James Bowling Mozley.

A review of the baptismal controversy online

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et ad vitam sdtemam non electis, minime sequatur . . . EfEectum
tantam in electis suis ezerit : non autem statim eo tempore quo bap*
tizantur, sed interdum in senectute demum eum Spiritus Sanctus
operatur." Ibid. p. 385.

*' Yis et fructus baptismi non ad certum tempus ref erri debet quo
homo aqua baptizatur. Non enim credibile est omnes interne bap-
tizari Spiritu qui ezteme aqua baptizantur. Sed tempus docet
quando aliquis sit regeneratus, nunc, quando videlicet homo ado-
leverit" Ibid. p. 397.

Peter Martyr. — " In eis [parvulis] per baptismum communicatio
hsBC et promissio consignatnr. Perverso quidem ordine quandoque
fit ut res collationem sacramenti sequatur, atque tunc promissio
vel promissioms donum quod reipsa absit,non signatur; ut in his
patet qui sunt inoreduli, et ficto animo ad baptismum accedunt."
Loc. Com. p. 583.

Davenant. — *' Non necesse est ut sacramenta eo ipso momento
quo administrantur efficiant ilia omnia quae figurant ; imo, conce-
dentibus ipsis scholasticis, PacHo dilatoria locum hahet, cum in
ipsa suscepUone ohexponitur. Jam vero in infantibus ipsedefectus
rationis quoad actum est impedimentum quo minus habere possint
actualem fidem, vel actuale studium mortificationis.*' Ezpositio
Ep. ad Coloss. p. 209.

Gataker. — '* Id quod de futuro beneficio ac sub oonditione certa
promisso parvulo cuivis fieri potest ; etiamsi parvulo ipsi usus esse
nou possit donee adoleverit . . . Etiam adultis non credentibus
. . . sigilla foederis divini sunt sacramenta, atque ilHs quidem
promissiones obsignant turn demum ubi crediderint efficaces
futuras." Disceptatio, p. 38.

** The effect of baptism ... is not to be restrained to the time
when baptism is administered, but to be extended to the whole
course of man's life, whensoever he shall believe and repent."
Bishop Downame, Treatise on Perseverance, p. 393.

Digitized by


Note 8. 377

Bishop Bedell. — " All that come to the sacrament, elect or non-
elect, receive the pardon of sin original and actual, sacramentally ;
and whosoever performs the condition of the covenant hath the
fruition of that whereof before he had the grant nnder the seaL
So that the sacraments are not nvda et ineffuMcia eigna on God's
part to the one or to the other . . . Have they (infants) then that
obsignation P Yes, doubtless, according to the form of the covenant.
How is that P That, repenting and believing, their sins are washed
away. Then becaose they do not repent and believe, nothing
passes. Yes, this passes, — the confirmation which this sacrament
gives upon repentance and belief, the same thing which passes to
him qui fictu8 accedit ; who when afterward he doth indeed repent
of his fiction, and receives Christ by faith, hath also the actual
enjoying of the thing so confirmed to him . . . Questionless they
are partakers of the actual obsignation of ablution from original and
actual guilt. Suppose they understand not this obsignation, nor
receive this ablution otherwise than sacramentally P As I said
before, the counterfeit convert also doth ; though he put a bar to
his present ablution of his sins, and consequently his own certifi-
cation thereof." Letter of Bishop Bedell to Dr. Ward. Parr's Life
of Usher, p. 442.

Note 8, p. 51.

Waterland half adopts this mode of speaking. '* Regeneration
in the stricter sense may admit of the distinction of salutary and
not salutary; whereas justification admits not of that distinction
at all, being salutary in the very notion of it." (Summary View
of the Doctrine of Justification, vol. vi. p. 8.) But what authority
can Waterland give for this " stricter *' sense of regeneration in
which it may be not salutary P Begeneration is unquestionably the
grace of baptism, and the grace of baptism is essentially salutary,
because it includes that which is essentially salutary, viz. remis-
sion of sin. Any sense therefore of regeneration in which it is
"not salutary," is not a "stricter," but an incorrect sense of
that term. Waterland, in order to get a regeneration which is " not
salutary," has to separate regeneration from justification, which
latter he admits to be " salutary in the very notion of it." But
regeneration or the grace of baptism is, according to Scripture
and the doctrine of the whole Church from the first, inseparable
from justification, as necessarily including and containing it.

Waterland explains the case of the " FictxM " by this separation

Digitized by


378 Note g.

of regeneratioii into two parts, one of which may be had without
the other. Speaking of persons baptized in unbelief and impeni-
tence, but subsequently belieying and repenting, he says, — " Their
regeneration is not a salutary nor a complete regeneration . . .
their regeneration beg^un in baptism and left unfinished (like an
indenture executed on one side only, or like a part without a coxm-
terpart) comes at last to be complete, i. e. actually salutary ; not
by a formal regeneration, as if nothing had been done, but by the
repentance of the mian." (Vol. iv. pp. 437, 444.) But there is no
authority for cutting regeneralSon into two parts, and giving the
" Fictus " one half of it while he is wicked, and the other half when
he becomes good. Begeneration is indeed a complex thing, and
consists of parts, but these parts are not in actual possession sepa-
rable, nor can regeneration be had in any other way than as a whole.
Either a man is regenerate or he is not. If he is, he has the whole
of regeneration ; if he is not, he has neither part of it, either the
negatiye part, or remission of sin, or the positive part, which is ac-
tual renovation. Both these parts are tied indissolubly together
in actual possession, and make one whole. What Waterland really
means by his non-salutary regeneration, or the first half, is the
baptismal character, which though wholly outside of regeneration,
is that in consequence of which the fictus becomes regenerate
afterwards, upon fulfilling the conditions.

Note 9, p. 61.

St. Augustine in his controversy with the Donatists, once or
twice makes the supposition of the momentary remission of sin to
the baptized impenitent adult, at the instant of the baptismal rite ;
of which sin however the guilt returns again as soon as ever the
rite is over, on account of the recipient's state of impenitence.
But this absurd supposition is not St. Augustine's own, but only
one which, with the redundant fertility of a disputator, he puts
into the mouth of his opponent, in order to stop up every loop-hole
of objection. St. Augustine defends the validity of heretical bap-
tism by the parallel case of baptism without faith and repentance,
which, like heretical, does not remit sin, but is still a valid baptism,
i. e. gives a titie to remission of sin upon the recipient's subsequent
repentance. Not content, however, to let the argument stop here,
he imagines the Donatist objecting that the parallel is erroneous
because baptism without faith and repentance does remit sin, though

Digitized by


Note lo. 379

only momentanlj : an objection which he meets with the reply
that, if this is tme, the same evanescent remission going the next
moment and returning upon admission to the true Church, will
attach to heretical baptism. Jlie supposition, however, is only an
argumentative one, which he puts into the mouth of his oppo-
nent, and not one to which he attaches any truth himself. As Peter
Lombard says, — " Hoc non asserendo dicit . . . sed quserendo et
aliorum opinionem referendo." (L. iv. Dist. 4, § 2.) St. Augustine's
supposition of a regeneration or a birth of the Spirit which is not
to the man's benefit but injury (" nascuntur de Spiritu quamvis ad
pemiciem, non ad salutem." De Bapt. contra Donal 1. v. c. 24,
L vL c. 12) is in the same way a supposition which he offers as an
alternative to his opponent ; ^ not one to which he at all pledges
himself. The Donatist argument was, baptism in schism is not
valid baptism, because it does not make a man to be bom of the
Spirit. St. Augustine replies, — Baptism without faith or repent-
ance is a valid baptism, and yet does not make a man to be bom
of the Spirit : or if you choose to say that baptism without fidth
and repentance does make a man to be bom of the Spirit, though
not to his benefit, then I say that exactly the same effect takes
place in schismatical baptism.

When St. Augustine makes statements of his own on this subject,
they are in simple accordance with the doctrine of Scripture and
the Universal Church, that regeneration implies remission of sin,
and therefore cannot be conferred upon adults without faith and
repentance. " Quid est enim renasci per baptismum, nisi a vetus-
tate renovari P Quomodo autem renovatur a vetustate cui peccata
pneterita non dimittuntur . . . Eegenerationem fatemur; quod
si ita est, et peccata dimissa sunt." (De Bapt. contra Donat.
1. i. c. 11.)

Note 10, p. 54.

The Scholastic dictum that the divine love ccmaea good in the
creature, as distinguished from human love which presupposes it,
implies that the divine love of the creature is prior to the moral
goodness of the creature. ** Differentia attendenda est circa gra-
tiam Dei et gratiam hominis. Quia enim bonum creatursa provenit

^ " Keoesse est enim nt onam de dnobns concedatur : a^t illi qui fal-
laoiter bsdouIo renuntiant nascuntar de Spiritu quamvis ad pemiciem, non
ad salutem \ atque ita poesont heretioi ; ant . . . potest quis baptizari
aqua et non nasci de Spiritu." De Bapt. contra Donat. L vi. o. 12.

Digitized by


380 Note 1 1 .

ex Yolnntate divina, ideo ex dilectione Dei, qua vult creatnns
bonnm, proflait aliqaod bonum in creatara. Voluntas antem
hominis moyetur ex bono pnoexifitente in rebus ; et inde est quod
dilectio hominis non causat totalite^ rei bonitatem, sed pr»8up-
ponit ipsam vel in parte vel in toto. Patet igitur quod quamlibet
Dei dilectionem sequitur aliquod bonum in creatura causatum
quandoque, non tamen dilectioni sBtem® cosetemum. Et secundum
hujusmodi boni differentiam differens consideratur dilectio Dei ad
creaturam : una quidem communis, secundum quam diligit omnia
qu8B sunt ; alia autem dilectio est specialis, secundum quam trahit
creaturam rationalem supra conditionem natursd ad participa-
tionem divini boni. Et secundum banc dilectionem dicitur aliquem
diligere simpliciter, quia secundum banc dilectionem vult Deus
simpliciter creatursd bonum sdtemum, quod est ipse.'* Aquinas,
S.T.lma. 2da. Q.llO.A. 1.

Note 11, p. 83.

I see no reason for abandoning the meaning I put in a former
work upon some passages in Clement of Alexandria :^

1. *0 irar^p oKoyew^croff nvtvfiari tls vloOtaiay ijttiow oId€P koi ^cXci
TovTovt iidvovs, PsBd. 1. L c 5.

2. Ovroor odv ffn<rTpa(f>€VTas ffftSis aZBit ins ra fraibia ycMo^cu Povkerai,
t6v Bvrms noTfpa tiriyv6yras bi viaros ayaytmnjBtvras. Strom. 1. iiLc. 12.

" St. Clement," says the Eeviewer, " distinguishes between re-
generation itself and these dispositions which are its reaulU," But
whether he does or not, he plainly mentions these dispositions as
implied in regeneration.

3. Afi yiip o{/ TO, ilbioka ijl6vov K<trakifr€iv, A irp^rtpov i^^Btia^isv^ aK\a
Koi ra Ipya rov nparipov piov tAv «V nviVfjurri avaytwrnpAvov. Strom.
1. ii. c. 13.

I remarked, " The d<i here means that the regenerate man must
act so in consistency, and to yerify his name and profession as re-
generate.'* To this the reviewer replies, " We do not see any
ground for this observation : dci seems to mean ' ought ' in the
sense of ' it is right;' what we are bound to do, what is our duty."
I still maintain that mine is the natural explanation of the passage,
i. e. that it means more than that a man having been endowed
with 2k faculty t should use it in action, viz. that being an actually

Digitized by


Note 12. 381

holy person by the new birth of the Spirit, he should act throughout
in accordance with this character. The appeal of Clement appears
to be the appeal of St. Paul,—'' How shall we that are dead to sin
live any longer therein P " we who by regeneration are in a state of
actual holiness, must not go back to our former carnal life.

ataSt Koi dpay€pvrf3riT€, 9»g ^crlv 17 ypa(l>fl, t6v Sin^i^s Hvra irartpa ov
fifj antikafirjT€, ovd* ov firj fla't\tva'€a'B€ irorc tig TrfP fiatTikilav r&v
ovpav&v. Ad Grentes, 0. 9.

I assumed that this passage referred to Matt. xviiL 8, *£^ fifj
aTpa(l>rJTt Koiyivr^trBf ^trh iratdui, ov fjJj tla-tkBrjfrt tis ttjv ^(rikiiay ratp
ovpavStv, and that Clement used dvaytvvridrjTt as a synonym for
oTpaxftTfTf. Some reference to Matt, xviii. 3 is not questioned by
my reviewer, but that avaytwt^&riT* is used by Clement as a synonym
for <npa<tnfTf, is disputed and denied, and the term dvay€vwi$rfT€
made to refer rather to John iii. 5: the argument being that
Clement quotes this Matt, xviii. 3 in another passage, with the
special caution that it did not refer to " th^ regeneration," — ov r^v
dpoytmnja-ip ivravBa dXKrfyop&v (Paedag. 1. i. c. 6). But **the re-
generation ^ which is meant in this caution, is, as the reviewer
himself would be the first to assert, the regeneration which was
specially connected with and indeed used as synonymous with
baptism. This is only a caution then against understanding &ap-
tismal regeneration, not against understanding regeneration, in
the natural and antecedent sense of the word, to be referred to in
Matt, xviii. 3. It is admitted that Clement does use the term
" regeneration *' in this general sense, or sense of conversion ; why
should it not be used, then, in this sense in the above extract,
which has all the appearance of referring to Matt, xviii. 3 P But
however this question may be decided, the term dvaytvvri$rJT€ in the
above extract (even if supposed to refer to regeneration in baptism
specially) is still identified with certain actually holy dispositions,
and is only regarded as existing in company with that childlike
temper which Clement puts forward as the Christian ffBos,

Note 12, p. 86.

1. Chrysostom.— '' Benedictus Deus qui fecit mirabilia solus, qui
fecit universa, et convertit universa. Ecce libertatis serenitate
f rnuntur qui tenebantur pauUo ante captivi, et cives Ecdesiad sunt

Digitized by


382 Note 12.

qui fnerant in peregrinationis errore, et jnstitisd in sorte versantor
qni fuerant in confusione peccati. Non enim tantum snnt libeii
Bed et justi ; non tantnm sancti sed et jnsti ; non solum justi sed
et filii ; non Bolom filii sed et hssredes ; non solum hseredes sed et
fratres Cbristi ; nee tantnm ^tres Christi, sed et cohssredes ; non
solum cohsBredes, sed et membra ; non tantnm membra, sed et teni-
plum ; non tantum templum, sed et organa Spiritus. Yides quot
sunt baptismatis largitates, et nonnulli deputant coelestem gratiam
in peccatorum tantum remissione consistere ; nos autem honores
computavimus decem.*' Homilia ad Neophytos quoted by Augus-
tine contra Jul. FeL I. i. c. 6.

2. Gregory Nazianzen, p. 81 : —

T^ </><ori(r/Aa \aiJnrrp6TTjs tari ^x^^t 0<ov luraB^ins^ iirtpwrrnia r^r
€(( Qthv avv(ilirf<r€»s. T6 (jxitriafia fioffBtta r^r aa-B(v(las ttjs f^yuet^pas.
Th <f>STia'fjM <rcucp6s dir6^a-is, Tbmffurros dKoXovBtfo-ii, tL&yov Kow^vin^
liKda-puaros €vca^p3cia-K, iraraieXvcrfi^ff dfiaprias, KJyatrbs fArroviria, (ric^rovf
KOTaXvcis, Td <f)am(rfUi ^x*?/^ frp6t Oe^v, avy€Klirjfjua Xptorov, €p€ia'fjui
martas, vov rfXctWir, icKtU ovpav&v Paa'Lk€las, C^rjt cf/ici^ir, bov\ ias
dvaipio-is, dccr/Mdv IxXvo-if , crvi^eo-ctfr fimnroiria'ig, Oratio 40» torn i.
p. 692.

3. Hippolytus, p. 82 : —

Acvpo Toiwp, dvaytwiiBrfTif SofBptanf, §U vloStaUaf Gcov. Ka irms
ifirja-iv ; 'Ecb/ ftufiKtri fLOix^vtrffS fti^dr <l>oP€vaTjf /ii/dc tlbaXdkaTpwtrffSt iop
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dno^OTjs rhv pvTTOv rrjs oKaBapirias, Koi dgroppiyftjjs t6 fl>opTiop rrJ£ d/iop"
rias, iav dtrol^iTfj r^y vavonXlav rov biafi^ov mi tvdvajf rhv Bitpaxa r^
iriarT€»s, icaB»s ^iy<rti» 'Hcro/as — Xowraa-Bt Koi {jfTrfa-arw KpiaiP, fnHraiirBf
ddiKovfjLtvop, Kpi»aT€ op^oi^ Koi dt«ecu<0<rarc xi)pap' kcli dcvrc Ktu huiKrxr
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dycmtfri, n&s irpoclircv 6 npo<f>vfTrfs t6 rov fitmria'fiaTot KoBapaiot^;
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dc T^v vloB€a'lav, dpipx^eu dirb rov Pcmrio'fiaros \afjj7rp6s a>r 6 ifkiot,
anafrrpdnmop rhs rris ducmoavpti^ dicruHis. Homil. in Theophania,

4 Gregory Nyssen, p. 83 :—

•y^cif b€ irdrr€s Stroi ry dSpij^ rrjs irakiyy(P€a-itu eyKoKkwrtCffrBt Kal
KccCx/JP^ <l>tp^f dpwcatpurfibp r6p ao^ptop, dcc^arf fioi iitrd, rffp fiva-"

Digitized by


Note 12. 383

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€lfnroiTfaip rrjp Korh x^^ KaKea-dfUPos' ((hivKop yap KaTffy6prjfia 6 p63os
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rrip SfAoicixrip ip rfj irpbt roifs 6fto(fAiKovs <f>ikapBp<oni<f. roh oiKtiois Xoytcr-
PmXs €VTvn»a-»prai, Oratio in Baptismnm Ohristi, torn. iii. pp. 878,

6. Clement of Alexandria, p. 84 : —

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dfroppiirrdfjLtBa' x&puriM. dc, «p rh ctrl rote dfiaprfffuunp hrvrifua dpurai'
ifiWTiiriM. dc di' 0^ rh ^iov cVcIyo ffiws r6 ciorfipiop iironrtverai, rovrvcr-

Digitized by


384 Note 12.

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p^poi^ tktvBtpop jcoi dptfifrolkirrop icai 4^«»rrti^y Spjia rov nvtVfAixros
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para, ov/cm dc taptp vaph iMas iccucoL Mia x^^^ "^ ^^^ (fHtrla-'
paros t6 pff t6p avr6p cZmu rf irphf fj Xovaao'Bcu t6p rpAirop,

"'On dc 4 yp&<ris mmuforfkXfi rf <f>mTi<rpan ir€piaorpdwTovira t6w
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tKflprff vpoay€Pop€Pfif ; ov ykp hp tf^ois ciirctv roi' ;(yK$voy* ^ ptp yhp
KaTTixfl<ris (is wicrip ircpioyci* w/orw df Spa Panrio'paTi 6yita nmMtrat
VPtvpoTt .... noiTC^yap vioi cWc du^ TTt'oTCtfrQcovcVXpiOT^ *If;(roi/.
. . . Ovk &pa ol ph yp<»ariKo\f ol di 'jntxiKol iw avr^ rf Aoy^, dXX*
ol irdpT€s dtroBfptpoi rc^f rapKUchs iniBvpias uroi /col irptvpca-iKol napa r^
Kvpi^. . . .

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traidts rov Gcov, ol rhp ptp iroXcu^ dwoB^ptPoi ipBpmrop, Kal rrjf Ktucias
dnMKbvadptPoi t6p x^f&pa, iirtpdvo'dptpoi dc rr)v dffiBapo'iajf rov Xptorov,
Ipa Koipos yfp6p(pos Xaos Syios dpoytPprfBtprts, dpiavrop <t>v\d^p€¥ rov
SpBpwrop, PsBdag. L. i. c. 6, pp. 113 — ^117.

6. Leo, p. 86. — ''Qaaa hoc sacramentmn mens comprehendeTe,
qnsB banc gratiam yaleat lingaa narrare P Bedit in innocentiam
iniqnitas, et in novitatem vetustas ; in adoptionem yeniont alieni,
et in hsereditatem ingredinntnr extranei. De impiis justi, de ayaris
benigni, de incontinentibns casti, de terrenis incipiunt esse coslestes.
QaaB antem est ista mutatio, nisi dextrse ezcelsi F " Sermo 26 (in
Nativ. Dom. 7).

Digitized by


Note 12. 385

" Ipse enim est, coi non solnm gloriosa Martjram fortitndo, sed
etiam omnium renascentium fides in ipsa regeneratione compatitor ;
dam enim renunciatnr diabolo, et creditor Deo, dnm in novitatem
a vetnstate transitor, dnm terreni hominis imago deponitnr et
coelestis forma snscipitiir, qntedam species mortis et qnaddam simi-
litndo resnrrexionis intervenit ; nt snsceptos a Ghristo Ohristnm-
qne sascipiens non idem sit post lavacmm, qni ante baptismom
fnit, sed corpns regenerati fiat caro Christi." Sermo 63.

'* Ipsa est enim novas conditio creatnrsB, qnsB in baptismate non
indumento yeres carnis sed contagio damnatsB vetnstatis eznitnr,
nt efficiatur homo corpns Gbristi, qnia et Ohristns corpns est
hominis." Ep. 47.

'* Manifestnm est omnes in Adam damnationi obnoxios esse nas-
cendo, nisi in Ghristo liberati f aerint renascendo. Unde yigilanter
nobis considerandnm est in ipso regenerationis mnnere qnid gera-
tnr. Qnamvis in nnnm concnrrunt omnes ejnsdem mysterii por-

Online LibraryJames Bowling MozleyA review of the baptismal controversy → online text (page 31 of 38)