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wards) the three kingdoms of CAcra, CAo/cf,and Pandya; N;«r ho gained a
new title by the defeat of Shriharsha, lord of the northern countries ;
who ever meditated upon the feet of Shri Naga Vardhan^ and was an
eminent follower of Mahddeva. His younger brother Jay a Sinha^
the supporter of the earth, subdued all his rivals. His son, the prop of
the three (6) worlds, Rnja Shri Ndga VardhaUy informs all the present
and future kings :— Be it known to you that at the request of Balldm
7hakur, we have assigned (pouring water &c.) for the support of the
holy inhabitants of Balegram, and in furtherance of the Guggul worship
of Kapaleshwar^ the said village, which is situated on the boundaries of
Guparashtra, with its public buildings, and appurtenances, with the quar-
ters of the impost and the military ; (7) that (the glory of) our
father and mother may endure as long as the sun, the moon, the sea,
and the earth exist, and that our own virtue and fame may be pronnoted.
May then this our grant be respected and observed by our descendants*
or other future kings, remembering that life is as transient as the clouds
of November, i^ccording to the saying of the holy Vyasa, " Sagarand
many other kings have enjoyed the earth, whoever may be the master of
the earth, this is the fruit thereof. Whoever resumes the land which

(4) Seven female deities well known in llie HindO mythology as BrAhmi,
Maheshwari, «&c. the energies of Brahma and other gods.

(5) ^?N?rr^ is erroneously written ^ZTT^J^.

(6) Here we have aij?5r, instead off^q^,

(7) This was the sense that the passage appeared to me to convey, when I
i originally translated the Inscription. 1 have been however satisfied, tliat it
means " the village is not to he entered into by the troops and followers of
tbe king.*'

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6 7W Ancient Sanskrit InBcriptioni. [OeT«

either he himself or others have givenf becomes a worm, doomed to pass
sixty thousand (8) years in filth."

Remarks on the foregoing Inscription.

1 — The Copper plate, of which a copy and an English translation
are herewith submitted to the Society, consists of two pieces 7 inches by
5, connected by two rings, one of which bears a seal, which is exactly
represented in the fac-siniile. It belongs to Narsu Bhala, a Thakur»
originally an inhabitant and a Wataiidar of Kavanai, in the valley of Trim-
bakesh<var, but now living at Nandgam in the Northern Konkan. His
family has been in possession of it from time immemorial, and believing^
that it contained some grant to his ancestors, he was induced to send it to
me to be decyphered.

2. — By the help of Mr. Prinsep's table of the Indian Alphabet I
succeeded in reading the whole of the inscription without much difficulty.
The character in which it is written will be found to bear a close re«
semblance to that of the Allahabad Pillar, which, according to the Jour*
nal of the Bengal A siatic Society for March ISSS, belongs to the 5th
century of the Christian era.

8. — The Plate bears no date, nor makes any mention of the place
where the deed was written ; but it will be found that the grant was
made by Naga Vardhan, the nephew of Pulakeshi, the most mighty of the
well known Chalukya race of Kallian (in the Dekhan), on whose history
much lighthasalready been thrown by the elaborate researches of Mr*
Walter Elliott, of the Madras Civil Service. (9) If according to the Cop-
per deed in the possession of Major Jervis, quoted hi Mr. Elliott's pa-
per, Pulakeshi reigned in the year 41 1 of Shalivahana, the Inscription
now submitted cannot be more than a few years later than that period, a
result which remarkably verifies what is stated as probable in the preced-
ing paragraph.

4. — On comparing the present Inscription with one that accompanies
Mr. Elliott's paper, the fact that first strikes notice is the great similarity
of language. Both the documents begm with the same invocation ta

(6) The word ^^^ a year, is spelled ^f^.

(9) See Mr. E]]iott*s Essav on the sabject p. 8. R. A. Society's Journal for
May 1837.

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1844.] Two AncUnt Sanskrit Imcriptiatui. 7

Varahoi and designate the Chaluky a family as <<Manovyasa Gotra/' «<the
children of Harlti/* ** supported by the seven mothers,'* and as having
subdued all their enemies in an instant by the boar signet obtained from
the favour of Bhagvan Narayan." An indubitable proof of the identity of
the king Pulakeshi, mentioned in both grants, is furnished by the allusion
to his horse ** Kantha Chitra,*' and the performance of the ** Ashwame-
dha!' sacrifice, ¥;hich from the amount of its expense and the difficulty
of its conditions, (of which the exaction of tribute from all the contem*
porary sovereigns is the principal one,) has not been undertaken by nrany
modem princes. This king, according to Mr. Elliott's genealogical table,
is the son of Rana Uaja or Raja Sinha, while according to the Inscrip-
tion before us, he is the son of Kirti Varma. There ia, however, no real
contradiction between the two accounts ; for as the name Raja Sinha oc*
curs in one place according to Mr. Elliott, and he regards it as doubtful,
We may suppose it was a mere title of honour like Rana Rnja, and that
Kartik Varma is the proper name of this king. It will be seen thattho
younger brother of Pulakeshi bears the name of Jaya Sinha, the same as
that of his grandfather, who may be supposed to be the founder of the
Chalukya( 10) dynasty iu the Dekhan. Thus the Copperplate now brought
to light, supplies us with three additional names of the Chalukya kings ;
viz. Kirti Varma, Jaya Sinha, and Naga Vardhan, the father, the younger
brother, and the nephew of Pulakeshi.

5.— With regard to the position of the "Gopa Rashtra," on the
frontiers of which '' Balegrama" is said to have been situated, we have
some ground on which to hazard a conjecture. A tradition exists that
near the village of Anjan Niri, about five miles from Trimbakeshwar,
'where extensive ruins of a town and a strong fort are still to be seen,
there formerly stood the capital of the Gaoli or Cowherd kings. We may
therefore suppose that the valley of Nashik was called Goparashtir in the
time of the Chaluky a kings. This hypothesis is further supported by
the site of the original residence of the Thakur's family ^ where it is rea-
sonable to suppose that the grant must have been found. (11)

6. — On asking Narsii Bhala whether there was any tradition current

(10) Ch&luka is a common family name among the Marathas.

(11) Balcgram near Tavle, may be said to be situated on the frontiers of this
Goparashtra, but it would require a better proof to identify it positively witb
the village mentioned in the grant

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8 Two Ancient Sanskrit Inscriptions. [Oct*

in his family or in bis tribe respecting Ballaro Th4kur, at whose request
the village is said to ba?e been granted, I could obtain no inf<H*mation*
The mention of bis name, however, on so old a document proves, that the
Thakurs formed a portion of the original inhabitants of the Dekhan ; and
some of them possessed great influence with the reigning sovereigns of
the time.

7. — In conclusion I have only to remark that the language in which
the deed is written is elegant, but simple and unaffected ; and is evident -
ly the production of a period anterior to that when the taste of the Hin-
dus was vitiated, and they became fond of a bombastic style, abounding^
in laboured rhymes, far-fetched metaphors, and childish play upon words*
The few errors, which occur principally in the spelling, are marked on the
margin of the t^anslat'on.

8.— I have already said that the character of this grant is nearly the
same as that of the Allahabad Pillar. None of the initial vowels occur,
with the exception of 3" (u);the medials are more nearly allied to those
of the Gujarat Plates of the 4th Century than of the Allahabad Inscrip-
tion ; the only difference being that X (t) is written ^ instead of A ; and
1^ (e) and ^ (ai) are joined as in modern Balbudh, and not as in Bengali
to which the corresponding letters in the Gujarat Plates are al.ke.
Among the consonants I notice some dissimilarity in the following
letters : —

Allahabad Inscription. ^OnUGJVA^
TheNandagam. flD DYQrU \ S'

I may observe that JT and H of the Plate exactly correspond to those
in the Gujarat Plates. It is worthy of notice thai the letter ^ (n) occum
in two distinct forms AT and «^. The former of these is that of the AU
lahabad Pillar, and the latter of the Kutila Inscription from Barelly <^
the year 992 A. D. The first form however is found only in com-

Additional remarks on the two preceding Inscriptions, bi/ the
The earliest records of the Hindu social system, contained in the /?a*
mcifana, JUahabharxta, and Manu, confirm the uniform traditions of
the people^ tLat Bengal^ Orlssa, and the whole of the Dekuan» south

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1844.] Two Ancient Samkrit In$cripHon$. 9

(^ the Nermada river, were about the beguming of the Christian era
inhal^ed by outcaste aiid barbarous tribes, similar to |he people called
by Pliny CaUng<By or Parthiales ; who inhabited the sea coast, at the
Summit of the bay of Bengal, from point Godaveri to cape Negprais.
The ascertained independent origin of the primitive words of the Tamui
language, which are not derived from Sanskrit^ afford strong confirmato-
ry evidence of the comparatively recent amalgamation of these tribes
with the present Hindu state, and that they were converted to the Brah-
manical system, and from barbarity, by an enlightened and civilized peo-
ple from the North. The numerous inscriptions, on copper and on
stone, which have been arranged and commented on, with great research,
by Mr. Walter Elliott, of the Madras Civil Service, supply additional
proofs, relative to this subject ; and clearly indicate that the JBrahmans
ci the North, who introduced the foreign faith and language, were ac-
companied by a warlike race of Kshatriyas ; who, from their devotion t4>
the worship of fire, and the ceremonial observances enjoined by the fV
da$y were denominated Agnikulas^ and subsequently Rajpuis. The in-
scriptions here translated, relative to this stage of the Hindu history of
the South, are of considerable interest; and illustrate the origin of the
Aajput family of the ChalukyaSy who ruled over Kuntala Desha, in
the Dekhan, of which the capital was Kalliani.

In an inscription, engraved on copper, in a very ancient type of the
Purvada Halla Kanara character, and in the Sanskrit language, dated 8ha-
ka 411, (A. D. 490),* the ChalukyaSy are said to be descended from
ManUy by the lineage of Harita;^ who,accor£ng to the Vishnu Pu-
ranOy was one of the sons of the Kshatriya Viswamitraj who obtain-
ed Brahmanhood through devotion ; and from whom the Gotray or fami-
ly of the Kaushika JBrahmans derive their origin* Recording to the in-
scription just mentioned, and in the possession of Major T. B. Jervis of
the Bombay Engineers, the earliest member of the Chalukya family,
cotemporary with the date of the grant, A. D. 490, was Pulakeshi, who
conquered the South, and subdued the kingdoms of Chera, Chola, and
Pandya, or Mysore, Tanjore, and Madura. He is mentioned in No.

* See Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London, volume V. p. 343.

t According to the Vishnu Purana the Hariia are classes of gods, belong-
ing to the twelfth Manwantara ; but in the preceding Inscriptions the name is
feminine Haratiy who among Bauddhss is a Yakshane, or female demon.


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10 T\do Ancient Stmskrit ImeripHons* [Oct.

2 of the present Inscriptions ; and seemB to have been preceded by an-
cestors in the ^rth ; who came from the Bauddha cajHtal of Sawathi-
pura, thought to be the same with with Kosala, or Oude. It is
menticmed in the Ceylon Bauddha annals ; and is erroneously called Wd*
tapipura^m Mr. Elliott's Ye-ur inscription.

The Vishnu Vardkan^ No 1 of the Inscriptions now translated, was
probably the grandson of Ptdakeski^ by his son Kirti Varma; and if so,
his date, ascertained from other inscriptions, would place the present
Copper plate grant, about the beginning of the sixth century A. D.

The Chalukyas generally profess themselves of lunar ori^, and maj
do 30 probably from deriving their title from one of the four classes of
Bauddha followers, called Chailaka .* but they must have subsequently a-
dopted the ceremonial faith of the VecUts, and J^gnihulcLs or worship-
pers of fire: as Kirti Varma Raja is said, by inscription No. % to have
performed the Ashwamedha sacrifice. Their signet of the Varahoj or
Boar being the third incarnation of Vishnu^ for the elevation of the
earth, submerged by the waters, and supposed by Professor H. WA-
son» to be a type of the ritual of the Ve€las^ may have be«i adopted by
the Chalukyasy on their conversion from Bauddha principles to the
orthodox faith of the Brahmans. In both inscriptions KartikeyOy or
the Hindu Mars^ is the special object of reverence by the Chalukyas,
indicating their warlike character, and probably Indo-Scythic origin.

No. 1. Transcript in Devanagri,

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1644.] Tvo A»eient Smukrit Imcriptims. 11

"^^^'^^^^'^tlf^4^ 1 ^l^n^^i^^'^^i^l^K^^Hi ii ^^r^rBn'^.m TM r-

^i(|IilR(^44<+'jt*9:TT: II fNTild*(iLt*)(i^y|q§cTf^^HR<fi|i|dCrr

{^) ^widc^HUch P?; H 'n7nrR^'Jr<:4<iWHci*ifcrn (^)

?■: II ^r^rllxUHHcH-cl-HM^Hi*^^ II ^i^fii^fti^rWTfcKM-

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12 Two Ancient Simskrit Inscriptions. [Oct.

No. 2. Transcript in Devanagri.

^: ^HHl"'^^^>*^uM<M^^^ :' i^^^^^T^^l>^«^ll'^^f^H^l^^^^<M<^lH^!»

<IlHi*(j<4^*<^tp: ^ftfecl•*^«^n^n'*>^i1^<TSj[^f^qi^i^^^|^^^^^^l^
H ^ dlP^^l<^ft^^^ltH^^ «Tft j^*^"<^^^Al^t« T f> ^ ^^^^AlM^d^^Kf^^^lf^^.

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1844.] An Accouni of the Temple of Somnath. 13

Art. IL — An Account qf the temple of Somnath^ translated
from the Persian of the Appendix to the Mirat Ahmedi,
By James Bird, Esq.: to tohich is added a translationf
from Sanskrit into Englishy of an Inscription at Pattan
Somnath, relative to the restoration of the temple in Sam*
vat 1272, A. B. 1215. By W. H. Wathen, Esq.

Recent events, and the proposed restoration to the ancient temple
of Somnath of the gates brought from Cbazna, said to have been
originally part of it, have given this place a modem notoriety little in-
ferior to its former celebrity. If indeed these gates, formed part of the
ancient temple, it m^y be doubted whether they ever belonged to the
now existing ruins of the building at Pattan Somnath ; where the
shrine, according to the excellent account of it contained in the Appen-
dix to the Mirat Ahmediy was several times destroyed and restored.
Agreeably to the Sanskrit inscription, translated in the sequel, the hall
of this temple was rebuilt sonietime after its destruction by Mahmiid of
Gbasna, and a fresh image, or /tnj^ttm, installed in the shrine so late as
A. D. 1215, or almost two hundred years after the original one had been
destroyed by that celebrated conquei^or. The only modem account of
this building, which we have on record, is that given by the late Sir
Alexander Bumes, which was published in the Journal of the Royal Asia-
tic Society.* He thus describes the ruins : — " The great temple of Som-
nath stands on a rising ground on the north*west side of Pattan, inside
the walls, and is only separated by them from the sea. It may be seen
from a distance of twenty five miles. It is a massy stone building, evi-
dently of some antiquity. Unlike Hindu temples generally, it consists
of three domes, the first of which forms the roof of the entrance, the se-
cond is the interior of the temple, the third was the << sanctum sancto-
rum," wherein were deposited the riches of Hindd devotion. The two
extemal domes are diminutive : the central one has an elevation of more
than thirty feet, tapering to the summit in fourteen steps, and is about
forty feet in diameter. It is perfect, but the images which have once
adomed both the interior and exterior of the building, are mutilated, and
the black polished stones which formed its floor have.been removed by

" Vol. V. page 105.

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14 An Account of the Temple of Somnath. [Oct.

the citizens for less pious purposes. Every thing in the vicinity of Pat-
tan corroborates its age, and confirms the relations of the people."

The MircU AhmedTs account of this celebrated temple^ being inter-
esting, is here appended as translated from the Persian.

Somnath, the greatest and most celebrated of temples to be met
with, is visited by the worshippers of idols from the four quarters of
Hindustan. This also is the name of the city situated on the shore of the
sea of Oman, and in the district of Sorath^where there is a strong fortress,
now named Pattan Deo, and otherwise called Prabkaa Pattan, because in
that country the Khetri tribe is known by the name of Prabhas* At this
time the place of the idol is in a great measure destroyed, but it is cele-
brated in every country, and among the Hindus is considered the oldest of
the temples : wherefore travellers and strangers have noticed it in their books
both in prose and verse. The author of the Haft Iklim relates that there
were many golden images in this temple, and that they called the greatest
of them Manat f : but the general opinion regarding this matter, is that
Manat was not one of the idols worshipped by the Brahmans, although it
be said that this deity, before the time of Krishna now four thous-
and years, was worshipped by the Brahmans. Mahmud Ghazi of
Ghazna, however, led by inevitable destiny, having m the year of
the Hejirah 416, A. D. 1020, come into Giyarat from Ghazna, in order to
throw down and destroy the idols of this temple, laid siege to it. So ob-
stinate was the contest on both sides, during the period of the siege, that
for one day no advantage was gained by the Mahomedans, but having pre-
pared next day "the usual war machines, they bravely exerted themselves in
battle, while the people of Somnath crowded to the temple ; from whence,
after having embraced the idol, and sought its assistance, they with loud
waitings rushed out and fought until more than fifty thousand persons were
slain, and the fortress was yielded up. The Sultan entering the temple

* Prabhasaf in Sanskrit, means light or radiance, and was applied as an
appellation of the Saiva linga, which under the name of Somnath, represent-
ed Siva or Mahadeva at Pattan Somnath ; which is called, in the Vishun Pura-
9ta, Probkasa, The Mahatmyam, or legend of the temple, said to be a part
of the Skanda Purana, is entitled Prabhasa Kshetra Mahatmyam, and relates
the origin of the temple — that Soma, or the moon, who had lost his lustre by
the imprecation of Daksha, having propitiated Siva, and erected to the honor
of this deity a splendid lingum, regained the favor of Siva, who conferred on
the pagoda the nt^me of ^omnatha. The acconnt, which the author of the
Mirat Ahmedi here gives for the origin of the name, is not therefore correct.

\ The name of one of the three idols, which, during the times of idolatry
in Arabia, were worshipped in the temple of Mekka.

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1644.] Am AceoufU of the Temple of Sownath. 16

beheld a place, of great breath and length, containing fifty pillars adorned
with all kinds of jewels ; within which he found the idol Manat, in height
about five cubits, and partly buried in the earth. The Sultan on behold-
ing this broke it to pieces with the baton he had in his hand, and afterwards
carrying the pieces to Ghazna strewed them in front of the great mosque
where they remain to this day. Jewels of great value fell from the belly
of the idol ; but this story in detail is related in the fourth volume of the
Rauzat-as-Safa, (a. work of seven volumes,) and in other entertaining
books. In fine^ the people of India are only in part acquainted with the
religious rites of Somnath ; which they washed daily with fresh water
brought from the Ganges, and conveyed from station to station, by per-
sons placed for the purpose, and from a distance exceeding two hundred
faraakh. Moreover imore than a thousand populous villages were be-
queathed for the use of this temple ; more than twenty thousand Brah-
mans were, employed in the ceremonies of its worship, and who had so
arranged for commencing such, that they began their devotions whenever
a golden chain, which was suspended in the temple, was set in motion.
Three hundred persons were ready to shave the heads of the devotees who
frequented the temple to worship the idols, and five hundred dancing
women were also attendant on them. Many of the princes of India devot-
ed their daughters to the service of this temple, and of Somnath ; and what-
ever wealth was obtained by the treasury of Sultan Mahmud, not less than
a million of gold coins were carried away.

It must be generally known that whatever is evident in the old books of
the Brahmans is collected at the temple of the idols, and they therefore
say that the original object of worship in the temple of Somnath was a
linga, which represents the god Mahadeva. There were formerly twelve
lingas named jo< lingas, the first word of which signifies splendour ; and
is one of the many names given to Mahadeva, such as Bhimnath, Gopi-
nath, Somnath, &c. : but in their estimation the original title of jot linga
is the greatest of all, regarding which they tell many wonderful stories,
and that there are eleven other lingas in the neighbouring countries. On
a certain fixed day crowds of Hindus from every distant quarter assemble
here to worship, because in their belief Somnath is a holy place and con-
tains the Unga of radiance, besides many golden and guilded images, which
have been taken away : and relative to what they relate regarding the ob-
ject of worship in the original temple being buried five cubits in the earth,
it appears to have been a linga, which they set up in this manner ; and
every Unga, except the jot linga, one of the twelve, which is made of cut
stone, is named and worshipped under one of the appellations of Mahadeva,

In the year of the Hejirah 666, A. D. 1296, when Alagh Khan, agreea-
ble to the orders of Allah-ad-Khilji, king of Delhi, conquered the province
of Gujarat, he carried an army against Somnath, and destroyed the linga

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16 An Account of the Tetnpk of Somnatk. [Oct.

which had been set up afler the time of Mahmud of Ghazaa ; and which
being restored afresh was popularly worshipped. Wherefore he destroyed
the stone and forwarded many articles of wealth to Delhi.

In the year of the Hejirah 790, A. D. 1387, when Zafar-Khanhad erect-
ed the standard of independence in Gujarat, the Brahmans having cut and
set up anothor linga, he went and destroyed it ; and again in the time of
Khidd Makan it was a third time destroyed. At the present day the re-
mains of the temple are a few columns, outside the citadel of Pattan Deo,
on the banks of the river Sirsuti.

A letter from Purani Ramdat Krishna Datt, at Prabhas Pattan, (Som-
nath) to Lieutenant Colonel Tod, dated the Ibth of the first Chaitra
Shud, Samvat, 1879. (^th March 1823;.

Sir, — Further, you were pleased to commission me to make a copy of
the Slokes, (verses) on the pillar near the Kazi*s house, and to send it to
you* I have therefore made a copy, which cost me much trouble ; be-
cause, in many parts the letters are not legible, as known to you. I suc-
ceeded, however, in copying this inscription after a labour of thirty-two
days ; during which time 1 and my son jointly, with great difficulty de-
cyphered the letters and arranged them. I long ago sent you this copy,
through the medium of Dada Raghupant and Sheth Hansraj ; along
with a letter to you, one to Baba Marathoy and one paper relating to this
c<^y (of the inscription) ; but I know not whether these papers ever
reached, as no answer has been received. Having made another copy I
now transmit it enclosed ; and on its arrival you will oblige me by writing
an acknowledgment of its receipt : for a letter from you. Sir, would
gratify me greatly; and my trouble will be rewarded by the pleasure of re-
ceiving such. This is my wish : therefore being kind, favor me with a letter.

Translation of an Inscription at Pattan Somnath in Khatyawar. Br
W. H. Wathbn, Esq.

I adore that eternal Being who is the source of the twenty-five prin-

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