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FRED
NIBLD




Idorlb's Greatest TDMar

Volume I
THE CAUSES OF THE WAR

THE EVENTS OF 1914-1915
INCLUDING SUMMARY




THE GREAT COMMANDERS OF ALL THE AGES



Alber
Ta



jlbert of Belgium, Julius Caesar, Alexander the Great, Sir Douglas Haig, Napoleon, Gustavus Adolphus,

amerlane, General Pershing, John III (Sobieski), George Washington, Marshal Foch, General Grant,

Charlemagne, General Robert E. Lee



The Book of History

Ube Worlds Greatest Mar

FROM THE OUTBREAK OF THE WAR
TO THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

WITH MORE THAN 1,000 ILLUSTRATIONS

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

HOLLAND THOMPSON, PH.D.

'CTie College of the City of New York



CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS AND EDITORS



Maj.-Gen. Leonard Wood, U.S.A.

COMMANDING 89TH AND 10TH DIVISIONS

G. C. Marshall, Jr.

COLONEL, GEN'L STAFF, A. D. C., U. S. ARMY

Herbert T. Wade

LATE CAPT. ORDNANCE DEPT., U. S. ARMY

John H. Finley, LL.D.

COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION,

N. Y. STATE
COLONEL, RED CROSS IN PALESTINE

Albert Sonnichsen

NEWSPAPER CORRESPONDENT IN
BALKANS

Basil Clarke

THE LONDON DAILY MAIL

Nelson P. Mead, Ph.D.

COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK
EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT A. E. F.

Muriel Bray, L.L.A.

ASST. EDITOR, CANADIAN BOOK OF
KNOWLEDGE

Vernon Kellogg

DIRECTOR IN BRUSSELS OF COMMISSION
FOR RELIEF IN BELGIUM



Rear-Admiral William S. Sims

COMMANDING U. S. NAVY IN EUROPEAN
WATERS

Carlyon Bellairs, M.P.

LATE COMMANDER OF THE ROYAL NAVY

Lt.-Gen. Sir Arthur Currie,
G.C.M.G., K.C.B.

COMMANDER OF THE CANADIAN CORPS
IN FRANCE

Sir John Willison

PRESIDENT CANADIAN RECONSTRUCTION
ASSOCIATION

W. S. Wallace

LATE MAJOR CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY
FORCE

Robert Machray

THE LONDON DAILY MAIL

L. Marion Lockhart, B.A.

ASSISTANT EDITOR, BOOK OF HISTORY

Michael Williams

NATIONAL CATHOLIC WAR COUNCIL
BULLETIN

Viscount Northcliffe

PROPRIETOR, LONDON TIMES



And Other Contributors

Volume XVI

THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
THE EVENTS OF 1914-1915 INCLUDING SUMMARY



NEW YORK . . THE GROLIER SOCIETY
LONDON THE EDUCATIONAL BOOK CO.



COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY
THE GROLIER SOCIETY



All rights reserved, including that of translation
into foreign languages.



PUBLISHERS' PREFACE

WHEN the Great War broke out in Europe more than six years ago
we promised our patrons that we would present to them a volume
containing the story of the contest. At that time no one foresaw the
duration, the intensity, or the extent of the conflict and certainly no one dreamed
that almost the whole world would become involved. Quite evidently no single
volume can describe adequately such a struggle of nations. Therefore the history
which we now offer is more than three times the length of the narrative planned
six years ago.

The delay in publication has been unavoidable. We were unwilling to offer
our readers a hasty sketch made up from newspaper accounts which, however
interesting, could have neither the accuracy nor the balance of true history.
Such a course would have been entirely contrary to our policy and out of har-
mony with the other volumes of our great BOOK OF HISTORY, which this
HISTORY OF THE WORLD'S GREATEST WAR now adequately completes.

Though our editorial staff collected, studied, and filed all the accounts,
reports and documents as they appeared, actual writing was not begun until
long after the Armistice was signed. Only when the end of the war brought to
light hundreds of secret documents, when the final reports of the military and
naval officers were published, and the leaders, civil and military, of all the
nations began writing to explain, to justify or to excuse their actions, did it
become possible to prepare a history of permanent value.

The contributors to the history form an unusual group drawn from Europe,
Canada, and the United States. Some were distinguished participants in the
military or naval actions; others held high positions as civilians, while still
others are able students and writers of history. Their contributions, moreover,
are not a series of unrelated essays as so often happens in works by a number of
authors. All the contributors have co-operated most generously in carrying out
the general plan worked out by the incessant labor of the Editor-in-Chief,
himself a well-known historian, who has welded their contributions into a well-
balanced and harmonious whole.

The thousand and more illustrations and maps add immense value to the
text. Through our connections in Europe we have been able to secure many rare
photographs not before published on this side of the Atlantic and some which
have not been published at all. The official photographs of the leading nations
have been freely used, and many have come from daring civilian photographers
who risked their lives to secure the coveted pictures. The many pictures made



2073293



within the lines of the Central Powers are especially unusual and interesting.
We show the war, not only as it appeared to the Entente nations, but as it
appeared to the Central Powers, and the smaller nations as well.

It is with genuine satisfaction that we offer, therefore, in our HISTORY OF THE
WORLD'S GREATEST WAR an interesting and accurate account of the great struggle
which will be of permanent value on account of plan, authorship and illustration.

THE GROLIER SOCIETY.



EDITOR'S PREFACE

THE difficulties which present themselves in the preparation of an
account of a great cataclysm like the World War are stupendous, and
may well disturb any author, or editor. The task is not alone to write
the story of a convulsed world writhing in agony for more than four years, but
to find the reasons, often obscure, why the rulers of nations dared to provoke or
to enter into such a contest.

Perhaps the most difficult decisions confronting the editor had to do with
proportion and selection. A full account of the participation of any one of the
great nations involved would require many volumes. The story of Verdun or of
the Somme will some day be told in thousands of pages, but that day is not yet.
Since the space is limited, what shah 1 be told and what omitted? Since the editor
must make a selection from the almost infinite number of important facts,
what shall be his guiding principle?

It would be easier to tell the story from the standpoint of some one of the
participants, giving the greater part of the space to the actions and decisions of
that nation, with brief summaries of those operations with which the soldiers
or the statesmen of that nation were not immediately concerned; but such an
account would not be a real history of the war.

It fell to the lot of the Editor as his chief share in the war to attempt to
explain and interpret the confusing events of those crowded days to more than
two thousand keen-minded youths, among whom could be found representatives
of the blood of nearly every warring power. Their eager interest and searching
questions forced him to strive to see the war in its entirety and not simply the
part of Britain or Belgium or Russia or France. He has sought in planning this
work to show the whole world at war, armies and peoples, and not simply the
Western Front or the war upon the seas, or the part of a single nation.

The plan finally adopted was a combination of the topical and chronological
methods. Approximately one-third of the space is devoted to the background,
and the events of 1914-15, one-third to the events of 1916-17, and the remainder
to the events of 1918, the Peace Conference and the subsidiary agencies. The
value of pictures has been recognized throughout, and the choice has been made
from more than twenty thousand.

When the question of proportion and selection of subjects was settled, only
a part of the difficulties was overcome. Many of the accounts of battles and
campaigns are absolutely contradictory. This is true not only of opposing leaders
as Lord French and General von Kluck, or General Ludendorff and Sir Douglas



Haig, but also of leaders upon the same side. Some of these contradictions can
be reconciled; others are as opposed as the Poles. Often a third or a fourth story
or explanation is presented.

That the authors have entirely succeeded in avoiding error is not to be hoped.
Every effort has been made, however, to find the truth. No pains have been
spared in gathering, comparing and sifting the voluminous literature of the war
which confuses by its bewildering abundance. The chapters have been checked
again and again, and where accounts are contradictory that version has been
chosen which has seemed to have most of the marks of truth.

The list of those who have helped by special knowledge, wise advice or keen
interest, is so long that special credit is impossible, and selection would be
invidious. The Editor cannot refrain, however, from recognizing the ability,
zeal and untiring industry of his office assistants, and must express his apprecia-
tion of the kindly interest of the contributors, and their forbearance under his
many queries. The liberal and sympathetic attitude of the publishers has made
the difficult task easier.

HOLLAND THOMPSON.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME I

Chapter Page

I THE WORLD WAR AND OTHER WARS . . . . i

II SOME CAUSES OF THE WORLD WAR ..... 23

III THE TOTTERING EMPIRE OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY ... 45

IV THE TURBULENT BALKANS . . . . . 59
V THE FATEFUL TWELVE DAYS ...... 79

VI THE CRIME AGAINST BELGIUM . . ... . . 91

VII ON TO PARIS: THE GERMAN CRY . . . . . 109

VIII THE MARNE AND THE RACE FOR THE SEA. . . . 131

IX THE RUSSIAN STEAM ROLLER HALTED . . . . 155

X AUSTRIA FAILS TO CONQUER SERBIA . . . . . 171

XI THE WAR SPREADS OVER THE WORLD . . . . 185

XII THE WAR ON THE WATER . . . . . 207

XIII THE FIRST FIVE MONTHS OF WAR ..... 225

XIV THE WAR UNDER THE WATER ...... 229

XV THE BEGINNING OF WAR IN THE AIR . . . . 241

XVI WAR AND THE NEUTRAL NATIONS ..... 259

XVII FIGHTING IN FLANDERS, 1915 ...... 279

XVIII FIGHTING IN FRANCE, 1915 . . . . . . 299

XIX THE EASTERN FRONT DURING 1915 ..... 317

XX THE GALLIPOLI EXPEDITION . . . - . . . 333

XXI ITALY ENTERS THE WAR . . . . . . . 351

XXII THE TRAGEDY OF SERBIA . 365

XXIII THE ATTACK ON THE SUEZ CANAL 381

XXIV THE WAR IN THE NEAR EAST . . . . . . 393

XXV THE CONQUEST OF GERMAN AFRICA ..... 407

XXVI THE WAR DURING 1915 . 417



LIST OF MAPS

VOLUME I

Page

GERMANY'S FAMOUS ALLITERATIVE RAILWAY . . . ... 38

VARIOUS RACES OF AUSTRIA- HUNGARY ...... 47

THE BALKAN STATES BEFORE 1913. . . . . . . 62

THE BALKAN STATES AFTER 1913 . . . . . . . 63

MAP SHOWING GERMAN ADVANCE IN THE WEST . . . . . 101

EXTREME GERMAN ADVANCE, SEPTEMBER, 1914 AND SUCCESSIVE

STAGES OF RETREAT ........ 137

THE BELGIAN ARMY'S POSITIONS . . . . . . . 150

GERMAN RAILWAYS ON POLISH BORDER ...... 156

ADVANCE OF RUSSIAN ARMY IN EAST PRUSSIA. .... 158

FIRST PHASE OF WAR ON EASTERN FRONT . . . . . 163

EASTERN THEATRE OF WAR IN NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER, 1914 . 169

FIRST AUSTRIAN ATTACKS ON SERBIA . . . . . . 173

THE EMDEN'S CRUISE IN EASTERN WATERS . . . . . 216

THE FORTRESS OF TSING-TAU ....... 223

SUBMARINE BLOCKADE INSTITUTED BY GERMANY, FEB., 1915. . . 237

OPERATIONS AROUND NEUVE CHAPELLE IN MARCH, 1915 . . . 283
SECOND BATTLE OF YPRES . . . . . . . .286

BRITISH AND FRENCH GAINS IN THE ARTOIS ATTACK, SEPT. 25, 1915 . 303

FRENCH OPERATIONS NEAR LENS IN ARTOIS, MAY AND JUNE, 1915 . 307

FIGHTING IN THE ARGONNE IN 1915 . . . . . . 310

FRENCH STRUGGLE IN THE CHAMPAGNE REGION . . . . 313

FIGHTING IN BUKOVINA . . . . . ... . 320

THE MASURIAN LAKE DISTRICT 322

GERMAN ATTEMPT TO CUT OFF RUSSIANS ..... 329

GALLIPOLI AND THE DARDANELLES, 339

PART OF THE AUSTRO-!TALIAN BORDERLAND 359

THE BALKANS IN 1915 . . : . . . . . . 367

THE SERBIAN WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . 379



Page

THE LAND BETWEEN DESERTS AND THE APPROACH TO THE SUEZ CANAL 383
THE TURKISH EMPIRE . . .... 397

REGION AROUND BASRA . ... ... 395

DEFENSES OF KUT-EL-AMARA . . . . . . . .401

FOUR AREAS OF ALLIED AND GERMAN FIGHTING IN AFRICA . . 409



LIST OF COLOR PLATES IN THE WORLD'S
GREATEST WAR

THE GREAT COMMANDERS OF ALL THE AGES .... Frontispiece

ALBERT, KING OF THE BELGIANS ....... 91

GENERAL SIR DOUGLAS HAIG ........ 279

DECORATIONS OF THE ALLIED ARMIES . . . . . 351







Various Types of Hand Grenades

CHAPTER I

The World War and Other Wars

A COMPARISON OF THE MAGNITUDE AND THE METHODS

OF PREVIOUS WARS



'HpHE World War, which began when
^ the great German tide swept into
Belgium and the Austrian host ad-
vanced into Serbia, in August, 1914,
and ended formally with the signing
of the treaties of peace at Versailles at
various times, surpassed all other wars
in history in the number of countries
involved, the number of men engaged,
and in the cost in blood and treasure.
Waged on three continents Europe,
Asia, and Africa on many islands, on
all the seas, under the sea and in the
air, by white men, black, yellow, brown
and red, no country and hardly an
individual in the remotest corner of the
earth has failed to feel its influence.

NATIONS RATHER THAN ARMIES WERE
AT WAR.

Coming at a time when an increasing
proportion of the population of the
civilized world was beginning to feel
that no great war could ever occur
again, it has surpassed all previous
wars, not only in the size of the armies
on the battlefield, and the variety and
the deadliness of the weapons, but also
in the extent to which the whole popu-
lation of the belligerent lands was
engaged. Whole nations have been at
war, and not simply armies. Every
resource of some of the countries has
been called upon and some of those



who remained at home were quite as
useful as those in the ranks. Both arms
and other goods useful in warfare were
produced on an unprecedented scale.

Countries entirely unmilitaristic,
with only tiny armies in times of peace,
raised millions of men, and sent them
across intervening water to meet other
millions in combat. Boys and their
bearded grandfathers served together
in the trenches. The number of men
mobilized can only be estimated now,
but official statistics and estimates fix
the total at about 60,000,000, and of
these nearly 10,000,000 were killed or
died of wounds or disease. The esti-
mate of the wounded is more than
20,000,000, but many of these are count-
ed more than once. The number of
prisoners and missing is near 6,000,000,
and of these it is estimated that half are
dead. The estimate of civilian dead due
to the war massacre, famine, disease,
and other causes is more than 9,000,-
ooo, but there is more uncertainty
about this figure. Many refugees
counted dead may be yet alive. The
estimate of soldier deaths then is nearly
13,000,000. During the Napoleonic
Wars (including the French Revolu-
tionary Wars) which lasted from 1790
to 1815, the best estimate of the dead
is only 2,100,000.



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR



NEW INSTRUMENTS AND THE REVIVAL
OF OLD ONES.

Unprecedented debts were incurred
in waging the war. The production and
expenditure of munitions of war was
tremendous. In many single weeks
more ammunition was used than in
the whole of previous great wars.
Machine guns were almost as common
as rifles. New weapons and imple-
ments of war were invented, as for
example, the "tank", and old ones as
the hand-grenade, Greek fire and poi-
son gas were revived. Armor was re-
vived, partially at least, and the whole
war was a strange mixture of the old
and the new.

Undersea boats sent to the bottom
millions of tons of merchant shipping,
and destroyed many vessels of war;
and were themselves destroyed by
gunfire, or the deadly depth bomb, or
were entangled in great nets stretched
across their path under the water.
Airplanes dropped bombs from the
skies upon cities, towns and men, or
else fought one another like hawks,
swooping and darting high in the air.
Great steerable airships made their
silent way across France to Paris, and
even across the North Sea to drop great
bombs upon the cities and the peace-
ful English countryside.

THE SCIENTISTS BOTH TAKE AND
PRESERVE LIFE.

Every resource of the scientist and
the inventor was utilized to take life,
on the one hand, and to preserve it on
the other. With such an array of
destructive instruments as the world
has never before seen, were also
appliances, inventions and discoveries
which prevented disease, neutralized
the dangerous gases, healed the wound-
ed and gave new hope to the maimed
or disfigured.

In our childhood we were awed by the
accounts of the great hosts which ad-
vanced to battle, but the stories told of
the great multitudes in the armies of the
Persian kings who attacked Greece five
hundred years before the Christian era,
are no longer believed by modern his-
torians. Herodotus estimated the army
of Xerxes at nearly 5,000,000, but this
number should be divided by ten at



least, even if it does seem to lessen the
glory of the Greek victory. Perhaps
this exaggeration of the Persian armies
was deliberately intended to give
greater lustre to the story of the Greek
state. The same doubt may be cast
upon similar stories of the combatants
opposed to Alexander the Great. If
there were no other obstacle, the im-
possibility of feeding immense num-
bers with only the slightest organiza-
tion of supply trains made very large
armies impossible.

THE SMALL NUMBERS ENGAGED IN
PREVIOUS WARS.

Some of the most important battles
and wars in history have been waged
by comparatively few soldiers. Alex-
ander the Great won his greatest vic-
tories with armies seldom if ever ex-
ceeding 50,000 men. His opponents
had greater armies but their very size
was often a hindrance. The number of
soldiers in the Teutonic armies which
broke across the Rhine and the
Danube, captured Rome and overran
the Roman Empire was small. The
highest estimate of the army with
which William the Conqueror won the
battle of Hastings and conquered
England is about 60,000, and some
students believe that he had hardly
more than 25,000. The armies of
Frederick the Great were only about
250,000, including allies and mer-
cenaries, when he was contending for
his very existence.

During the American Revolution
there were few battles in which 20,000
men were engaged on both sides and
in the greater part of them the num-
ber did not exceed 10,000. A British
force of 3,500 captured the city of
Washington in 1814. During the
Mexican War General Taylor had only
about 12,000. Wolfe captured Quebec
and thereby won Canada for Great
Britain with 4,500 men, though he had
as many more who did not take part in
the deciding battle on the Plains of
Abraham.

SOME COMPARISONS WITH OTHER
GREAT WARS.

The only wars with which the World
War may be compared in the extent
of territory and the number of coun-



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR



tries involved are the Seven Years War
and the Napoleonic Wars. In the
Seven Years War (1756-1763) Austria,
France, Russia, Sweden and Saxony
joined forces against Prussia, aided
first by Great Britain. Later the astute
Frederick was able to detach Russia
from the coalition, when Great Britain



dom had as many as 200,000 men in
any of his battles, though he did lead
400,000 into Russia. At Waterloo, the
battle which definitely ended the
dream of French supremacy in Europe,
Napoleon had only 125,000 men and
Wellington and Bliicher had together
about 214,000, but not all of these were




FRENCH ARMORED TRAIN IN POSITION BEHIND THE WESTERN FRONT

In designing railway equipment for artillery two loads must be considered by builders. One is the ordinary
weight of the gun and its carriage upon the car wheels. The other, the so-called firing load, is the weight of the
unit plus the additional weight of the downthrust of the gun when it recoils. Underwood and Underwood



showed signs of withdrawing her help.
The allied forces attempted to raise
500,000 men to fight Frederick, but in
no year of the seven was anything
approaching that number under arms.
The British fleet carried the war to
North America and took Canada, and
also took India and some of the West
Indies from France, but the number of
men engaged in any of these operations
was small.

In the Napoleonic Wars all Europe
was engaged; but it was armies, not
nations which fought. Napoleon sel-



engaged. The fate of Europe was
settled by armies which seem tiny
now, and with insignificant losses.

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR AND THE
FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR.

In the four years of the American
Civil War, more than 2,600,000 men
were enlisted in the North. The num-
ber in the Southern armies is not defi-
nitely known, as the Confederate rec-
ords were destroyed. The estimates
range from 600,000 (obviously too low)
to about 1,100,000. The proportion of
men of military age enlisted is estimated

3



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR



by one student at 45 per cent in the
North, and at 90 per cent in the South.
If the later figure is accurate, then the
South was drained of its man power in
a degree approaching the sacrifices of
France and Great Britain. In the
North there were more short enlist-
ments, and nothing approaching two
and a half million was ever under arms
at one time. So far as actual fighting
is concerned the numbers engaged in
the great battles of this war were not
overwhelmingly large. At Gettysburg,
the battle which proved the turning
point of the war, about 82,000 Union
soldiers were opposed by hardly 75,000
Confederates; Grant captured less than
30,000 at Vicksburg and Sherman with
60,000 marched to the sea. At the
Wilderness the Federal Army amount-
ed to only 120,000 and Lee had a little
more than half as many. Lee sur-
rendered at Appomattox less than
27,000 men.

The Franco-Prussian War which
made the German states into an
Empire, was over too soon to bring
out immense numbers. The three
German armies numbered only 475,000
men and less than 400,000 of these
made up the invading force, though it
was shortly reinforced. The French
could oppose to this force at first only
250,000 men, though later a million
more were called into service. Through
bad generalship, in nearly every battle
the French forces were locally inferior
to their opponents and the result was
inevitable.

q^HE WHOLE WORLD ENGAGED IN WAR.

Beside the Great War, all of these
fade almost into insignificance. From
first to last twenty-eight nations made
formal declarations of war, twenty-four
on the side of the Allies as against four
of the Central Powers. Five others
severed diplomatic relations with one
or another of the Central Powers. Only
sixteen nations, none of them of the
first rank, and some of them insig-
nificant in power, remained neutral,
and some of these, as Denmark, The
Netherlands, and Norway, would
doubtless have declared war if it had
been possible. These neutral nations



include hardly one-sixteenth of the
population of the world. The remain-
ing fifteen-sixteenths belong to nations
which took one side or the other side in
the great conflict.

Country Population

Austria-Hungary .... 50,000,000

Belgium 8,000,000

Bulgaria 5,000,000

Brazil 24,500,000

British Empire 400,000,000

China 320,600,000

Costa Rica 440,000

Cuba 2,500,000

F.rance (including colonies) . 81,000,000

Germany (including colonies) . 79,000,000

Greece 5,000,000

Guatemala 2,000,000

Haiti 2,500,000

Honduras 560,000

Italy 37,000,000

Japan . 54,000,000

Liberia 2,000,000

Montenegro 500,000

Nicaragua 700,000

Panama 450,000

Portugal (including colonies) . 15,000,000

Rumania 7,500,000

Russia 180,000,000

San Marino 12,000

Serbia 4,500,000

Siam 8,000,000

Turkey 21,000,000

United States 110,000,000

1,421,762,000

The following nations severed diplo-
matic relations with one or other of
the Central Powers

Bolivia 2,900,000

Ecuador 1,325,000

Egypt 12,500,000

Peru 5,000,000

Uruguay 1,380,000

23,105,000

NOT ALL OF THESE NATIONS ACTIVELY
ENGAGED.

Not all of the nations which declared
war against the Central Powers gave
effective military aid. China, for ex-
ample, did little or nothing, nor did
Liberia. The soldiers of Portugal and
Siam were comparatively few. San
Marino, with its area of 38 square miles
and its population of 12,000, could not
be expected to make a large contribu-
tion, though it sent 300 soldiers to the
Italian army. China, however, sent
thousands of laborers to France who
liberated fighting men for the front.
Only Brazil of the Latin-American
states rendered any active aid, in this



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR



case through her navy, though a Cuban
army was mobilized and ready, if
needed. The moral effect of this



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