James Bryce Bryce.

The book of history. A history of all nations from the earliest times to the present, with over 8,000 illustrations (Volume 3) online

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The Book of History



Ibistor^ of all Battens

.FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRESENT

WITH OVER 8000 ILLUSTRATIONS



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

VISCOUNT BRYCE, P.C., D.C.L, LL.D., F.R.S.

CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS



W. M. Flinders Petrie, LL.D., F.R.S.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON

Hans F. Helmolt, Ph.D. '

EDITOR, GERMAN " HISTORY OF THE WORLD "

Stanley Lane-Poole, M.A., Litt.D.

TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN

Robert Nisbet Bain

ASSISTANT LIBRARIAN, BRITISH MUSEUM

Hugo Winckler, Ph.D.

UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN

Archibald H. Sayce, D.Litt., LL.D.

OXFORD UNIVERSITY

Alfred Russel Wallace, LL.D., F.R.S.

AUTHOR, "MAN'S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE"

Sir William Lee- Warner, K.C.S.I.

MEMBER OF COUNCIL OF INDIA



Holland Thompson, Ph.D.

THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK

W. Stewart Wallace, M.A.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

Maurice Maeterlinck

ESSAYIST, POET, PHILOSOPHER

Dr. Emile J. Dillon

UNIVERSITY OF ST. PETERSBURG

Arthur Mee

EDITOR, "THE BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE"

Sir Harry H. Johnston, K.C.B., D.Sc.

LATE COMMISSIONER FOR UGANDA

Johannes Ranke

UNIVERSITY OF MUNICH

K. G. Brandis, Ph.D.

UNIVERSITY OF JENA



And many other Specialists

Volume III

THE FAR EAST

Malaysia . The East Indies

Java . Sumatra . Borneo . Moluccas, etc.

The Philippine Islands
Oceania . Hawaii . Samoa, etc.

AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND
INDIA



NEW YORK . . THE GROLIER SOCIETY
LONDON THE EDUCATIONAL BOOK CO.






CONTENTS OF VOLUME III

THE COLOUR OF INDIA FRONTISPIECE

SECOND GRAND DIVISION (continued)

THE FAR EAST

MALAYSIA

PAGE

Map of the Malay Archipelago ......... 886

Races of Primitive Culture . . . . . ... . . . 887

Wanderings of the Malays .......... 890

Coming of the Asiatics ........... 895

Europeans in Malaysia ........... 900

THE ISLANDS AND THEIR STORY

Java: The Centre of the Dutch Indies ........ 909

Sumatra: The Stepping-Stone from Asia ........ 915

Borneo: Largest of the Malay Islands ........ 919

Celebes: Smallest of the Larger Islands ....... 923

Moluccas and the Sunda Islands ......... 925

Philippine Islands ............ 929

OCEANIA

Men and Manners in Oceania .......... 937

The Island Nations of the South Seas ........ 945

THE OCEANIC ISLANDS AND THEIR STORY 957

Hawaii: Beginning and End of a Kingdom ....... 968

Samoa and its Settlement by the Powers ....... 975

Tonga: The Last South Sea Kingdom ........ 981

New Zealand ............. 985

Later Events in New Zealand ......... 1002

The Western Powers in the South Seas ........ 1003

Oceania and Malaysia in our own Time ...... . 1006

AUSTRALIA

Map of Australia and Tasmania ......... 1010

The Nature of the Country .......... ion

Native Peoples of Australia and Tasmania ....... 1019

British in Australia ............ 1029

Development of New South Wales ...'...... 1042



THE BOOK OF HISTORY
EARLY HISTORY OF THE COLONIES

Tasmania: The Garden Colony ....

Victoria and Queensland ......

Western Australia: The Youngest State .

South Australia in Development ....

Modern Development of Australia ....

Australia in our own Time .....

Later Events in Australia .....

Great Dates in the History of Australia . . .



1052
10.57
1063
1067
1071
1087
1099

1 1 00



PACIFIC OCEAN



Before Magellan's Voyages
Pacific Ocean in Modern Times



IIOI

1 1 06



THIRD GRAND DIVISION

THE MIDDLE EAST



Map of the Middle East ....

Plan of Third Grand Division

Interest and Importance of the Middle East



1120

1122

1123



INDIA



Beauties of Nature and Art
The Land and the People
Gems of Indian Architecture

ANCIENT INDIA



1129

. 1145

Plate facing 1154



The Aryan Invasion ........... 1155

Map of India 1161

The Aryan Expansion ........... 1167

Buddhism and Jainism ........... 1185

Indian Temples . . . . . . . Coloured Plate facing 1196

From Alexander to the Mohammedans ........ 1201

MOHAMMEDAN INDIA

India before the Moguls 1215

The Mogul Empire ............ 1225

Disruption of the Empire ........... 1238

MODERN INDIA

Princes and People of Modern India ........ 1245

The Foundation of British- Dominion ........ 1251

Map of India in 1801 1266

Expansion of British Dominion ......... 1267

Completion of British Dominion ......... 1285

The Story of the Mutiny 1301

Edward VII in India I3 T 3



VI





MALAYSIA



THE ISLAND WORLD OF THE EASTERN SEAS

RACES OF PRIMITIVE CULTURE



MALAYSIA is the general designation
of the largest group of islands in the
world ; it stretches out in front of Asia to
the south-east, forming the stepping-stone
to the mainland of Australia on the one
side, and to the Melanesian archipelagoes
and the island-realm of Oceania on the
other. It is known also as Indonesia, or the
Indian Archipelago. The numerous mem-
bers of the group include some of the most
gigantic islands on the globe, with moun-
tain ranges and navigable rivers, as well
as diminutive islets, which hardly supply
the sparsest population with the necessaries
of life ; we find, as we go toward the east,
the first traces of Australian
i remes o (j r y ness an( j desolation as well
Natural r , , ,

.... as regions of tropical luxuriance
Conditions , , ,., ,.,., -r,

and splendid fertility. The
term Malaysia is also extended to the
Malay Peninsula, but its restricted use is
adopted for convenience in these pages.

For a long period there was no idea of
any general name for all these islands and
island groups, least of all among the
natives themselves, who often have hardly
recognised the larger islands as connected
territories. Their narrow horizon, on the
other hand, has completely prevented
them from realising the sharp contrast
which exists between their own island
homes, with extensive and deeply indented
coast lines, and the neighbouring
continents, of which only a small part is
in contact with the sea. At least they
have never thought of emphasising such



a distinction by collective names. The
geographers of Europe, having the whole
picture of the world before their eyes,
were the first to mark out the two large
groups of the Sunda Islands and the
Philippines. The title Malaysia, of course,
emphasises the purely ethnological point
of view, meaning the region inhabited by
that peculiar brown, straight-haired race,
to which we give the name Malayan,
recognised from very early times as a
distinct type of mankind.

One member of the ethnological group,
however, Madagascar, belongs geographi-
cally so clearly to Africa that it is treated
in connection with that continent, instead
of being included in the present section.

The Indian island world belongs as a
whole to the tropics, and in its chief parts
to the moist and warm tropical plains.
Highlands, which are of incalculable im-
portance for the culture of tropical coun-
tries, as the ancient history of

. America in particular shows, are
Features of f j . , ,

.... . found to any appreciable ex-

the Islands

tent only in Sumatra, although

there is no lack of mountain ranges and
lofty volcanic cones on the other islands.
If we recall the doctrine of Oskar
Peschel that the oldest civilised countries
lay nearer the tropics than those of
modern times, and that, therefore, the
chief zones of civilisation have withdrawn
toward the Poles, it can at least be con-
jectured that a region so favourably
situated as Malaysia was not always of

887



HISTORY OF THE WORLD



such trifling importance in the history of
mankind as it is at present. We need not
picture to ourselves a primitive highly,
developed culture, but one which, after
reaching a certain level at an early period,
remained stationary and was outstripped
by the civilisation of other regions. The
Dyak in Central Borneo has reached, it
p . is certain, no high grade of

"" T e civilisation, but a comparison
*. n with the reindeer-hunters of
the European Ice Age would
certainly be to his advantage. The entire
ethnological development of the country,
and the influence which it once asserted
over wide regions of the world, prove
that at a remote period a comparatively
noteworthy civilisation was actually at-
tained in the Malay Archipelago.

Malaysia, notwithstanding its place as
a connecting link between Asia and
Australia, occupies from the view of
ethnology an outlying position. It is
true that culture could radiate outwards
from it in almost every direction ; on
the other hand, this region has been
affected almost exclusively by movements
from the north and west, from Asia, that
is, and later from Europe, but hardly at
all from Australia and Polynesia. These
conditions find their true expression in
the old racial displacements of the Malay
Archipelago. The drawbacks of this geo-
graphical situation are almost balanced
by the extraordinarily favourable position
for purposes of intercourse which the
Malay islands enjoy a position in its
kind unrivalled throughout the world.

The two greatest civilised regions of the
world the Indo-European on the one
side, the East-Asiatic on the other could
come into close communication only by
the route round the south-east extremity
of Asia, since the Mongolian deserts con-
stituted an almost insuperable barrier ;
but there in the south-east the island- world
of Indonesia offered its harbours and the
riches of its soil to the seafarers
wea " e d by the long voyage,
and invited them to exchange

Commerce , ,

wares and lay the foundation

for prosperous trading towns. This com-
mercial intercourse has never died away
since the time when it was first started ;
only the nations who maintained it have
changed. The present culture of the
Archipelago has grown up under the
influence of this constant intercourse ;
but the oldest conditions, which are so



important for the history of mankind,
have nowhere been left unimpaired. We
need not commit the blunder of taking the
rude forest tribes of Borneo or Mindanao
for surviving types of the ancient civilisa-
tion of Malaysia. The bold seamen who
steered their vessels to Easter Island and
Madagascar were assuredly of another
stock than these degenerate denizens
of the steamy primeval forests.

It is difficult to give a short sketch of
Malayan history because justifiable doubts
may arise as to the correct method of
statement. First, we have to deal with
an insular and much divided region ;
and, secondly, a large, indeed the greater
part of the historical events were pro-
duced and defined by external influences.
The history of Malaysia is what we might
expect from the insular nature of the
region ; it splits up into a narrative of
numerous local developments, of which the
most important at all events require to
be treated and estimated separately. But,
on the other hand, waves of migration
and civilising influences once more flood
all the island-world and bring unity into

The Strule the Wh lc regi n by 6ndmg the
f natural isolation of the groups.

And yet this unity is only

Individuality r

apparent ; for even if new
immigrants gain a footing on the coasts
of the larger islands, and foreign civilisa-
tions strike root in the maritime towns,
the tribes in the interior resist the swell-
ing tide and preserve in hostile defiance
their individuality, protected now by the
mountainous nature of their homes, now
by the fever-haunted forests of the valleys
in which they seek asylum.

Since there no longer exists any doubt
that man inhabited the earth even at
the beginning of the Drift Epoch, and
since the opinion might be ventured
that his first appearance falls into the
Tertiary Age, it is no longer possible to
deduce in a childlike fashion the primitive
conditions of mankind from the present
state of the world, and to look for its oldest
home in one of the countries still existing.
L,east of all must we hazard hasty con-
clusions when we are dealing with a part
of the earth so manifest' y the scene of
the most tremendous shocks and trans-
formations, and so rent and shattered by
volcanic agencies, as Malaysia. In quite
recent times, also, the discovery of some
bones at Trinil in Java by Dr. Eugene
D.ubois, which Othniel Charles Marsh



MALAYSIA RACES OF PRIMITIVE CULTURE



ascribes to a link between man and the
anthropoid apes, caused a profound
sensation in the scientific world and
stimulated the search, in Malaysia itself,
for the reg on where man first raised him-
self to his present position from a lower
stage of existence. However this question
may be answered, it is meanwhile calcu-
lated to discourage any discussion of
origins ; it especially helps us to reject
those views which unhesitatingly look
for the home of all Malayan nationalities
on the continent of Asia, and from this
standpoint build up a fanciful foundation
for Malayan history. The linguistic condi-
tions warn us against this misconception.
On the mainland of Southern Asia we
find monosyllabic languages ; but in the
island region they are polysyllabic. There
is thus a fundamental distinction between
the two groups.

Two main races are represented in the
Malay Archipelago, which in the number
of their branches and in their distribution
are extraordinarily divergent. They show
in their reciprocal relations the unmis-
takable result of ancient historical occur-
,pk c _ rences. These are the brown,

straight-haired Malays in the
Races of

Mala sia W1 ^ er sense and the dark-
skinned Negritos, who owe their
name to their resemblance to the negro.
Since the whole manner in which the
Negritos are at present scattered over
the islands points to a retrogression,
there will always be an inclination to
regard them, when compared with the
Malays, as the more ancient inhabitants
of at least certain parts of the Archipelago.
These Negritos form a link in the chain
of those equatorial dark-skinned peoples
who occupy most part of Africa, Southern
India, Melanesia, and Australia, and
almost everywhere, as compared with
lighter-skinned races, exhibit a retrogres-
sion which certainly did not begin in
modern times, and suggests the conclu-
sion that the homes of these dark racial
elements were once more extensive than
they are to-day. It is doubtful, indeed,
whether we are justified in assuming
these negroid races to be closely con-
nected, or whether, on the contrary,
several really independent branches of
the dark-skinned type of mankind are
represented among them. One point is,
however, established ; the Negritos of
the Malay Archipelago, by their geo-
graphical distribution, and still more by



their physical characteristics, are most
closely allied to the Papuans, who inhabit
New Guinea and the Melanesian groups
of islands.

It follows that the Papuan race
once extended further to the west, and
was worsted in the struggle with the
Malay element. According to one view,
even the dark-skinned inhabi-
of V R U "* tants f Madagascar would be

closely akin to the Melanesians
Malaysia ~, < T .,

The Negritos are in no re-
spect pure Papuans ; not only are they
often so mixed with Malay tribes that
their individuality has disappeared except
for a few remnants, but many indications
point to the fact that there have been
frequent crossings with tribes of short
stature, whose relation to the Papuans
may perhaps be compared with that of
the African pigmies to the genuine negroes.
These dwarf races cannot in any way be
brought into line with the other dark
peoples. Kinsfolk of the low-statured
race, which has mixed with the Negritos
or perhaps formed their foundation, exist
on the peninsula of Malacca especially
in its northern part, on the Andamans,
and in Ceylon. There were also, in all
probability, representatives of this dwarf
race to be found on the larger Sunda
Islands, and in East Asia.

At any rate, it is a fact that some of
the eastern islands of the Malay Archi-
pelago, particularly the Philippines, still
contain dark tribes, although, in conse-
quence of numerous admixtures and the
small numbers of these petty nations,
their existence has often been doubted.
Karl Semper describes the Negritos, or
Antes, of the Philippines, as low-statured
men, of a dark, copper-brown complexion,
with flat noses and woolly black-brown
hair. Where they have preserved to some
degree their purity of race, they are a
characteristic type, easily distinguishable
from the members of the Malay face. There

appear to be hardly any

Negritos on the Sunda Is-

of NeHtos kndS P r P er ' But in the

south, on Timor, Floris, the
Moluccas and Celebes, more or less distinct
traces point to an admixture of a dark-
skinned race with the Malay population.
The same fact seems to be shown on Java.
Where the Negritos are more differen-
tiated from the others on the Philippines
especially they usually live in the in-
accessible interior of the islands, far from



HISTORY OF THE WORLD



the more densely peopled coasts, and
avoid the civilisation that prevails there.
It is sufficiently clear that these conditions
point to a retrogression and displacement
of the Negritos ; but it is difficult to arrive
at any certainty on these points.

The Papuan strain, which is so often
to be found in the vicinity of the dwarf
race, may be traced to an immigration
from Melanesia, which has had its parallels
even in quite modern times. The Papuans
of Western New Guinea, who were
bold navigators and robbers, penetrated
to the coasts of the eastern Sunda



Islands, and planted settlements there ;
or possibly they immigrated to those parts
as involuntary colonists, having been
defeated and carried away by the Malays
in their punitive expeditions. On the
whole the relation of the Papuan to the
Malayan civilisation is very remarkable.
An explanation of it is much needed,
and would prove of extreme value for
the history of both races. The Papuan
has not merely been receptive of Malay
influences, but has also, to some slight
extent, created and diffused an in-
dependent and self-developed civilisation.



THE WANDERINGS OF THE ttALAYS



A LTHOUGH a certain migratory im-
** pulse which is innate in the Papuan
has caused considerable migrations of the
race, yet these are completely over-
shadowed by the wanderings of the Malay
peoples, which are distinctly the most
extensive known to the earlier history of
mankind ; the more so because the Malays,
not content with spreading over a con-
tinent, took to the sea as well, and thus
became a connecting link between the four
quarters of the globe.

The expression " Malays," since it is

used sometimes in a narrower, sometimes

w in a wider sense, has given rise

to many misunderstandings

Meant by , ~*P

and unprofitable disputes. 1 he

Malays

source of the confusion lies
in the circumstance that the name of the
people which at the period of the European
voyages of discovery seemed most vigor-
ously engaged in war and trade has been
given to the whole ethnological group, of
which it formed only a single, though
characteristic, part. This group, for whose
accepted name it is difficult to find a
substitute, is a branch of the human race
easily distinguishable from its neighbours
and admirably adapted to the nature of
its home; its homogeneity is further
attested by the affinity of the languages
which are spoken by its various branches.

We may assume that it was originally
an amalgamation of various primitive
races. In the islands, as in Northern
Asia, long-skulled (dolichocephalic) peoples
appear to have spread first, but soon to
have received an admixture of short-
skulled (brachycephalic) immigrants.

It is an idle question to ask for the ori-
ginal home of these two component parts
of the Malay race, in face of the incon-
testable fact that the kernel of the Malay

890



nationality occupies at present, as it has
occupied since early times, the island
world of Melanesia ; on the other hand,
comparatively small fragments of the
stock, with a larger proportion of mixed
peoples of partly Malay, partly Mongol,
elements, are found on the continent of
Asia. In this sense the region we are now
surveying is the cradle of the Malay race
as a separate group of mankind : it was
the starting-point of those marvellous
migrations which it is our immediate
intention to examine more closely. The
larger islands within the Malay island world
have exercised an isolating and warping
influence on the inhabitants, and thus
have produced nations as peculiar as
the Battaks on Sumatra, the Dyaks on
Borneo, and the Tagales on the Philippines ;
but this fact must not shake our con-
viction that, taken as a whole, the Malay
race, as we call it, is a comparatively
definite idea. The later infusions of Indian
and Chinese blood, which are now fre-
quently observable, do not concern the
earliest periods.

At first sight, it ought not to be a difficult
task to describe the culture of those racial
elements which migrated from Malaysia
in various directions. Among the de-
scendants of the emigrants there are many
tribes, especially in Oceania,
which have found little oppor-
tunity on solitary islands to
acquire new wealth of civilisa-
tion, and therefore may have preserved
the old conditions in some degree of
purity. It must also be possible even at
the present day to determine, by the
simple process of sifting and comparing
the civilisations of the different branches
which have differentiated themselves from
the primitive stock, what was the original



The

Common
Factor



MALAYSIA WANDERINGS OF THE MALAYS



inheritance which all these had in com-
mon with one another.

But the conditions are by no means so
simple. Quite apart from the possible
continuance of changes and further de-
velopments in remote regions, we must
take into account the losses of culture
which are almost inseparable from exten-
sive migrations. Polynesia in particular
is a region where a settlement without
such losses is almost inconceivable ; the
natura conditions are such that it is
impossible to maintain some of the arts
of civilisation.

If, therefore, at the present day, as we
advance towards Oceania, we cross the
limits within which a large number of
crafts and acquisitions are known ; if on
the eastern islands of Indonesia iron-
smelting ends ; if on the Micronesian realm
of islands the knowledge of weaving and
the circulation of old East Asiatic or Euro-
pean beads, and on Fiji the potter's art,
cease, the cause of these phenomena is not
immediately clear. It is indeed possible
that the inhabitants of Polynesia emigrated
from their old homes at a period when smelt-
ing, weaving, and the potter's

Migrations j.-ii i I__A *

art were still unknown ; but it
of Primitive u Li j.t.

, , is perhaps more probable that

Islanders - , ....

at least one part of the civili-
sation possessed by the small coral islands
of the oceans has been simply forgotten
and lost, or finds a faint echo in linguistic
traces, as the knowledge of iron on Fiji.
And, even in the first case, the question may
always remain open whether the different
branches of knowledge reached their
present spheres of extension in the suite of
migratory tribes, or whether we may
assume a gradual permeation of culture
from people to people, which is possible
without migrations on a large scale, and
may have continued to the present day.

The most valuable possession which can
furnish information as to earlier times is
the language, but unfortunately there is
still an entire want of investigations which
would be directly available for historical
inquiry. This much may certainly be
settled that there are no demonstrable
traces of Indian or Chinese elements in
the Polynesian dialects any more than in
those of Madagascar. It is thus at least
clear that the great migrations must have
taken place before the beginning of our
era.

A proof that the islands proper in
ancient times possessed a civilisation of



their own, nearly independent of external
influences, is given by the supply of
indigenous plants useful to man which
were at the disposal of the inhabitants,
even at the period of the migrations.
Granted that the cultivation of useful
growths was suggested from outside
sources, still these suggestions were appa-
rently followed out indepen-

CealHrf dentl y in the islands - Rice, the
M " ea most valuable cereal of India

and South China, is not an
ancient possession of the islands' culture,
which is acquainted instead with the taro,
the yam, and sesame. Among useful
trees may be mentioned the bread-fruit
palm, and perhaps the coco-nut palm,
which are widely diffused, in the Malayo-
Polynesian region at any rate. Of useful



Online LibraryJames Bryce BryceThe book of history. A history of all nations from the earliest times to the present, with over 8,000 illustrations (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 54)