James Bowling Mozley.

A review of the baptismal controversy online

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tale indicium, quale est in adultis externa professio . . . Vides
ecclesiam esse quad lavatur et baptizatur. Idcirco dum parvuli tin-
guntur, constat ad ecclesiam pertinere ; et ecclesisa partes vere esse
non possnnt, nisi spiritu Cbristi sint omati. Quamobrem parvuli
qui vere ad electionem Dei pertinent^ antequam baptizentur, Spiritu
Dei sunt instructi.'* Loc. Comm. pp. 582, 684.

'* Eodem modo bodie usu venit de liberis fidelium. Habemiis
proiiiissionem Deum velle non tantum nostrum esse Deum verum
etiam seminis nostri ; qnaa promissio cum sit indefinita, aroana
Dei electione infantibus applicatur ; non quidem semper omnibus^
sed certis quihusdam prout divino proposOo viswn fuerit. Quod
quum nos lateat, sequi autem debeamus externum verbum quod
commendatum est ecclesise, sub ea promissione parvulos nostros
baptizamus, quemadmodum suos veteres circumcidebant. Id fac-
tum AnabaptistsB reprebendunt, quod neque de Spiritu neqne de
fide, neque de electione illorum parvulorum nobis quioquam con-
stet. Yerum nos ista nihil moramur : tantum respicimus verbum
Dei quod in general] atque indefinita promissione nobis offertur.
Executionem autem ejus Deo committimus, cum de iUms electione
non possimus judioare** In £p. Bom. ix. 8, p. 877.

" QasBrunt nonnulli cum nesciamus utrum infantes rem sacra*
menti habeant, cur apponamus signum, et id, quod nobis incertum
sit, obsignemus P QuLbus respondemus, banc qaasstionem non contra
nos adduci sed contra verbum DeL Is enim diserte prs&cepit et
voluit ut pueri circumciderentur. Deinde respondeant ipsi nobis,
cur adultos ad baptismum aut communionem admittant, cum de
animo illorum sint incertL Etenim qui baptizantur aut commu-
nicant possunt simulare ac ecclesiam decipere. Respondent satis
esse eorum habere professionem. Si mentiuntur, quid hoc ad nos P



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inqaiunt. Ipsi viderint. Ita nos dicimns de infantibns nobis esse
satis, quod Ecclesias offerantur vel a parentibns vel ab illis in
quorum sunt potestate. Quod si cum acti<me sacramenti electio et
proedesUncUio concv/rrcU, ratum est qv^d agimus ; svn minus irritum,
Salus enim nostra pendet ab electione ac misericordia Dei. De ea
vero, cum nobis occulta sit, nihil judicamus.** Ibid, in c. iv. v. 11,
p. 125.



NoTK35,p. 341.



Bucer. — " Nee enim possunt perire quae oves Ohristi sunt, et
babent vitam SBtemam, peccareque et errare perseveranter et fina-
liter non potest quicunque vere credit in Ohristo, eoque est in eo
regenitvs" Script. Ang. p. 787.

'^Baptismate enim homines debent peccatis ablui, regigni et
innovari in vitam setemam : quae omnia non nisi sanctorum et ad
vitam cetemam electorum," Ibid. p. 38.

" Ex illo, Nunquam novi vos, id est, inter meos agnovi, clare
docemur qui aliquando a Ohristo possunt ezcidere, eos Christi
nunquam fuisse, eoque nunquam vere oredidisse, aut luisse pios,
nvaiquam Spiritum filiorwn fuisse na^os,** Enarr. in Matt. c. 7,
p. 203.

^* Si jam ad Ecclesiam pertinent et ipsorum est regnum ccBlorum,
cur eis signum baptismi negaremus P Si qui hffidi inter eos sunt,
tum excludendi nobis erunt, cum id esse sese prodiderint . . .
Quid si etiam 5dem non habeant, Spiritu Dei nihilominus ad
salutem signati P Adest itaque eledis infantihus Spiritus Domini."
In Matt. 19, pp. 403, 404.

" Aperte docet omnia a Divina Electione pendere, eosque, quibus
semel datum fuerit oves esse, perire nunquam posse." In Joan,
p. 716.

** Ex his itaque &,cile cognoscitur omnem ecclesiam veram Dei
constare tantum renatis, habere tamen plerumque inter se in com-
munione externa sacrorum non renatos . . . Hinc itaque planum
est vera EcchsuB m^emhra esse tantum renaios ... Ex his jam
omnibus locis clare perspicimus baptisma commendari nobis, ut
instrumentum divinee misericordisB quo Deus non sua sed nostra
causa dignatur uti, ut quo electis suis, quihus ipse Tubc sua desti-
navit dona, conferat regeneratiorhem, Ac. Nee minus efficax est
horum omnium donorum Dei instrumentum baptisma electis Dei



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41 6 Note 36.

qnos eo statuit sibi regignere, qoam est nllnm remedium ad con-
ferendam sanitatem corpori." In Ep. ad Eph. pp. 658, 660, 598.

" Ecclesia est corpas Christi, i. e. congregatio Hominum, qas
non aliter regitnr Christi Spiritu et verbo quam totum corpus a
capite regatur. Et hoc modo electorum et renatorum tantum est"
Ibid. p. 36.

" Kec enim servat baptisma adultos nisi credentes. Salua
qnidem baptismate offertnr omnibus ; recipiunt autem iUam adnlti
non nisi per fidem, infantee per arcanam Spvritus Saneti opera-
tionem, qua ad vitam atemam sanciificaniwr," Ibid. p. 146.



Note 36, p. 361.

Mr. C^orbam's language on tbis head expressed no more than
the oheignat/try view of baptism, which pervades the theology of
the Beformation.

** Putant yi et efficacia operis baptismi peccatum remitti, neqne
agnoscunt Sacramentis potius remissionem ohsignari, quam adolti
assequuntur credendo, et parvuli fidelium qui ad electionem perti-
nent, per *Spiritum Sanctum et gi*atiam jam kahent . . . Sed
qasBrere facile posset quispiam, Si Christianorum pueri, qui ad
electionem pertinent, ut dixisti, aniequam haptizeniti/r pertinent ad
fadus Dei et Spiritum Sanctum hahent . . . profecto videtur
superfluere baptismus. Cui tinguntur P Quid illis accedit ? Aut
quid confertur illis quod prius non habuerintP Priusquam re-
spondeam vicissim ego ex te quaaram : SitEthoicus setatis adulte,
qui audita prssdicatione Evangeiica convertatur ad Christam,
vere credat : porro saa fide jam justificatus, baptismum desiderat,
sed nondum habet : is cum jam votum obtinuerit, quasso te, cur
est baptizandas P Quid confert ei Sacramentum . . . Yerum licet
ostenderim argumentum non magis contra nos quam contra nostros
adversarios facere, attamen ad ipsum dissolvendum hsdc addam :
PrsBceptum Domini est adimplendum. Is jassit ut baptizemur,
idemque circumcisionem imperavit. Unde si quis ista contemneret,
gravissime peccaret. Hue accedit dona quoB jam hahentwr, et pro-
missio quss jam ad iUos pertinet qui Christi sunt, consignanda est
extemo symbolo." Peter Martyr, Loc. Com. p. 584.

*' Howbeit in plain speech it is not the receiviog of the sacra-
ment that worketh our joining with God. For whosoever is not
joined to God before he receive the sacraments, he eateth and



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Note 2fi' 417

drinketh his own judgment. The MocramenU he tedU and wit'
nes$es, and not properly eauwM of this conjunction . . . We confess
that Christ by the Sacrament of Begeneiution, as Chrysostom
saith, hath made ns flesh of His flesh, and bone of His bone, that
we are the members and He is the Head . . . This marvelloos
conjunction and incorporation iafint hegtm and wroiight by faith ;
afterward the same incorporation is assured to ns and increased
in onr baptism." Jewell, Eeply to Mr. Harding's Answer, P. S.
Ed. pp. 132, 140.

" M. Non ergo remissionem peccatomm externa aqnsd lavatione
ant aspersione conseqnimnr. A« Minime: nam solus Christus
sanguine suo animarum nostrarum maculas luit atque eluit . . .
Hujus vero peccatomm nostrorum expiationis obsignaiicnem atque
pignus ID Sacramento habemus." Nowell's Catechism.

Bollinger's " Decads " received in 1686 the impriTncutwr of the
English Episcopate; the Upper House of Convocation issuing in
that year an order that the junior ministers should provide them-
selves with a Bible and Bullinger's Decads in Latin or English,
and read one chapter in the Bible every day, and one sermon in
the Decads every week.

"The holy and elect people of God are not then first of aU
partakers of the first grace of God, and heavenly gifts, when they
receive the sacraments. For they enjoy the things before they be
partakers of the signs:* BuUinger'a Decads, Lond. Ed. 1677,
p. 1006.

" We believe that God of His mere grace and mercy, in the
Blood of Jesus Christ, hath cleansed and adopted them, and ap-
pointed them to be heirs of eternal life. We therefore baptizing
infants for these causes do abundantly testify that there is not
first given unto them in baptism, but that there is sealed and con-
firmed wnto them, what tliey had before.*' P. 1007.

" They, therefore, which before by grace invisibly are received of
God into the society of God, those selfsame are visibly now by
baptism admitted into the selfsame household <^ GK>d by the
minister of God." P. 101 a

" Sacraments, therefore, do visibly graff us into the fellowship
of Christ and His saints, who were invisibly grafted by His grace
btfore we were partakers of the sacraments:* P. 1021.

" We are not first grafted into the body of Christ by partaking
of the sacraments : but we which were b^ore ingrafted by grace
invisibly are now also visibly consecrated." P. 1023.

" The holy Scripture teacheth that we are washed clean from

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4i8 Note 2^7.

our sins by baptism. For baptism is a sign, a testimony, and a
sealing of onr cleansing. For GKxL veril j hath promised sanctifica-
tion to His Ghnrch, and He for His tmth*s sake pnrifieth His
Church from all sins by His grace, through the blood of His Son,
and regenerateth and dleanseth it by His Spirit, which cleansing
' is sealed in us by baptism** P. 1060.

*' Whereupon of some it is called the first sign or entrance into
Christianity. Net that bqfbre we did not belong to the Chnrch.
For whosoeyer is of Christ, partaking the promises of Gk>d and of
His eternal covenant, belongeth unto the Church. Baptism, there*
fore, is a visible sig^n and testimony of our ingrafting into the body
-of Christ." P. 1061.



Note 37, p. "362.

'Of thenopaerous Protests, whidh appeared against the Gorham
judgment at the time, the principal one, in consideration of the
theological >names attached to it, adopted the ground '* that the
remission of origmal sin to all infants in and by the grace of
baptism, is an essential part of the Article ' One baptism for the
remission of sins ;' " but, though a Protest of some length, being
extended through nine clauses, did not throughout mention the
term "Regenerate." The Protest is occupied, then, with a diflTe-
rent <erm from that with which the judgment is; which is a defect,
because in regard to its subject-matter a Protest cannot keep too
closely to the terms of the judgment against which it is a Protest.
But moreover the term of the Protest differs essentially in mean-
ing from the term of the judgment ; because " remission of original
sin " is only a part of regeneration, whereas the judgment spoke
of "regeneration*" The term of the judgment then covered a
larger area of meaning than the term of the Protest ; which is to
say that the Protest was upon a different subject-matter from that
of the judgment. If it be said that the remission of original sin
implies the accompaniment of the other part of regeneration with-
out expressing it, one part of the whole going with the other ; it
still remains that the eaopressed subject-matter of the Protest is
different from the expressed subject-matter of the judgment.

And it is important to observe that that part of the contents of
regeneration which the term in the Protest does not cover, is just
that part which gave rise to tbe question at issue, viz. whether all
infants were or were not regenerate in baptism. This other part
is one of two alternatives, actual goodness or the power of attain-



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Note 38. 419

ing actual goodness and salvation, according as regeneration is
defined. Bnt either alternative is, npon the ground of experience
or the special ground of the Predestinarian respectively, an obstacle
to a regeneration coextensive with infant baptism.



Note 38, p. 360.

In examining Hooker's baptismal language we observe first of
all that^t is expressly sacramental, so far that he makes the sacra-
ment of baptism an ordained channel and instrument of grace.
But I need not repeat here the caution which I have more than
once given, that among divines a general assertion of the grace
of baptism does not commit the asserter to any decision as to the
conditions upon which such grace is actually received. This gene-
ral form leaves the question open, so that a Galvinist or the opposite
could alike make it, each reserving to himself the right to fill up
the omission in his own way.

We observe, secondly, that Hooker admits infants as well as
adults to a present participation of 1;he grace of baptism. The
solemn and judicial statements in which this decision is expressed
are known to alL These again, however, are only general state-
ments to the effect that the grace of baptism is ope» to " infants."
We obtain the measure of this general language admitting infants
as a dasit not only from common usage in speaking and writing,
but also specially from the usage of the theological writers of
Hooker's own day. For we find this general language that '* in-
fants " are regenerate in baptism, in the writings of avowed Cal-
vinists, who did not hesitate to use it, because they never supposed
that by saying that'* we "are regenerated in baptism, or that
" men " are, or that " infants " are, they committed themselves to
the regeneration either of all infants or all adults in baptism.
" We deny," says Calvin, " that infomU cannot be regenerated by
the power of God."' "What," he asks, "is there to prevent me
from saying that vnfanU receive that grace now in part which
they will enjoy in fulness hereafter P"' " In vnfdntSt* says Peter
Majrtyr, "the Holy Ghost supplies the room of faith, and the
effusion of the Holy Ghost is promised in baptism."^ " Bellar-
mine saith that hidden grace is imparted to vnfamU when they are

« Instit. iv. 16. 18. 1 Ibid. 19. « Loo. Com. chap. 4, 0. 8» § 2.
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420 Note 38.

baptized : tee Bay so too ;" is Whitaker'e statement.* " Wlien «•-
fants are baptized," says Jimins, " God dotb both offer and confer
all the good things of the covenant." ^ *' The infantB of the faith-
ful/' says Zanchins, ** receive the regenerating Spirit in baptism.**'
Burgess denies that '* infanta do not ordinarily receive the Spirit
in baptism." • The plural " infants " is used by these divines who
are avowed Calvinists, not of course in the sense of oM infants,
but as a limited plural, implying certainly that the grace of bap-
tism spoken of is open to infants as a class, but by no means
committing the writers to the position that all infants are regene-
rate in baptism, which indeed they expressly denied.^ When
Hooker, therefore, says that " infants have that grace given them,^
&c., and that '* infants are in the first degree of their ghostly
motion," * Ac., the phrase by no means of itself implies that lie
considers that all infants have that grace, or that aU infants are
in the first degree of ghostiy motion, &c These are general
statements, which leave it undecided whether all or only some of
this class are actually partakers of this grace, whether tlie plural
" infants " is used as a universal term, or only as a limited plural
in the way in which the Calvinists of his own day used it.

The phrase, however, which is in itself open to either of these
interpretations, receives in matter of fact from another portion
and department of Hooker's own language, the latter of the two.
" Gk>d hath predestinated certain men, not all men ; the cause mov-
ing Him hereunio was not the foresight of any virtue in us ; to
Him the number of His elect is definitely known." * And this pre-



» Pralect. de Saor. p. 286. ' Bnrgess, p. 176.

« In Eph. p. 222.

' Baptismal Regeneration of Elect In&nts, p. 80.

* Eccl. Pol. V. 64. 2.

^ The following is Hooker's summary of the doctrine of predestina-
tion : —

" 1. God hath predestinated certain men, not all men. 2* The cause
moving Him hereunto was not the foresight of any virtne in us at alL
8. To Him the nnmher of His elect is definitely known. 4. It cannot be
but their sins mnst condemn them to whom the purpose of His saving
mercy does not extend. 5. To Gk)d'8 foreknown eleot final continuance
in g^race is given. 6. Inward grace whereby to be saved is deservedly
not g^ven nnto all men. 7. No man cometh nnto Christ, whom God by
the inward grace of His Spirit draweth not. 8. It is not in every, no
not in any man's mere ability, freedom, and power to be saved, no man's
salvation being popsible without g^raoe. Howbeit God is no fiekvonrer of
sloth, and therefore there can be no such absolute decree touching man's
salvation as on our part inclndeth no necessity of care and tra^^, but



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Note 38. 42 1

destinatioQ is the original cause or agent in the process of the new
birth, without which that process does not take place in any human
soul. But the original agent does not work without subordinate
means, or an instrument, which is baptism. '' Eternal election not-
withstanding includeth a subordination of means, without which
we are not actually brought to enjoy what Grod secretly did intend ;
predestination bringeth not to life without the grace of external
vocation wherein otir baptism is impUed ;" but with this external
vocation and baptism it doeB bring to life, and baptism therefore is
that " which both dedareth us and maketh us Christians ;" it is
'* the door of our actual entrance into God*s House, the first appa-
rent beginning of life, a seal, perhaps, to the grace of election
before received, but to our sanctification here, a step that hath not
any before it."

It is evident that in this scheme baptism figures as the instru-
ment of predestination, the subordinate means without which that
original cause of spiritual life in the human soul does not produce
that life ; that therefore its effect as such a subordinate means
must depend upon the original cause or agent whose instrument it
is, being present with it to use it for the end designed ; that the

shall certainly take eflfoct whether we ourselves do wake or sleep."
Keble's Ed. vol. ii. 762. Preface, p. c.

In this summary then we observe a certain caution and reserve in
stating the Calvinistio ground, and a stopping short of some harsh por-
tions of Calvinistio language. At the same time the kernel of Calvinism
is here — '' God hath predestinated certain men, not all men, and the
oaase moving Him was not the foresight of any virtue in us at all." If
a divine decree antecedent to all action or desert of the individual is the
necessary condition of salvation, those who are not included in it are ex-
cluded from the possibility of salvation. Some persons are antecedently
to all works of their own certain to be saved, and others are as certain
not to be. It does not signify by what name we call this latter state of
exclusion ; whether we oa& it reprobation or pretention the result is the
same. The substance of Calvinism is thus here^ while to none of the
cautions accompanying it will the Calvinist object. He will allow with
Hooker, that those to whom the decree of predestination does not extend,
'* will be condemned l^ their own sins," such oontinnanoe in sin being
the consequence of this exdusion ; that the non-bestowal of saving grace
is '* deserved," by reason of original sin ; that God's absolute decree
does not preclude the " necessity of care and travail on our part. " What-
ever then Hooker's caution may imply, whether the unconscious conflict
of a mild disposition with doctrinal logic, or that jealousy of any excess
beyond necessary truth which thoughtftd and learned men acquire, or
even a latent intellectual suspicion of the Calvinistio ground as being
open to a balance firom other truth, it does not in effect prevent him from
stating the substance of Calvinism.



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422 Note 38.

grace of baptism, therefore, assnmes election as the conditioD upon
which it is received by the individaaL Baptism is part of tbe
** external vocation," but the external vocation is of no force with-
out the antecedent election whose instrument it is.

The point in dispute between Hooker and Cartwright is, not
whether election is not a necessary condition of the new birth,
which is assumed on both sides, but whether the individual being
elect has the new birth before baptism ; Cartwright maintaining
that he has, Hooker maintaining that he has not, but that baptism
confers thejir«< inward grace; a grace which, though it presup-
poses election [of which it is perhaps the seal], presupposes nothing
else, but is " to our aanctificcUion here a step that hath not any
before it."

It follows upon the grace of Baptism being thus dependent apon
election, that that grace when received is indefectible, because the
elect necessarily persevere to the end, and to them, as Hooker says,
" final continuance in grace is given." Accordingly, the next thing
we observe in Hooker's language is that he does make justifying
or regenerating grace indefectible. " The justified man," he says,
" being aliveto G^ in Jesus Christ our Lord, doth as necessanly
from that time forward always live, as Christ, by whom he halii
life, liveth always." ' Again : ** If the justified err, as he may, and
never come to understand his error, God doth save him through
general repentance : if he fall into heresy. He calleth him either at
one time or another by actual repentance; but from infidelity,
which is an inward direct denial of the foundation, preserveth him
by special providence for ever."' Again: " There was in Habak-
kuk that which St. John doth call ' the seed of God,' meaning
thereby the first grace which God poureth into the hearts of them
that are incorporated into Christ ; which having received, if, be-
cause it is an adversary to sin, we do therefore think we sin not,
we do but deceive ourselves. Yet they which are of God do not sin
in anything any such sin as doth quite extinguish grace, because
the seed of God abideth in them, and doth shield them from receiv-
ing any irremediable wound." ^ Again : " The first thing of His
so infused into our hearts in this life is the Spirit of Christ ;
whereupon the rest of what kind soever do all both necessarily de-
pend and infallibly also ensue, therefore the Apostles term it some-
times the seed of Gt)d." ' Again : " The nflin which is bom of God

• Works, vol. iii. p. 643. ? Ibid. p. 647.

» Ibid. p. 589. » Eool. Pol. v. 66. IL ,



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Note 38. 42:3

hath a promise that in liim the seed of Grod shall abide ; which seed
is a sure preservative against the sins of the third suit,*' which are
" infidelity, extreme despair, and obdnration in sin." *

We have plainly laid down in these statements the doctrine of the
indefectibility of justifying or regenerating grace ; for regeneration
confessedly goes along with justification. But holding this doc-
trine, in what sense did Hooker accept the statement in the Bap-
tismal Service over every infant, that it " is regenerate " P' He
could not accept it as a doctrinal statement, but only in that sense
which was the current and received sense of that day, and in which
his own theological friends held it, viz. the hypothetical.

To the general principle of charitable presumption, we know
from the passage beginning, " We speak of infants as the rule of
piety alloweth," Ac, that Hooker had no objection. The particular
case, indeed, in which Hooker there defends ihe rule of presumption
is not the assertion in the service of the infant's regeneration, for
no objection was made to this assertion in Hooker's day, nor did
it enter into the material of controversy between the defenders of
the Prayer Book and the Puritans. The case in which he defends
the rule of presumption is that of the sponsor saying, in the name
of the infant, ** I believe," which was the assertion of the infant's
belief; which Cartwright objects to because faith implies election ;
and therefore " it can no more be precisely said that he hath faith,
than it may be said precisely that he is elected;" but which Hooker
justifies on the ground that it is sometimes lawful to state a thing
positively, even when we do not know that it is true, but can only
presume it to be so: *'We speak of infants as the rule of piety
alloweth," Ac. But though it was another part of the Baptismal
Service which extracted this defence of positive statements having
an hypothetical meaning, the defence applies generally to the rule
of presumption in Church services.

But Hooker's baptismal statements are quoted as contradicting
his Calvinistic ones. This contradiction then, were it made out,
would only issue in neutralizing Hooker on the question before us,



Online LibraryJames Bowling MozleyA review of the baptismal controversy → online text (page 35 of 38)