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A review of the baptismal controversy online

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tiones, alind tamen est qnod visibiliter agitnr, alind qnod invisi-
biliter celebratnr ; nee idem est in sacramento forma qnod virtns :
cam forma hnmani ministerii adhibeatnr obseqnio, virtos antem
per divini operis prsBstatnr effectnm : ad oajns ntiqne potentiam
referendum est, qnod dnm homo exterior ablnitnr mntatnr interior ;
et fit noya creatnra de yeteii, yasa irsd in yasa misericordise trans-
femntnr, et in corpns Ghristi commutator caro peccati, de impiis
josti, de captiyis liberi, de filiis hominom fiont filii Dei." Epist. ad
Demetriadem, c. 11.

7. Ghrysostom, p. 88 : —

Omvf ff airfBapOfifVf ^cri, tJ dfiaprlt^, n&t h-i (rfaofttv cV avrjj ; rl

i<mVf aurtBdvoiitv ; 5ti v€Kpo\ yey6vafitv airrj, in<rT€va-avT€S

Koi (JHaria-BfvTfs . . . W dc €(m¥ v€Kpovs avrjj ytyovivai ; rh irp6s fjojbiv
vnaKovtip avTJ 'koi,ir6p, Tovro yhp t6 fitp ficarrio'ixa inoirxrfv Una^,
ivfKpwa-fP ^fMS ctvTJ. Act dc XotTT^v iraph rrjs fnirripas tnrovtrj^ Korop*
OovaOai oM dirfptK»s' &<rrt, K.hp pvpia htirarrjif pjfMTi vmucovttVt akXii
fUvfiv aKivrjTOP &{m(p rhv v€Kp6v, "Oirtp oZw 6 (rravpbg r^ Xpurr^ Kal
6 Td<f>os, rovr' ^pw r6 Pofnyrpa yryov€P, tl kal pfl M t&p avrS>¥. Avr6r
p4P yhp a-<ipK\ Koi otriBaPt Koi eroKprj, ^fitig dc apaprUf dp<j>drtpa. . . .
*0 pip aapK6sf 6 rod Xpiorov* 6 dc dfjMpriat, 6 ^ptrtpos, "Oawtp oZp
€K€lpos' dkiiBfig, ovrco Kal otros. . . . *AXXa yhp boKpwrai poi \oin6p
firtici, Koi oTtpd^cu /icyo, Sra^ tppoffcvi ir6<rrip pip rfpds OYTairei (^iXoero*
^lov 6 IlavXoff, fr6<rjf dc iavrow €$(bdtKapfp p<f$vpi^f p€r6. t6 Pdrrria'pa
iiri t6 irpoTtpop htapidprt^ Yipa^t i^aX e« t^v Alyvtrror dpaKapmoPTti, Ka\
a-KopodwP puppfipipoi ptrh rb pdppa' dtKa yap xal tUoaip ripipas vap

C C



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386 Note 12.

fArh rh fidnria'fia ficra/SaXXo/icvoi roU nportpois ndKtif ivix<itpovfi€P,
Horn. X. in Bom., torn. ix. pp. 525, 526.

8. Chryeostom, p. 89 : —

'Efffiyoff li€v aw€<rn^ r^r avatrrao'W r^r avh rev iforXov Bavarov' ^fi'tiS
di binXovv arroBav6rr€s Bdvaro¥ dcirX^v jcai n^y avdcrracriy avKTrafitBtu
Mioy ft€v ap€<rrrifuv T€»s rfiw an6 rrjt Afxapriaf, 2werd<l>fifi€v yap tn^r^
€¥ T^ Pctnria-fiarif Koi <rvvrfy4p6fffL€v avr^ dto tow ficnrrio'paTos* fiia wnf
a^aaraa'is dwdXXayfi dfKzprrjftaTMy* devrtpa d( ovdorao'ir 17 roO <r»fUMTOs^'
t6mK€ T^v fitifjavaj frpoo'^Ka Koi rTjp cXottovq* avrtf yhp iroKv fn^i^^w
€ic€ivris, HoXv yhp fAti(»v dfiapTt&p dfraWay^Pcu fj o'&yua tdciv oFcarcf*
ficvov. Ai^ roOro ^YTfcrc rh o'&fjM, cfrecd^ ^fiaprtv' ovkovv tl opx*? ^^
irccrciv 17 dpapTiCL^ <>Px4 ^*^^ oMaoT^voi r6 afraXXay^MU r^f dfiapriaSm
* Avf <rnffi€V Xoifr6v r^v ftfi(pva apdaraaiv r6v ;(aXr9r6y Bdinxrov r^ff dftap'
Tiat plyftavTfSi koI airodva'dptpoi t6 iroXoi^y l/xdriov, /i^ voivw imtp rav
fkdrrovm dwayoptvamp^p, Tavrrfp ical ^p^is irakai lifp dvdtrTafftv dmo''
Tfjfup, 9r€ i^anrlaBtiptP' «cal ol n^v rov Pcmriaparos dc n/i' €{nr€pap
Kara^iMyrts, rd xaiXd ravra &ppia. Horn. Contra EbriosoB et de
Besarrectione, torn. ii. p. 443.

9. Chryeostom, p. 89 : —

Ov yap x*«p fVaye* KaB^s cVct rrfp v(piTop.^p ravnjPf aXXa t6 isvtvfUL
Ov pipos aXX* okop &»Bpcairop iTfpvrippti* a&pa Koi rovroy (r«fia rd«ecivo*
dX\d t6 phf aapKit t6 6f nptvpariKStt ttc ptrt fivcrai* aXX* ovx a>r 'lovdaZbc*
ov yap <rdpKa, oKKd dpaprr^para ditt^thvcafrBt. .n<Src «eal ytov ; iv ru
poTrrla^pan, Hom. vi. in Ep. Ooloss., tom. xi p. 367.

10. Theodoret, p. 89 :—

Aibda-Kfi irdXiP rrjs ^tpiTopfjt t^p dta^opdv. Ov ydp cWi, <^i;<r(, a-tip'
Kucrj dWd 1^v(vpaT^lcf|J ovbi x^^povoirfTov dWd Biia, ovbe Cfwcpov a-mfioros
d<fiaip€aif, dXXd irdaris airaXXay^ rfjs <f>Bopdi\ In CoL 2. 11.

11. Chrysostom, p. 90: —

*0 ydp diroBap&p, <l>rfa-i, Muccu»t<u dtro Ttjs dpaprias, n«pl tramps
dpBp&nov tovt6 ^i^o-tv, om tfcnrcp 6 drroBapciP dfr^XXarrat t6 \oiir6v rou
dpaprdptip, P€Kp6s Kelptpoff ovno Ka\ 6 dpoPds dir6 rov fiairriafjuiTot,
*Eir€td^ yAp dna( dtreBapep e#cf t, ptKphp bti piptip hia iravrbt t§ dpapri^
El Toipvp d7riBav€S cV rf pairrla-pari^ p4p€ ptKpds* xal ydp Ixaoroff
diroBavcip ovKtri dpcLprdvtw ivpcuT dp. Hom. xi. in BiOm., tom. ix.
p. 631.

12. Chrysostom, p. 90 : —

'O <f>t\dvBp<»7ros Qehs ohcopopStp lijp fiprrtpav o'anjpiap ixo^lfraro tipAv
T^p dm Tov Xovrpov Trjt 7rdkiyy€P(a-ias dpoKaipiaiPj ipa diroBipMPOi rdv
iroXaiov dpBptanov TOVT€<m rd^ irpd^tis rds nopripds Kai Mwrdfupot t6p
ptopy cVi r^p r^ff dprrri^ 6bhp PaBi(»p€P, Hom. xL in Gen., torn. iv.
p. 409.



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Note 13. 387

13. P. 91 :—

M^ Toivvv ?rt irp6s to. fiioariKa fi€iv<»fi€V K€xr)v&rfs, fiff TTtpi Tpxxf^^v rpa-
nfC'lSy firfii ir€pl TToXvreXciav Ifiariwv' Koi yap <x^*^ IfiaTMV fAeyiarov,
^x^iS rpa7rf{ap TrviVfjLaTiicfjPf (x^is rrfv d6(av ttjv avo), koI Trdvra cot 6
Xpitrrbs yiverm, kgI rpdirt^a koi IparioVf kcX oUos icai ice^aX^, Koi pl^a,
*0<roi yap (Is Xpiarbv €^ajrTia'6fjT€ Xptarbv eVcivtrao'^e. Ad lUumi-
natos Catediesis, 2, torn. ii. p. 236.

14. P. 91 :—

Tovro yap itm irakiyyevta-lcu KaBairtp yhp cVl olKias o'aBp&s dtaicf t-
lifvris ov^fis {nroarfipio'p.a rldija-ip ovbi (rvppairrei rais noKaiais oiKodofuzir,
ciiWh p^XP^ ^^'^ Btptkwv aMfv KorciKvaas ovras ayciB€v aviarriai Ka\
dvatcaiviCfiy ovrco leal avros iiroirfatv' ovk CTTCo-Kcvacrev Tjpas dW* av<aB€v
KOTta-Ktvaae, Tovro yap (ori — **Kal dvoKaivcsKTet^s Uptvparos dyiov."
"AvaOtv inotfiat Kaivovs, Horn. iiL in Ep. ad Tit., torn, xi p. 761.

15. P. 91. Theodoret, Ep. Rom. 6. 3 :—

*lipvrj$ris, <t»ja\, rrfv dpapriay, icot v(Kp6s avr^ yiyovaSy ical r^ Xpiar^
avvtTd<fnif' iras rolwv oiov t« ere ri^v (KtivTjp dpaprUiP hi^aaBai ;



Note 13, p. 101.

Peter Lombard. — ** Ea (gratia) pr»paratnr liominis voluntas ut
sit bona, bonnmque efficaciter velit . . . Et si diligenter intendas,
monstratnr quae sit ipsa gratia Yolnntatem prsBveniens et pne-
parans, scilicet /c?e« cum dUectione,** L. ii. Dist. 26, § 1. 4. Grace
is characterized as effective or securing that for which it is
given, according to the Angnstinian definition, De Prsed. c. 5,
''Posse habere tidem sicnt posse habere charitatem natures est
bominum ; habere autem fidem swat habere charitatem gratioe est
fideliumP

Aquinas. — " Gratia aliquid ponit in eo qui gratiam accipit . . .
Quamlibet Dei dilectionem sequitur aliquod bonom in creatura
causatum. Et secundum hujusmodi boni differentiam differens
consideratur dilectio Dei ad creaturam: una quidem communis
secundum quam esse naturale rebus creatis largitur, alia specialis
secundum quam trahit creaturam ad participationem diyini boni
. . . Causatur ex dilectione divina quod est in homine Deo gratum."
S. T. Ima. 2dffi. Q. 110. A. 1. " Gratia comparatur ad voluntatem,
ut movens ad motum." Ibid. A. 4. " Gratia est nitor animse sanc-
tum coDcilians amorem, sed nitor animse est qusedam qualitas sicut
et pnlchritudo corporis. Ergo gratia estqusadam qualtas/' Ibid.

c 2 '

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388 Note 14.

A. 2. " Gratia dicitur facere gratam formaliter, scilicet quia per
hanc homo justificatur, et dignos efficitar vocari Deo gratns.**
Ibid. Q. 111. A. 1. " Deos non sine nobis nos justificat, quia per
motam liberi arbitrii, dom jnstiticamar, Dei jaatitiss consentimos.
Ille tamen motns non est causa gratisa sed effectns, unde tola
operatio pertioet ad gratiam." Ibid. A. 2.

*'Yirtnte8 dicuntnr tbeologicad, turn qnia habent Deum pro
objecto, tnm quia a solo Deo nobis infanduntur . . . Istas virtutes
non dicuntur divinsB sicut quibus Dens sit virtuosus, sed sicut qui-
bus nos efficimur virtuosi a Deo." Ibid. Q. 62. A. 1. ** Virtutes
acquisitsB per actus faumanos sunt dispositiones quibus homo con-
venienter disponitur in ordine ad naturam. Yirtutes aatem inf usse
disponnnt homines altiori modo et ad altiorem finem. Et secun-
dnm acceptionem hujusmodi dicimur regenerari in filios Dei."
Ibid. Q. 110. A. 8. '' Dens movet omnia secandum modnm unios-
en j usque . . . Et ideo in eo qui habet usum liberi arbitrii non fit
motio a Deo ad justitiam absque motu liberi arbitrii ; sed ita in-
fundit donum gratias justificantis, quod etiam simul cum hoc movet
liberum arbitrium ad donum acceptandum." Ibid. Q. 113. A. 3.
'* Deus movet voluntatem homiuis sicut universalis motor ad uni-
versale objectum voluntatis, quod est bonum . . . Specialiter Deus
movet aliquos ad aliquid determinate volendum quod est bonum,
sicut in his quos movet per gratiam." Ibid. Q. 9. A. 6. See
Chapters iz. and x., on the Scholastic Doctrines of Necessity and
Predestination, in the '^ Treatise on the Augustinian Doctrine of
Predestination."

Alexander Alensis. — '* Gratia qua aliquis dicitur esse gratus Deo
necessario ponit aliquid bonum in gratificato, quo est gratus Deo :
illud autem quo est gratus Deo est illud quo est Deiformis vel
assimilatus Deo . . . ponit aliquid in ipso quo dicitur assimilatus
Deo, per quam assimilationem est dignus vitas sBternsB." Sum.
Theol. t iii. p. 460.



Note 14, p. 104.



" Solet etiam qusBri si parvulis in baptismo datur gratia qua,
cum tempus habuerint utendi libero arbitrio, possint bene velle et
operari. De adultis enim qui digne recipiunt sacramentum non
ambigitur quin gratiam operantem et cooperantem perceperint ;
qu83 in vacuum eis redit, si per liberum arbitrium post mortaliter
deliquerint, qui merito peccati gratiam appositam perdnnt. Unde



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Note 14. 389

dicuntar contameliam Spiritni Sancto facere, et ipsama se fagare.
De parvolis aatem qui nondum ratione ntuntur qnaBstio est an in
baptismo receperint gratiam, qua ad majorem venientes astatem
possint velle et operari bonnm. Videtnr quod non receperint, quia
gratia ilia charitas est et fides quae voluntatem preparat et adjuvat.
Sed quis dixerit eos accepisse fidem et charitatem P Si vero gra-
tiam non receperint, qua bene operari possint cum f uerint adulti,
non ergo sufficit eis in hoc statu gratia in baptismo data, nee per
illam possunt modo boni esse, nisi alia addatur ; quae si non additur,
non est ex eorum culpa, quia justificati sunt a peccato. Quidam
putant gratiam operantem et cooperantem cunctis parvulis dari in
munere non in usu; ut cum ad majorem venerint SBtatem, ex
munere sortiantur usum, nisi per liberum arbitrium usum muneris
extinguant peccando ; et ita ex eorum culpa est non ex defectu
gratiae quod mali fiunt, qui ex Dei munere valentes habere usum
bonum, per liberum arbitrium renuerunt, et usum pravum ele-
gerunt." L. iv. Dist. 4.

Having previously decided the general question what constitutes
the grace of baptism, Lombard comes in this passage to a point of
detail, who are the recipients of this grace ; and that part of the
baptismal gift which consists in remission of sin being supposed
to be the common benefit of all in baptism, he raises the question
whether the other or positive part, which he has just called the
" apposition of virtues," and now calls ** the grace by which we are
able to will and do aright," is so also. He assumes that adults
receive it, but moots it as a question which is still undecided,
whether infants do, — an parvuli m baptismo receperint gratiam ;
and decides it in the negative,^rwie^ur quod non receperint ; on the
ground that this grace consists of the virtues of faith and love, and
that infants cannot, by reason of the immaturity of nature, possess
these virtues, Sed quia dixerit eoa axicepiase fidem et charitatem ? He
declines deciding even that this grace will certainly be given them
when they grow up, only saying that ** it will not be owing to their
fault if it ia not, because they are justified from sin." * This is an
awkward conclusion, and not very inteUigible, but it is no decision.
Some think, " qrddam ptUant,'* that grace is given to infants in
munere, not im usu, to be converted to use subsequently as they
grow up ; but he quotes the opinion without endorsing it.

> The term "justified," it must be observed, is not used here in the
scholastic sense of the word, bat in the simpler sense of acquittal, or de-
liverance from g^It, as, indeed, besides the general context, the limita-
tion of the adjunct—" a peooato "—shows.



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390 Note 14.

The natural conclusion, then, from this passage is, that Lombard
declines to assert that infants receive in baptism that whole grace
which he identifies with the grace of baptism or regeneration, and
only commits himself to a particular part of that grace as the
benefit of the infant recipient, and that part, it must be added, not
a distinctive gift of the new dispensation, but common to old and
new. The distinctive grace of baptism was, in Lombard's scheme,
the " apposition of virtues :" it was that which admitted a man
to the new dispensation, and made him a new creature, a true
member of Christ. The remission of sin was a negative gift, which
had no pecuHar Gt)spel rank, but belonged to the initiatoxy sacrament
of the new dispensation, in common with the initiatory sacrament
of the old ; for circumcision conferred remission of sin, both original
and actual, according to Lombard, before this office was transferred
to baptism. (See Note 19.) While infants then had the gift com-
mon to baptism and circumcision secured to them, the Gospel sup-
plement of this negative gift, or the infusion of i>ositive virtue,
does not attach for certain to infant baptism, according to Lom-
bard.

One thing is remarkable in the passage, that the writer does not
seem even to recognize the idea of baptismal grace as a mere power
and faculty. He includes power in it, gratia qtuipossint bene velle
et uperarit but he only sees this power in the form of a habit, an
implanted habit of faith and love, — gratia ilia charitaa est etjid&t.
This habit is indeed not only implanted virtue, but also aaaisting
grace, guce voluntatem proeparat et adjuvat ; it being of the very
nature of a habit to assist the will to do what is right on each par-
ticular occasion ; but the assistance is contemplated in the form
of habit, not of a faculty only. The Anglican reader accustomed
to the latter idea of baptismal grace, expects in reply to the ques-
tion, " Whether infants receive in baptism that grace by which they
will be able, when they grow up, to will and do good P " the answer
that infants are capable of having a factdty implanted in them,
which as they grow up they can improve into a habit; but Lom-
bard disappoints him with a negative, on the ground that this grace
is the virtue of faith and love itself, — quia ilia gratia est charitas
etudes, which infants cannot have on account of the immaturity of
nature.

The late Archdeacon Wilberforce explains this passage of Lom-
bard as only meaning to assert that grace was a Divine influence
as distinguished from an infused habit. " The doctrine of Peter
Lombard differed in one very essential point from that of the later



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Notes 15, 1 6. 391

Schoolmen. For whereas they separated those gifts which grace
bestows upon men from their Divine Giver, speaJdng of them as
habits infused into the mind ... he identified ' the love of God
which is shed abroad in oar hearts/ with the Spirit which sheds
it.*' Doctrine of Baptism, p. 198. But this is first to make a
mistake as to a fact. Lombard does represent grace as an infused
habit. *' lUa gratia vvriu% non incongrue nominatur.*' " Homo
per gratiam baptismi renovatur, quod fit oollatione virivJtumy
" Gratia ilia charitcu est et Jides" " Virtues *' are habits, and
<< love and faith " are habits. In the next place it is totally to
overlook the point of the passage, which distingaishes between two
parts of the baptismal gift, not between two aspects of the whole
of it. Lombard has in his mind infants as distinguished from
adults, bat two modes of representing the baptismal gift would
have had nothing to do with infants as distinguished from adults,
as it would have applied in common to both.



Note 15, p. 107.

Whitaker's answer to the Schoolmen would have been better if
he had left out the extreme case of an edaoation among Turks and
Pagans, which would provoke the reply that a habit might be
implanted and yet not developed on account of unfavourable cir-
cumstances. The difficulty of the Scholastic hypothesis is that,
under the favourable circumstances of Christian education and
society, this supposed universally implanted habit does not come
out in all or even the majority of baptized infants. ** Author huj us
insulssd distinctionis fuit Thomas, qui ait causam cur pueri, cum
habeant habitus, tamen inhabDes sint ad actus, esse impedimen-
tum corporale, ut dormientes, licet habitus virtutum habeant, tamen
propter somnum non operantur. Sed hano esse fictam causam
patet. Nam dormientes sublato impedimento possunt actus exer-
cere : at si puer baptizatus transferretur ad Turcas aut Paganos,
ubi de Ghristo nihil audiret, non crederet actu, etiamremoto astatis
impedimento ; quod indicat ilium nullum talem fidei habitum habu-
isse ; nam si habuisset satate jam provectus sciret aliquid eorum
quae fidei sunt, et posset aliquem fidei actum ex illo habitu eUcere."
Whitaker,Pr8elect. de Sacr. p. 287.



Note 16, p. 109.
*^ Greaturis naturalibus sic providet ut non solum moveat eas ad



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392 Note 17.

actus naturales, sed etiam largiatnr eis formas et tnrtutee quas-
dam, qusB sunt principia actuam, nt secuBdmn seipsas inclinentar
ad bajnsmodi motos ; et .sic motus qnibas a Deo moventur finnt
creatnris connatorales et faciles, secnndom illud Sap. 8. 1 : EC
disponit omnia etcaviter, Molto igitar magis illis qnos movet ad
conseqnendnm bonam snpematarale satemum, ii\fundit aliquas
formas seu qualitates naturales secundum qtias suavUer et prompts
ah ipso moveanturad bonum sBternum consequendnm." S. T. Ima.
2dffi. Q. 110. A. 2. ** Manifestam est quod omne qnod movetiir
necesse est proportionattun esse motori ; et bsBC est perfectio mo-
bilis, in quantum est mobile, dispositio qua disponitur ad boc quod
bene moyeatur a suo motore. Quanto igitur movens est altior»
tanto necesse est quod mobile perfection dispositioue ei propor-
tionetur, sicut videmus quod perfectius oportet esse discipulum
dispositum ad hoc quod altiorem doctrinam capiat a doctore.
Mfuiifestum autem est quodvirtutesbumansB perficiunt hominem,
secundum quod homo natus est moveri per ratiouem in his quas
interius vel exterius agit. Oportet igitur inesse homini altiores
perfectiones, secundum quas sit dispositus ad hoc qw>d divinitus mo-
veaiur ; et istsB perfectiones vocantur dona, non solum quia infun-
duntur a Deo, sed quia secundum ea homo disponitur, ut efficiatur
prompte mjohilis ab inspiratione divina." Ibid. Q. 68. A. 1.



Note 17, p. 113.

Dr. Fusej testifies, in his well-known tract, to the sense of rege-
neration, which has been maintained in these three chapters as
the true one. " Begeneration," according to him, ** comprehends
change of heart and affections, repentance, faith, life, and love "
(Scriptural Views of Holy Baptism, p. 47); "sin not only
remitted," but " slain and crucified, so that we must hencefortli
watch that it live not again in us, that we serve it not again *'
(p. 97) ; *' the putting on of Christ, and the being conformed to
Christ *' (p. 122) ; '* the true circumcision, being disencumbered of
the sinful mass with which we were naturally encumbered, the
body of the sins of the flesh " (p. 126). It is ** the state in which
Christians were persuaded to abide, the fulness which they had
received from Him by whom they had been filled, and in whom
dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead bodily " (p. 126) ; it " places
again upon us the Creator's image, renewing us after His likeness.



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Note 18.. 393

and impreBBing His cast, and to speak the high tmth, His featnres
npon onr souls, as a seal gives its stamp to the body whereon it is
impressed " (p. 137) : it had " cleansed the hearts of the Christians,
addressed by St. Paul, from an evil conscience, joined them to
Christ, made them partakers of His holiness, and fitted them to
appear before Him : after which cleansing they were to remain
clean" (186). "The modem interpretation, which finds a de-
scription of conversion in the putting off the old and putting
on of the new man " — one of the Apostolic phrases for regenera-
tion — ^is, he maintains, " true as fiEur as it goes," though ** it loses
sight of baptism " as the channel of such conversion (178).

In the opinion also of a learned critic and devoted disciple of the
Fathers, regeneration "implies more than a mere capacity for
goodness and holiness ; viz. the actual imparting of those graces in
a manner and degree proportioned to the capacity of the subject,
with a tendency as well as power for their growth and future de-
velopment ; involves actual imparted grace and the gradual deve-
lopment of the fruits of grace, although that grace or goodness be
not necessarily either permanent or final." " The view," he adds,
" has been pretty universally held by Catholics, that regeneration
does imply the gift of real and actual goodness, according to the
spiritual capacities of the subject." Christian Remembrancer,
No. 93, pp. 222, 235.

Note 18, p. 113.

" Unica formalis causa [justificationis] est justitia Dei, non qua
ipse Justus est, sed qua nos justos facit, qua videlicet ab eo donati
renovamur spiritu mentis nostrse, et non modo reputamur sed vere
justi nominamur et sumus . . . Caritas Dei diffunditur in cordi-
bus eorum qui justificantur, atque ipsis inhsBret, unde in ipsa justi-
ficatione cum remissione peccatorum hec simul omnia inf usa accipit
homo per Jesum Christum, cui inseritur, fidem, spem, et caritatem
. . . HuJQs justificationis caussa sunt, finalis quidem gloria Dei
. . . instmmentalis sacramentum baptismi.'^ Bess. 6, c. 7.

" Gratia [quae baptismo homini praestatur] est non solum per
quam peccatorum fit remissio, sed divina qualitas in animo inhsa-
rens, ac veluti splendor quidam et lux, qusB animarum nostrarum
maculas omnes delet, ipsasque animas pulchriores et splendidiores
reddit . . . Huio autem additur nobilissimus iynvnium virtutum
comitatus quad in animam cum gratia divinitus infunduntur."
Catechism of Trent, P. 2. C. 2. Q. 49, 50.



Digitized by



Googk



394 -A^^/^ 19,

Note 19, p. 116.

" lit sciamus etiam antiqaoB justos non nisi per eandem fidem
liberates per qaam liberamur et nos ; fidem scilicet Incaroatioiiifl
Christi, qnse illis prsBnnntiabattir, sicat nobis facta annnntiabatnr.'*
Aug. Ep. 157, § 14. " Ante tempas Legis et tempore ipso Legis
justos Patres . . . Dei gratia per fidem jnstifioabat ; et nunc eadem
in apertum jam yeniens revelata justificat." Ep. 177, § 15. " Sa-
cramentam porro regenerationis nostrse manifestmn esse volnit
manifestatus Mediator. Erat autem antiqais justis aliquod occul-
tum, cum tamen et illi eadem fide salvi fierent quffi fuerat suo tern-
pore revelanda." Ep. 187, § 34. "Imo vero, ut sic loquar,
qaemadmodum se yeritas babet, non nominnm consuetude, Cbris-
tianus etiam ille tunc populus fuit." Serm. 300.

Circumcision is described in some of tbe following passages as
the sacramental channel, in others as the sign, of trae justifying
grace conferred upon the Ancient Fathers.

Augustine. — " Ex quo instituta est circumcisio in populo Dei,
quse erat tunc sigdaculum justitias fidei, ita ad significationem pur-
gationis yalebat et in paryulis originalis yeterisque peccati, sicut
et baptismuB ex illo yalere coepit ad innoyationem hominis ex quo
institutus est. Non quod ante circumcisionem justitia fidei nulla
erat . . . sed superioribus temporibus latuit sacramentum justifica-
tionis ex fide." De Nupt. et Cone. 1. ii c. 11. The passage as
quoted by Lombard has " purgationem " instead of" significationem
purgationis."

Lombard. — " Fuit inter ilia sacramenta sacramentam quoddam,
scilicet circnmcisionis, idem conferens remedium contra peccatum»
quod nunc baptismus pnestat." L. iv. Dist. 1.

Bede. — " Idem salutifersB curationis auxilium in lege circumcisio
contra originale yulnus peccati agebat, quod baptismus agere reve-
latsB tempore gratisB consueyit ; excepto quod regni coelestis januam
intrare non poterat." Hom. in Circum. t. iv. p. 187.

Bonayentare. — " Circumcisio congrue fuit instituta tempore legis
BcriptsB ad deletionem originalis culpsB." Tom. v. p. 19.

Hugo de St. Victor. — *' Idem salutiferse curationis auxilium cir-



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