage Sir Gilbert, who
succeeded to his father's estates.

i. Sir Gilbert, who appears as Gilbert Fitz-Roland in the
homage roU of 1296, but is named some years before
that, in 1285, as a party to an arbitration between
himself and the nuns of Northberwick, of a dispute
about the patronage of the Church of Maybole, which
had been granted to the nunnery by Duncan, Earl of
Carrick.'' Gilbert's seal appended to this writ shows
armorial bearings similar to those of the present
Marquess of Ailsa, except that there are nine cross
crosslets instead of three.' He was present in 1292
at the resignation of the earldom of Carrick by
Robert Bruce to his son the future King, and was one
of the sureties to King John Baliol for a former
resignation.- In 1296, as stated, he did homage as
one of the barjns of AjTshire. Some time between
1306 and 130 \ as Sir Gilbert of Carrick, Knight, he
had from King Robert Bruce a remission, because
through Arthur his brother-in-law he had delivered
the castle of Lochdoon to the English, and in so doing

' ' Caupes ' or ' Calpes ' in Galloway and Carrick were gifts, such as a
horse or other thing which a man in his lifetime gives to his master or
to any other man that is greatest in power and authority, and specially
to the head and chief of the clan, for maintenance and protection. Of.
Skene's De Verborum Significatione, sub voce ' Caupes.' These dues were
not abolished until 1617 {see article ' Cassillis '). - In Gaelic ceann denotes
a head, and cinneal a tribe or family. 'Kenkynol' or 'Ceanncinneal'
therefore means head of the tribe or clan. ^ This grant was confirmed
by King Alexander iii. at Stirling, 20 January 1275-76, and ratified
(to John Kennedy) by King Robert ii. one hundred years later, at
Ayr, 1 October 1372 {see post, p. 445). Beg. Mag. Sig., fol. ed., 114, 115.
4 Exchequer Rolls, i. 28. ^ Cal. Docs. Scot., ii. No. 42; iii. No. 39.
" Carte Monialium de Northberwic, 23, 24. ' Scot. Armorial Seals, by
W. R. Macdonald, No. 380; Cal. Docs. Scot., ii. 205. ^ Acta Pari.
Scot., i. 449.


had betrayed to them Christopher Seton, brother-
in-law of the King. But as the King understands
this was falsely imputed to Gilbert, he reinstates
him with all authority. ' He left issue :—

(i) Gilbert de Carrick, who as son and heir of the
late Sir Gilbert de Carrick received a charter,
which must be dated between 1.315 and 1333,
from Malcolm, Earl of Lennox, of the lands of
Buchmonyn, Blalrfod, and other lands.''' It
may be added that about 1393 Sir Gilbert
Kennedy of Dunure (see title Cassillis) granted
the lands of Buchmonyn to his cousin or kins-
man John Kennedy, son of Fergus Kennedy.
He appears to be the Sir Gilbert de Carrick who
was taken at Durham in 1346. He had from
John Leane (or Lany) a grant of the lands of
'Buchan,' co. Stirling, confirmed to him by
King David ii. He had from the same King
a liferent grant of the office of coroner, be-
tween the waters of Ayr and Doon, and of the
lands of 'Buchanan,' co. Stirling.^ He
appears as witness to three charters by
Donald, Earl of Lennox, who flourished
between 1333 and 1364,* and beyond these
there is no further trace of him.
ii. Roland de Carrick, who on 30 March 1308, is described
by a jury as son and heir of Matilda de Carrick, and
is stated to be thirty years of age and upwards. In
terms of this he did homage for her lands in England.
In 1310 he is again referred to as her son and heir.*
Nothing further is known of his history, but he may
have been the father of

(i) Malcolm, son of Roland, who in or before 137*

granted a charter to John Kennedy of Dunure

of the lands of Treuchane and Kenechane, in

the parish of Kirkmichael, Ayrshire. His

seal bears an eagle displayed with two heads.

Legend, S. Malcolm. Fil. Roland."

iii. A daughter, married to Arthur, the Castellan of

Lochdoon, who surrendered that fortress to the

English, apparently about October 1306.^

3, 4. Alexander and Allan, are named as sons of Earl
Duncan.' Alan is in one writ designed Parson of
' Kirkemanen ' and of Straiton.^

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., fol. ed., 115. ^ Cartularium de Levinax, 43, 44.

* Robertson's Index, 39, 40, 41, 46, 48. The lands of Buchan and Buchanan
are probably identical, and John Lany, the laird of the estate of Leny,
afterwards held by the Buchanans. * Cartularium de Levinax, 56, 58,
93. One of these charters was confirmed by King David ii. on 26 January
1370-71; Reg. Mag. Sig., fol. ed., 77. * Cal. Docs. Scot., iii. Nos. 39, 179.

* Original in Culzean Charter-chest; cf. Scot. Armorial Seals, No. 381.
' Ct Reg. Mag. Sig., fol. ed., 115; and Cal. Docs. Scot., ii. Nos. 1819, 1845.
8 Carte de Northberwic, 13, 14. ^ Liber de Metros, i. 170.


II. Neil, second Earl of Oarrick, who was also called
Nicol and Nicolaus,' was a great benefactor to the
Ohurch, particularly to the monasteries of Orossraguel,^ and
to Sandale in Kintyre.^ A. commission was granted by
Henry iii. in 1255 for receiving Neil, Earl of Oarrick,
and other Scotsmen into his protection, and he was one of
the Regents of Scotland, and Guardians of Alexander in.
and his Queen, appointed in the English interest at a con-
vention at Roxburgh, 20 September 1255." Previous to
his death in 1256, he granted a charter to Sir Roland de
Oarrick,'' who succeeded him in some of his lands, con-
stituting him and his heirs head of the whole clan, as
already stated.

Neil, Earl of Oarrick, died in the year 1256. He is
said to have married Margaret, daughter of Walter,
High Steward of Scotland.^ He had issue four daughters,
but only Margaret or Marjorie, the eldest, who succeeded
him as Oountess of Oarrick, is known to histoi'y.' His

III. Margaret or INIarjorie, Oountess of Oarrick, mai -
ried first, Adam de Kilconcath, who, in her right, was third
Earl of Oarrick." Engaging in the Orusade 1269, he went
to the Holy Land under the banners of Louis ix. of France,
and died at Acre, in Palestine, 1270.° By him Marjorie had
no issue. The next year, 1271, the widowed Oountess
happening to meet Robert Bruce, son of Robert Bruce,
Lord of Annandale and Oleveland, hunting in her domains,
she became enamoured of his personal charms, and with
some violence led him to her castle of Turnberry, where
they were married in a few days, without the knowledge
of their relations, or the requisite consent of the King.
Alexander in. instantly seized her castle and estates, but
she afterwards atoned for her delinquency by a fine.

' Crawiurd's Peerage, 70. ^ Foddera, vol. i. chap. ii. 2. 3 Caledonia,
iii. 486, 530. " Cat Docs. Scot., i. Nos. 1987, 1983, 2013, 2015. * j^^g,. Mag.
Sir/., fol. ed., 115. " Duncan Stewart's History of the Stewarts, 49.
' Palgrave's Historical Documents, 40. She is said to have been
his only legitimate daughter, but in the pleadings of the Com-
petitor in 1291, where alone her sisters are referred to, she is
simply said to be the eldest of four. * Suth. Add. Case, v. 19,
m \ cf. Laing Charters, No. 8. ^ Dalr. Ann., i. 192 ; Fordun, ii.


Robert Bruce was then recognised as Earl of Oarrick in
right of his wife. The Countess died in 1292, before 27
October. (See also pages 428, 429.)

Creation. — Between 1225 and 1230.

Arms. — Gilbert Fitz-Roland bore on his seal a chevron
between nine cross crosslets fltchee.

[J. A.]


BRUS, is said to have
been the second son of
Robert de Brus, a Nor-
man knight, and Emma,
daughter of Allan, Earl
of Brittany. He is also
said to have come to
England before his father,
perhaps as a page to
Queen Emma, daughter
of Richard, Duke of Nor-
mandy, and widow of
King Ethelred ii. and
King Canute. Sir George
Mackenzie states that
after that Queen's death
he came to Scotland and got a grant of the lands of Bowden
from Malcolm Ceannmor,' but this is very doubtful, and
there does not appear to be any record evidence for it. On
William the Conqueror's invasion of England he joined that
King, with whom his father had also come. His services
were rewarded with a grant of the barony of Skelton and
lordship of Cleveland, in Yorkshire. He died about 1080 ;
he is said to have married Emma, daughter of Sir William
de Ramsay, but this also is doubtful. He left issue, so far
as is known : —

1. Robert.

2. William, the first Prior of Gisburne, who was buried

there, 1155.

Robert de Brus succeeded his father in the barony of

^ Notes in Advocates' Library.


Skelton. There has been much confusion about this Robert
through Dugdale confounding him with his grandfather,
who bore the same name. He became a very powerful
Baron, having no less than ninety-four lordships in York-
shire, summed at fifteen knights' fees. He was a liberal
benefactor to the Ohurch, and along with the Earl of
Huntingdon (afterwards David i.) founded the Abbey of Sel-
kirk, afterwards removed to Kelso. He had charters from
David 1., circa 1124, of the lands of Bstrahanent, or Annan-
dale.' He married Agnes, daughter of Poulk de Paganell,^
•and got with her the manor of Oareton, in Yorkshire, and
other lands. Of a second alleged marriage to Agnes de
Annand there is no proof. He died in May 1141,^ leaving
issue : —

1. Adam, who succeeded in Skelton.

2. Robert, surnamed ' le meschin,' who succeeded in


3. Pagan, supposed to have been the founder of the family

of Bruce of Pickering.

4. Agatha, married to Ralph, son of Ribald, Lord of


Robert de Brus, ' le meschin ' or the younger, the
: second son of his father, got from him his Scottish posses-
sions of Annandale just before the battle of the Standard
in 1138 ; they were both present at that engagement, but
upon different sides, though the young possessor of Annan-
dale was only fourteen. He is said to have been taken
prisoner by his own father, who sent him to King Stephen,
but that monarch courteously remitted him to his mother
^at Skelton. The whole affair was probably a family
arrangement to prevent the lands, in the case of either
side winning, from going out of the family by forfeiture.
Robert de Brus had a grant of certain lands in Durham
from his father, on a complaint made by him that he had
no wheaten bread in Annandale ; he had also a confirma-
tion of the last-named territory from William the Lion,
-dated at Lochmaben, circa 1166.^ Brus married a lady

' Nat. MSS., i. p. xix ; Fraser's Annandale Book. ^ Cf. C'al. of Docs.,
:i. No. 34. 3 Annandale Book, i. p. xi. * Her father's seal attached to
.Tier marriage settlement is given in Gale's Richmond. ^ Gal. of Does.,
i. No. 105.


whose Ohristian name was Buphemia.' He died in 1194,''
leaving issue at least two sons : —

1. Robert, married in 1183 Isabel, natural daughter of

King William the Lion by the daughter of Robert
Avenel.' He died s. p. before his father in 1191, in-
which year his widow married Robert de Ros.

2. William.

William db Brus succeeded his father in Annandale
about 1194. His wife's name was Christina, who survived
him and married, after his death in 1215, Patrick, Earl of
Dunbar, as his second wife." He had issue : —

1. Robert.

2. William.

3. John.'

Robert de Brus, surnamed ' the noble,' was one of the-
' magnates Scotie ' who witnessed the marriage of King
Alexander ii. with Johanna, sister of Henry in., at York.
He married Isabel, second daughter of David, Earl of
Huntingdon, younger brother of King Malcolm iv. and
Bang William ; it was through this marriage that the
succession to the Grown of Scotland came into the family
of Bruce. Isabel became, in 1237, one of the co-heirs of
her only surviving brother, John le Scot, in the earldom
of Chester; but as this possession was seized by King
Henry in., she was granted by him the manors of Hertfleld
and Wrettle, in Essex, and it was at a residence in the
former parish that Brus and his wife chiefly resided. The
former died 1245, and the latter, who was born 1206, died
cJrc« 1251." They were both buried at Saltre Abbey, near-
Stilton. They had issue : —

1. Robert, 'the Competitor.'

2. Beatrice, who in 1221 was the wife of Hugo de Neville.

Robert de Brus was born in 1210, and at the Convention
at Roxburgh in 1255 he was appointed one of the Coun-
sellors and Guardians to the King.' He served on the side

' Orig. charter, No. 2, in H.M. Reg. Ho. 2 c(. Cal. of Docs., i. No. 197.
^ Chron. de Metros, 92, anno 1183. * Cal. of Docs., i. No. 700. ^ Fourth
Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 443. " Cal. of Docs., i. No. 1869. ' Acta Pari..
Scot., i. 119.


of King Henry iii. in tlie wars of the Barons, and after the
battle of Evesham was appointed Governor of Carlisle
Oastle and Sheriff of Oumberlaud.' After the death of
King Alexander iii. in 1286, the Maid of Norway was, in
default of heirs-male, proclaimed at Scone as Reine Here-
tiere and successor to her grandfather, she being then
three years of age. Robert de Brus, however, assembled
his friends and relations at Turnberry Oastle, 20 September
1286, and set forth his claims to the Orown, saying that
he could prove by witnesses then living that King Alex-
ander III. of Scotland, when childless, had declared him
heir-presumptive to the Orown ; that a female was incom-
petent to reign, and that his cousin, Devorgilla, the
daughter of Margaret, the eldest daughter of David, Earl
of Huntingdon, the common ancestor of many of the
claimants, should be set aside in favour of himself, the son
of Margaret's immediate younger sister, Isabella. This
claim, however, was temporarily suspended, owing to the
recognition of the Maid of Norway ; but in 1290, on the
death of that Princess, Brus re-asserted it, and took
active steps towards having himself proclaimed King.
This was stopped by the influence of Edward i., and ulti-
mately Brus retired to his Oastle of Lochmaben, and agreed
that his claim should be tried along with those of the other
Oompetitors by Edward as arbiter. After the award of the
Orown to Baliol, Robert de Brus resigned to his son,
Robert, Earl of Oarrick, all his claim to the Kingdom of
Scotland. This was on the morrow of St. Leonard, 5
November 1292.' He was an old man by this time,
and only lived a few years longer, dying before 3 May 1294.
He married, first, in or before 1240, Isobel, second daughter
of Gilbert de Glare, third Earl of Gloucester and Hereford.'
She was born 1226,' and was only thirteen when married.
By her, who was alive in 1284, he had issue : —

1. Robert, who became Earl of Oarrick.

2. William, married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Ray-

mond de Sully.

3. Sir Bernard of Oonuington and Exton, married, first,

Alicia de Glare, and, secondly, Oonstance de Morleyn.

1 Cal. of Docs., i. No. 1994. 2 Ninth Rep. Bist. MSS. Com., pt. ii. 367.
^ Gal. of Docs., i. No. 1498. * TloAgson's Northumberland, iii. 2.


4. Richard, died before 26 January 1286-87,' and his lands
were re-pledged to Robert Brus, his father.'

Robert de Brus, ' the Competitor,' married, secondly,
before November 1275, Oristiana, daughter of Sir "William
de Ireby, and widow of Thomas Lascelles and of Adam de
Gesemuth.^ She had no issue by her third husband, whom
she survived, but was dead in September 1305/

Robert Bruce, eldest son of ' the Competitor,' married,
as her second husband, Marjorie, eldest daughter and heiress
of her father Neil, Earl of Carrick, and so became Earl
of Carrick jure uxoris. Their meeting has been differently
related by various authors, but the main features of the
story are always the same. On Bruce's arrival at Turn-
berry to convey to the lady the news that her husband, Adam
de Kilconquhar, had been slain at Acre, he met the child
widow hawking with her attendants. Having delivered
his message he was preparing to take leave, when she
ordered her retainers to take him a prisoner to her castle,
where, after an honourable captivity of a few days, they
were married.* These hasty and unauthorised espousals
were nominally disapproved by the King, and a fine
imposed. But as she could hardly have chosen a more
unexceptionable husband, the pair were soon received into
royal favour. The Countess Marjorie died in 1292, and
Bruce, refusing to do homage to Baliol, handed over the
earldom to his son (afterwards Robert i.), and retired to
Norway with his daughter Isabella" for a time. On his
father's death in 1294 he returned to England and had
livery of his father's lands there, and was appointed
Governor of the Castle of Carlisle.' He was summoned to
the English Parliament as a baron (Lord Bruce) on 24
June 1295. He and his son Robert swore fealty to Edward
28 August 1296. He accompanied that monarch in his
expedition to Scotland against Baliol in 1296, but on his

' Cal. of Docs., ii. No. 309. ^ jn addition to the above children, Dugdale
mentions a son John, and Drummond, in Noble British Families, gives
the names of two daughters, Aloysia and Isobella, married respectively
to Sir Nigel Graham of Montrose and John Fitzmarmaduke. There does
not, however, appear to be any record evidence of their existence.
3 Cal. of Docs., ii. No. 826; see also p. 369 ante. * Ihid., 43, 51, 1690.
'- Citron, de Mailros, 219. " Patent Rolls, 20 Bdw. i. M. 4. ' Ibid., 23
Edw. I. M. 5.


claims to the throne being scouted by Edward, he again
retired to England, residing chiefly at Broomeshoobury.'
He died shortly before 4 April 1304,^ and was buried at
Holm Oultram. He had married as a second wife Alianora
. . . who is mentioned as his widow in 1305,^ and she
married, in 1306, Richard de Waleys.
By the Countess Marjorie he had issue : —

1. Robert, afterwards King Robert i.

2. Ediuard, of whom hereafter.

3. Thomas, was wounded and taken prisoner by Sir

Dougal MacDowal at Lochryan, and was brought by
him to Carlisle Castle, where he was executed by
order of King Edward i. 1306-7."

4. Alexander, suSered the same fate at the same time as

his brother. It is said he was a learned man, had
been educated at Cambridge, and was Dean of

5. Sir Nigel, sometimes called Neil, described as miles

pulcherrime juventutis. After holding the Castle of
Kildrummie for his brother, along with the Earl of
Atholl, the fortress was set on iire, and he was
compelled to surrender in September 1306. He was
taken to Berwick, and there executed.

6. Isohel. She is generally said to have married Sir

Thomas Randolph of Strathdon, Great Chamberlain
to Alexander iii., and to have been the mother by
him of King Robert's faithful lieutenant Thomas
Randolph, Earl of Moray, but against that statement
there are the following facts : if King Robert (ac-
cording to Lord Hailes°) was born in 1274, and was
eldest of his family, it is most improbable that Sir
Thomas Randolph, who was a knight in 1306,' could
be the son of a woman born later, or even a year or
two earlier than King Robert. But Isobel was
certainly married to Eric, King of Norway, as his
second wife; for on 20 September 1292 Robert de
Brus, Earl of Carrick, with his daughter Isabella,

1 Morant's Essex. ^ Cal. Docs. Scot., ii. No. 1493. ^ ma., Nos. 1720,
1750. * Chancery Miscellaneous Portfolios, No. 11. Brit. Museum
Add. Mss., 923. ^ Langtoft, ii. 336. « Annals, i. 219. ^ Cal. of Docs.,
ii. No. 1807.


had a safe-conduct to go to Norway,' and it was
doubtless during his visit that the marriage was
arranged. On 25 September 1293 certain articles of
furniture, wardrobe, plate, regalia, crowns, etc., were
delivered at Bergheim by the envoys of Robert de
Brus, Earl of Oarrick, ' for the use of the serene Lady
Isabella de Brus, Queen of Norway,* so that she must
have been married to the King, Eric i. (whose first
wife was the Princess Margaret of Scotland), between
September 1292 and September 1293. Supposing
Isobel to have been born about 1275, she would at
this time have been only eighteen or nineteen years
of age, and therefore unlikely to have been previously
married. There is no foundation for the alleged
second and third marriages of Isobel to an Earl of
AtlioU and an Alexander Bruce.'

7. Mary. She was taken prisoner in 1306 with her sister

Christina, her sister-in-law Elizabeth, wife of King
Robert, and her daughter Marjorie. They were
confined by Edward's orders in ' Kages ' in Roxburgh
Castle,' though the story that they were suspended
in them outside the walls of the castle seems to be
an exaggeration, as they had servants and other little
comforts provided.* She was still a prisoner at New-
castle on 25 June 1312, fourpence a day being paid for
her expenses,' though negotiations had been going on
for her exchange for some time before.' Mary
married, first. Sir Neil Campbell of Lochow, ancestor

Online LibraryJames Balfour PaulThe Scots peerage; founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom → online text (page 38 of 54)