James Bowling Mozley.

A review of the baptismal controversy online

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cumcisio contra originale peccatum in lege cooperabatur, qaod
nunc baptismus ; excepto quod regni coelestis januam primi patres
intrare non poterant, propter quod necessaria fuit mors Christi,
quae aditum vitea patefecit." Tom. iii p. 261.

Alexander Alensis. — ** Circumcisione tollebatur originale pecca-
tum." '* Quicquid arbitrati sunt nonnulli, circumcisione yeteri



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Note 19. 395

nedam peccatnm originale toUebatar, sed et gratia etiam prsesta-
bator." " Bevera ex yi circumcisionis tollebatnr originale in par-
Ttilis et tarn originale quam actnale in adultis digne snscipientibus.
Yirtns tamen circnmcisioniB per se et primo fmt ordinata ad de-
letionem originalis; sed qoia gratia gratificans non compatitor
satim mortale aHqnod, neqne mors spiritnalis tollitur nisi per
introdactionem vitae spiritnalis, cum hoc quod gratia sive virtns
circumcisionis toUebat originale, ad quod per se ordinata erat,
tollebat et actnale." Summ. TheoL t. iv. pp. 74, 75.

''Ex Sacramento circumcisionis datur gratia toUens originale
peccatum, et diminuens superfluitatem concupiscentisB, et debitum
tollens concupiscendi, et yirtutem prsBstans resistendi concupis-
centisB." Ibid. p. 76.

Burandus. — *' Circumcisio qu® auferebat culpam conferebat
gratiam." P. 293.

Aquinas decides against tlie sacraments of the old law " con-
ferring justifying grace " " per seipsa," even as anticipatory appli-
cations of the benefit of Christ's passion, — •* Sed nee potest dici
quod ^ i^aBsicmQ GhrUii yirtutem haberent conferendi gratiam
justificantem ;** argrning with his usual subtlety that, though a
cause can operate before its own existence as a motive to the mind
or a final cause, it cannot as producing an outward effect or as an
efficient cause ; and therefore that the Passion of Christ could not
act as the efficient cause of the virtue of sacraments which pre-
ceded that Passion. " Nihil prohibet id quod est posterius tem-
pore, antequam sit, movere, secundum quodpraecedit in actu animcB,
sicut finis, qui est posterior tempore, movet agentem secundnm
quod est apprehensus et desideratus ab ipso ; sed illud quod non-
dum est in rerum natnra non movet secundum usum exteriorum
rerum. Sic ergo manifestum est quod a passione Ohristi, quas est
causa humanae justificationis, convenienter derivatur virtus justi-
ficativa ad sacramenta novae legis, non autem ad sacramenta
veteris legis." The sacraments of the old law, however, are still
pronounced to confer grace as si^s of faith, — that faith which
had, even before the new law, the power or office of justifying, ** per
fidem passionis Chnsti justificabantur antiqni patres sicut et nos."
In this sense, then, circumcision conferred grace, — " In circum-
cisione conferebatur gratia in quantum erat signum passiouis
Christi futurae." S. T. P. 8. Q. 62. A. 6.

Bull on the other hand maintains that the "Old covenant
laboured under a want of pardoning grace, or the remission of
Bins." Harm. Diss. 2, c. 7, § 5.



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396 Notes 20, 21.



Note 20, p. 124.

" Hence I distiiigaish life into initial and actnal. Not as if the
Spirit were not actually communicated and did not actnally work,
or actually begin from the very first instant to prepare the soul to
future actual newness of life, by infusing some potential and
seminal grace : but my meaning is that the Spirit doth not at that
time ordinarily so plenarily change — ^renew the whole man, — as to
work in him either faith, hope, or love, or so much as the habits of
these and other graces. . . . Therefore we call that first work, IniHcU,
thereby understanding the first disposition to or degree of actnal
regeneration, but forasmuch as that first work doth not (for aught
we know) extend to a present actual change of the whole man in
the same manner and degree, that afterwards is wrought in him at
his effectual calling; therefore, we call that latter work ActtuU
regeneration.

" This ought not to seem strange to any, for just so it is in the
course of nature. So soon as the reasonable soul is infused, there
is in some sense (not every way in respect of degrees) a rational
life. But how P The soul is there, and in that soul are included
all the principles of reason ; but the soul doth not send forth those
principles into action (unless in some insensible manner by little
and little preparing the infant unto human action), till afterwards
that the senses begin to act. Before that time the reasonable life
cannot wholly be denied to be in an infant, yet forasmuch as the
infant hath not by this time the actual use of reason, for this cause
we call the further perfection of his natural principles by tract of
time attained, when reason puts itself into act, actticd roHonal life ;
and we term the same life, in respect of the first degree and princi-
ples thereof, which together with the reasonable soul in the first
infusion thereof it received, initial life^ Burgess (p. 241), Calvin,
Zanchius, Chamier, Daneau, Whitaker, White, Ainsworth, and
others, are quoted in defence of this position.



Note 21, p. 133.

" Quid autem valeat et quid agat in homine corporaliter adhibita
sanctificatio sacramenti . . . difficile est dicere. Nisi tamen pin-
rimum valeret, non servi baptismum Dominus accepisset. . . .
Usque adeo nemo debet in quolibet provectu interioris hominis, si



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Note 2 2. 397

forte ante baptismnm nsqae ad spiritaaleiii intellectam pio corde
profecerit, contemnere sacramenttun, quod ministromm opere cor-
poraliter adhibetnr, sed per hoc Deus hominis consecrationem
spiritnaliter operatnr. Nee ob alind ezistimo munus bapiizandi
Johanni fuisse attribntnm, nisi at Dominns ipse qui dederat, com
servi baptismum non sprevisset accipere, dedicaret hnmilitatis viam,
et quanti pendendmn esset suum Ittiptiszna quo ipse baptizatarus
erat, tali facto apertissime declararet. Videbat enim tanqnam
peritissimns medicos salntis sBtemsd, qnorandain non defatorum
tamorem, qui cum intellectu veritatis et probabilibus moribus ita
profecissent ut multis baptizatis vita atque doctrina se prasponere
minime dubitarent, supervacaneum sibi esse crederent baptizari,
qnando ad ilium mentis habitum se pervenisse sentirent, ad quem
multi baptizati adhuc ascendere conarentur." De Bapt. contra
Donat. 1. iv. c. 23.

"Et quare oportebat ut Dominus baptizaretur P Quia multi
contempturi erant l)aptismnm, eo quod jam majore gratia pnediti
viderentur, quam viderent alios fideles. Yerbi gratia jam conti-
nenter viyens catecbumenus contemneret conjugatum, et diceret
se meliorem quam ille sit fidelis. Hie catechumenus posset dicere
in corde suo: Qnid mihi opus est baptismum accipere; ut hoc
habeam quod et iste, quo jam melior sum P Ne ergo cervix ista
prsBcipitaret quosdam de mentis justitin busb plurimum elatos,
baptizari voluit Dominus a servo ; tanquam alloquens filios capi-
tales : Quid vos extoUitis P Quid erigitis, quia habetis, ille pru-
dentiam, ille doctrinam, ille castitatem, ille fortitudinem patientisB P
Numquid tantum habere potestis, quantum ego qui dedi P Et
tamen ego baptizatus sum a servo, vos dedignamini a Domino.
Hoc est ut impleatur omnis justiUa." In Joan. Evang. Tract. 13,
§6.



Note 22, p. 138.

" Negari enim non potest adultos credentes justificationem ha-
bere etiam antequam baptizentur. . . . Quin et Deus existimandus
est, ut est bonus, dum consignantur suaa promissiones et sua dona,
ex sua mera misericordia reddere ilia aiictiora.'* Peter Martyr,
Loci Comm. pp. 580, 584.

" Baptismus Comelio f uit lavacmm regenerationis, qui tamen
jam Spiritu Sancto donatus erat. . . . Fides requiritur antequam
ad Sacramentum accedant. Atqui fides non est sine Ghristo ; sed.



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398 Note 23.

qoatenns Sacramentis confirmatnr et aiiffeseet fides, confirmantar
in nobis Dei dona, adeoqne quodammodo augeacit Christns in
nobis." Consensus Tignrinns, 0. 19.

" Sacramenta, ipsam nobis obsignando, fidem nostram Hoc mode
sustinewty alunt, eonfirma/nt, adaugent" Calvin, Inst. L iv. c. 14,

" Si Catecbameni yere credant, habent testante Domino vitam
SBtemam, et sunt vere jam membra Cbristi et Ecclesiffi, vereqae
jnstificati faciunt necessario bona opera. Nee enim his baptis-
mate confertar primam jastificatio, sed obsignatnr eis, confirma-
tnr, et atigetw" Bnoer, Script. Ang. p. 730.

" Tbis marvellous conjunction and incorporation is first begnn
and wrought by faith, as saith Paulinus unto St. Augustine : — * Per
fidem nostram incorporamv/r in Christo Jesu Domino nostro*
Afterwards the same incorporation is assured unto us, and increased
in our baptism." Jewell, Controversy with Harding, Art. 1.

Our Twenty- seventh Article on Baptism is very much in the
language of Lombard. Contemplating the case of faithful adults,
it describes the gift conferred in the actual administration of the
rite as one rather of an outward kind, *' being grafted into the
Church." Lombard says, " Qui ante erat judicio Dei, sed nunc
etiam judicio ecclesise intus est." While the inner grace is only
the increase of one already had, " faith is confirmed and grace in-
creased,^* Lombard says, " Adjutrix gratia omnisque virtus auge"
twr" The principle applies to our baptismal service for adults.
The faithful adult is by the literal terms of this service i*nre-
generate before the act of baptism, and becomes regenerate for the
first time by it. But the Scholastic view modifies the rigour and
bareness of this line of division, and antedates his regeneration and
justification.



Note 28, p. 169.

Hammond in one passage maintains the infusion of a habit in
the act of regeneration, but the position compels him to give up
the assertion of the regeneration of aU infants in baptism, and to
fail back on the presumptive principle, " That makes a man to be
truly regenerate, when the seed is sown in the heart, when the habit
is infused ; and this is done sometimes discemibly, sometimes not
discemibly . . . Undiscemibly God's supernatural agency interposes
sometimes in the mother's womb . . . but this divine adcb-ess attends



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Note 2 i. 399

most ordinarily till the time of our baptism, when the Spirit
accompanying the outward sign infuses itself into their hearts, and
there seats and plants itself, and grows up with the reasonable
soul, keeping even their most luxuriant years within bounds ; and
as they come to an use of their reason, to a more and more multi-
plying this habU of ff race into holy spiritual acta of faith and obe-
dience ; from which it is ordinarily said that infants baptized have
hahitual faiths as they may be also said to have habitual repentance,
and the habits of all other graces, because they have the root and
seed of those beauteous healthful flowers, which will actually
flourish there when they come to years. And this, I say, is so
frequent to be performed at baptism, that ordinarily it is not
wrought without that means, and in those means we may expect it,
as our Church doth in our Liturgies, where she presumes at every
baptism that ' it hath pleased Gk)d to regenerate the infant by His
Holy Spirit.* " Sermon xxvii.

Here is the position maintained that in regeneration there is
implanted a habit of faith and obedience which naturally produces
" multiplied acts," when the infant grows up. But in what pro-
portion of the baptized does this criterion of " acts " show this
habit to be implanted P Hammond is in a difficulty here. He
cannot consistently with plain facts say that it is implanted in all
infants in baptism ; and therefore he interprets the statement in
the Baptismal Service as hypothetical, — '* Our Church |>re8ttme« at
every baptism that it hath pleased GM» to regenerate the infant."
At the same time he wants the bestowal of the habit to be consi-
dered as almost universal, — '* It is %o frequent to be performed in
baptism, that we may expect it." Upon this question of proportion,
experience unhappily decides against Hammond. This is however
a subordinate question, when the main point of universality has
been given up.

Bishop Eaye, in his Charge in 1852, adopts the position of the
haMtuale prvndpivm ffraticB, and maintains that " in baptism the
infant receives the habit of faith and obedience " (Charges, p. 462),
without however appearing to see the consequences of such a posi-
tion ; for he supposes himself, and quotes Hammond as supposing,
that the habit '* is ordinarily infused into the hearts of aU infants
at baptism." What Bishop Kaye means by something being
ordinarily given ahoaye is not very clear ; but it is evident that
he is under the general impression that an implanted habit of
goodness may be the universal accompaniment of infant baptism,
which has been shown to be untenable.



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400 Notes 24, 25.



Note 24, p. 182.

Those who maintain that the consent of antiquity of itself estab-
lishes an article of the faith, will have to decide some points that the j
had rather leave in suspense. There is certainly a concnrrence of
antiquity in the belief tiiat unbaptized infants cannot ^o to h^kveu.
So completely indeed was this taken for granted in the early Church,
that the Pelagians themselves allowed the conclusion, though dis-
owning the premiss for it, and dared not, in defiance of the whole
Church, admit them to heaven, but assigned them a middle state,
— an alternative which Augustine in the name of the whole Church
emphatically rejected. " Bespondemus cum Augustino Dei judicia
esse occulta, cur tot parvulos perire sinat, interim tamen esse jus-
tissima. Nam etiamsi parvuli sine sua culpa non baptizantur, non
tamen sine sua culpa pereunt, cum habeant originale peccatum.
Qui autem fingunt aliud remedium prseter baptismum, apertissime
pugnant cum Evangelio, Conciliis, PatrxbuB atque Ecclesus «»i-
ver8€B consensu** Bellarmine, De Sacr. Bapt. l. i c. 4

" Sane infantes, quia banc, prohibente setate, non possunt habere
fidem, hoc est cordis ad Deum conversionem, conseqnentur nee
salutem, si absque Baptismi perceptione moriuntur." St. Bernard,
De Bapt. c. 9.

Gataker.— " Adversus antiques qui hie adducuntur exceptio du-
plex occurrit 1. quod sinetinctione discedentes fiammis infemaUbns
adjudicarunt. . . .*' Wa»d. — "Esto qvod in uno dogmate vd in
oMero errarinty non sequitur illico in aliis dogmatibus non recte
sentire." Disceptatio inter Ward et Gataker, p. 194.



Note 25, p. 182.

It is not easy to see how the condemnation of the Pelagian Ce-
lestius by the Council of Ephesus, is even the implicit assertion by
that Council of the regeneration of all infants in baptism. In the
silence of the Council we can assume no other reason for the con-
demnation of Celestius, than that as a Pelagian he held the Pela-
gian heresy, or the denial of original sin. The Council then by-
implication asserts original sin. But the assertion of original sin
is not the assertion of the remission of original sin to all infants
in baptism, which is a totally distinct proposition ; still less is it
the assertion of the regeneration of all infants in baptism. Indeed



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Note 25. 401

Pelagios (thougli he would not inclade in regeneration the remission
of what he did not believe in— original sin) happened himself to
assert the regeneration of all infants in baptism (Augustine, De
HsBr. c. 88. X/Ontra JnL Pel L iiL c. 3. 5) ; and therefore that asser-
tion cannot be extracted out of the simple deyiicd of Pelagianism.

The same remark may be made upon the First Canon of the
Fourth Coimcil of Carthage, which, among many points on which
a Bishop elect is to be examined, inserts this — " Si in baptismo
omnia peccata, id est, tam illud originale contractum, quam ilia
qu8B Yoluntaria admissa sunt, dimittantar ;" and upon the Second
Canon of the Council of Milevi — ** Quiounque dicit in remissionem
quidem peccatorum eos (parvulos) baptizari, sed nihil ex Adam
trahere originalis peccati, qaod regenerationis lavacro expietur,
unde fit consequens, ut in eis forma bapti8matis,in remissionem pec-
catorum, non vere sed false intelligatur — anathema sit." Whether
all baptized infants are recipients of the remission of original sin
is not the question before these Councils ; the point which they
assert is, that infants have original sin to be remitted. We want
the express statement directly by a General Council that "all
infants are regenerate in baptism," and we are presented instead
with the adoption by a General Council (Chalcedon) of the canons
of another, a Provincial Council, one of which latter asserts the
doctrine of original sin, its remission in baptism, and its remission
to infants ; all which three assertions were made by the Calvinists
of the Reformation. The only relevant point, — the remission to
all infants, — is not stated. A formal condition of an Article of the
faith, which the assertion by a General Council is, must be ful-
filled with formal correctness. No Greneral Council has imposed
in terms the position that " all infants are regenerate in baptism."
The Bishop of Exeter says (Letter to Archbishop of Canterbury,
p. 52) that by declaring original sin to be a hindrance to the benefit
of baptism, he (Mr. Gorham) denied the Article of the Creed, " One
baptism for the remission of sins." But the statement that
" baptism is for the remission of sin," does not exclude hindrances
to such remission. A state of actual sin is, we know, " a hindrance to
the benefit of baptism :" whether original sin is, is a further and
disputed question ; but it is not excluded as such an hindrance by
this clause.

In the statement of the Council of Orange (a small Council,
A.D. 529, attended by fourteen Bishops) "quod accept a per baptis-
mum gratia omnes baptizati Christo auxiliante et co-operante, quaa
adsalutem anim® pertinent, possint et debeant, si fideHter laborare

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402 Note 26.

voluerint, adimplere" (Harduin, v. ii. p. 1101) — the assertion that
all who receive baptismal grace can fulfil, &c., has nothing to do
with the question who do receive that grace.



Note 26, p. 204.



1. In order to make Angustinianism consistent with sufficient
grace for all, *' sufficient " has been defined as such a measure of
grace as suffices to put a person in such a state, that " if he died in
thai state he would be saved." • But this is an inadequate criterion
of sufficient grace, which must be sufficient not only up to a particular
time, but for the whole of life. Is grace which accompanies a man
up to the age of twenty, because it would have been sufficient for
him had he lived to be no older than twenty, therefore sufficient
for him if he lives to be eighty P It must be remembered that upon
every theory of grace, the man is spiritually dead as soon as ever
the grace of God leaves him. Is strength, then, to swim fifty yards
and no more of the slightest service to a man who has to cross a
river a mile wide P Not of the least, because when he has swum his
fifty yards he sinks immediately, and no more reaches the opposite
bank than a man who could not swim a foot. In the same way a
soul that has had the benefit of Divine grace up to a certain age,
as certainly perishes when that grace finally leaves it, and as cer-
tainly misses salvation, as a soul that never had grace at all. And,
therefore, grace is not grace sufficient for salvation, if (for any
other cause but one which is not the cause here supposed, viz. ha*
bitual and obstinate neglect and contempt of it) it stops short of
the final stage of life, because whenever it stops short it delivers
the man over to the power of sin, under which continuing till he
dies, he perishes finally.

For this reason the regeneration pro statu infantit, which is ap-
pealed to as a xmiversal accompaniment of infant baptism, even on
the Augustinian scheme, is no proof that that scheme is consistent
with the real regeneration of all infants in baptism. It is true that
Angustinianism is consistent with every baptized infant being rege-

' *' As regards the doctrine of snfBoient g^raoe, suppose the matter
were stated thus, that grace may be given such as that men may believe,
shall live religiously, shall love Ood, be holy, be such that if they died
they should he saved— vrho yet through their life being lengthened do fall
away ; can it be denied that grace sufficient for salvation was given to
them P " Christian Remembrancer, No. 93, p. 248.



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Note 26. 403

nerate |>ro iitaJtu infanHa,!. e. being in that state that if he died as
an infant he would be saved ; but this is not enough to constitute
the baptized person regenerate absolutely, for which purpose it is
essential that he should be admitted into a state of grace sufficient
for the needs of whateyer age or circumstances of life he may
actually attain to, and that he should be placed in a condition of
spiritual competency generally, and not only with reference to one
X>articular contingency. An infant who is about to grow up to years
of discretion is not regenerate in baptism, unless he is guaranteed
in baptism such grace as is wanted for the needs of that maturer
age. fiut Augustinianism does not admit of this state of sufficient
grace being uniyersally entered into at baptism.

And this suggests the proper mode of treating the difficulty
which is sometimes raised upon the supposition of an infant being
after baptism immediately carried away by Turks or heathens and
brought up in a false religion; in which case it is alleged that he is
regenerate as being baptized, but that he has not subsequently grace
sufficient for salvation ; not having even the knowledge of the
truth or the opportunity of belief given him. But it is a mistaken
notion of regeneration that it is something done like a piece of
magic in a moment, after which moment, nothing can interfere with
the truth and reality of it. Regeneration is admission to a state,
and a state of indefinite continuance, in which there is afforded
grace sufficient for salvation. This state, therefore^ implies in its
very nature the outward advantages of the Christian calling ; it
assumes that the person is brought up as a Christian; in the
absence of which outward means of grace, the state itself of rege-
neration does not exist, though the baptismal character may be
received.

2. The subtle distinction that it is the same grace in both cases,
but that the elect have the power to use their baptismal grace
profitably, the rest have not, is hardly worth meeting, because such
subtleties are in fact mere words without meaning. How can we
distinguish between the grace and the power to use it P The power
to use the grace is part of the grace, nor should we get into a way
of speaking of a new nature as if it were a material insertion in
the man, which could be separated from all relation to his inward
will and moral power.

It is true that a man may have an vn/ioard faculty implanted in
him by Qt>d, and be placed by Grod's natural providence under such
outward circumstances, that he cannot practically use it. A plough-
man may be bom an orator, and yet the total ^ant of education

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404 Note 27.

hinder all developmont of his gift. And again it is true that a man
may have one particular faculty implanted in him, and jet that
the development and use of it may be prevented by the absence of
other ferCulties, as in the case of a general who has a first-rate stra-
tegical head without the nerve to execute his plans. But it is
absurd to say that a man can have a general inward power which
he has not the general inward power to use, — ^the general inward
power to lead a good life conferred by baptism, which he has not
the general inward power to use in consequence of his exclusion
from the decree of predestination.



Note 27, p. 228.

" Our Reformers from first to llast agreed with the majority of
the most distinguished Continental Bef ormers in maintaining that
baptism (when spoken of in the abstract with reference to its true
nature, intent, and purpose) is a rite divinely appointed as the
instrument in the use of which a certain spiritual blessing is con*
veyed by Grod to the recipient ; and the consequence was that both,
when speaking of baptism in the abstract, used the strongest expres-
sions as to the value of the blessings conferred in it by God ; and
they did this both for the purpose of upholding the truth and
counteracting the opposite error.

** But it is palpably a misinterpretation of this language to infer



Online LibraryJames Bowling MozleyA review of the baptismal controversy → online text (page 33 of 38)