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KING JOHN GRANTING MAGNA CHARTA



From the design by Ernest Normand for the cartoon in the Royal Exchange, London, by permission of
Messrs. Hildesheimer & Co., Ltd.




A TRAGIC SCENE FROM ENGLISH HISTORY: PRINCE ARTHUR AND HUBERT



On the death of Richard I., Prince Arthur, the posthumous son of Geoffrey, the fourth son of Henry II., was the rightful heir
to the English crown, but the usurper John imprisoned him, first at Falaise and then, at Rouen, where he perished April 3rd,
1203. The story of King John's ordering Hubert to put out the boy's eyes was current soon after Arthur's death, but the
exact manner of his end is unknown.

"Hubert, if you will, cut out my tongue so I may keep mine eyes; O, spare mine eyes!" Kins John, Act iv, Sc. I.

From the painting by \V. F. Yeames, B. A., in the Manchester Art Gallery



The Book of History

H Ibistors of all IRations

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRESENT

WITH OVER 8000 ILLUSTRATIONS



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

VISCOUNT BRYCE, P.C, D.C.L, LL.D., F.R.S.

CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS



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LATE COMMISSIONER FOR UGANDA

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And many other Specialists

Volume IX
WESTERN EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE AGES

Emerging and Development of the Nations

The Holy Roman Empire

France Through the Reign of Louis XIV

England to the Reign of Henry VIII

Scotland in the Middle Ages



NEW YORK . . THE GROLIER SOCIETY
LONDON THE EDUCATIONAL BOOK CO.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX

PRINCE ARTHUR AND HUBERT FRONTISPIECE

SIXTH GRAND DIVISION (continued)

WESTERN EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE AGES

EMERGING OF THE NATIONS

PAGE

The British Isles . . . . . . . ... - . . . 3497

Spain and its Conquerors ........... 3508

Rise of the Church in the West . . . . . . . . . 3517

The Land of the Northmen . . . . . . . . . . 3529

Great Days of the Northmen .......... 3539

Denmark and its Sister States .......... 3557

Norway's Rise and Fall ........... 3565

Sweden and Finland 3571

DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONS

Revival of the Holy Roman Empire . . . .

The Franconian Emperors ..........

The Triumphs of Barbarossa . . . . . . . . .

The Emperors of Germany ..........

The Germanic Empire ...........

Reign of the Emperor Sigismund .........

Fortunes of the House of Austria .........

German Towns and Territories . . . . .. . . ..

Maximilian and Imperial Reform . . . . . . . . .

German Expansion on the East .........

Knights of the Sword and the Teutonic Order ' .

THE PAPACY

Venerable Bede dictating Translation of Gospel of St. John . Plate facing 3716
During the Middle Ages and the Reformation ..;.... 3717

Zenith of the Papal Power ........... 3727

Decline of the Papal Power . ....... 3743

Approach of the Reformation ... 3753

FRANCE

Beginnings of the Kingdom of France 3761

France under the Early Capets . . . 3771

The Last of the Old Capets 3780



THE BOOK OF HISTORY

PAGE

"The Vigil" . Plate facing 3788

Evolution of Mediaeval France .......... 3789

France as the Land of Liberty ......... 3799

France under the Valois ........... 3809

France under the Later Valois ... . . . . . . 3825

THE BRITISH ISLES

Alfred, Hero King of England . Plate facing 3834

England before the Norman Conquest . . . I ... . 3835

William the Conqueror described by a Contemporary . . ... 3848

A Pageant of the Norman Conquest . . . . . .... 3849

The Norman Period in England ......... 3857

King John granting Magna Charta .... Coloured Plate facing 3865

England's Angevin Kings .......... 3865

Simon de Montfort ............ 3873

The First Two Edwards 3875

The Hundred Years' War 3881

The Wars of the Roses ........... 3895

Scotland: Its Struggle for Independence ........ 3911

Robert the Bruce and what he did for Scotland ...... 3920

Scenes from Scotland's Story .......... 3923

Beginnings of Irish History . 3931



WESTERN

EUROPE IN

THE MIDDLE

AGES




THE
EMERGING

OF THE
NATIONS IV



THE BRITISH ISLES

FROM EARLIEST TIMES TO THE MIDDLE AGES
By H. W. C. DAVIS, M.A.



17ROM the western shores of Europe
* there extends northward into the
Atlantic Ocean a broad submarine shelf
at an average depth of 300 feet below
the surface. On the north-western edge
of this shelf rise Great Britain and Ire-
land, the only two European islands of any
considerable size. They are surrounded
by upwards of 900 smaller islands.
The whole group is to be regarded as
a fragment of the European continent.
It was separated from the continent at
a period when the mammoth and the
cave-bear were still thriving species, and
when the Glacial Epoch had been succeeded
by one of milder climate. The flora and
fauna of the British Isles are different
from those of Europe, and the first human
immigrants came hither before the forma-
tion of the English Channel and the North
Sea. Of these earliest inhabitants we

possess some memorials, for the
Inhabitants ' , a . , . ,

most part flint implements and
of the ~,

c , A weapons. I here are stones
Stone Age , . r , , , , . ,

which seem from their shape

to have been used as missiles ; others
to be wielded by the hand for purposes
of striking and cutting ; while some
are carefully pointed, and appear to have
been fitted with wooden handles. In
these stone weapons we find every degree
of finish : the earlier are rudely chipped
into shape ; those of later origin are
polished with a skill which a workman of
to-day, using the best modern tools,
would find it difficult to imitate. The
stock to which belonged the makers of
these weapons is a matter for conjecture.
They are, however, generally agreed to
have been a dark-haired race of the primi-
tive Altaic stock, the Iberians of Tacitus,
and in default of fuller evidence this
hypothesis may be allowed to stand.
This primitive people advanced some
distance from their first stage of civilisa-
tion. They learned to make clay vessels.



They developed a primitive agriculture.
But the means of subsistence which
they could procure in this way and
by their older industries of hunting
and fishing must always have been

. , scanty, and we cannot suppose
How Britain , , , rv , .

n that they increased in numbers

Became TT

an Island *? ^ S reat de g ree ' Hen
they fell an easy prey to the

Indo-Germanic race of the Kelts. This
people, advancing westward through
Europe, expelled the Iberians from every
land in which they met them. On
reaching the Atlantic they broke up
into a northern and a southern horde,
the latter marching over the Pyrenees
into Spain, while the former entered
the British Isles. By this time the At-
lantic had forced a passage through
the English Channel. The flat alluvial
lands of North-western Europe had sunk ;
and the British Isles were now separated
from Scandinavia by the broad but
shallow basin of the North Sea.

The Keltic newcomers were a stalwart
race, and they had already passed into
the age of bronze. Inured to war by
their long panderings, and equipped
with superior weapons [see page 2431],
they can hardly have found much
difficulty in dealing with the Iberian
aborigines. The latter fled for refuge to
Ireland, to Cornwall, to the mountains of
Wales and Scotland. Their descendants
may still be detected in these outlying
regions, but appear to have adopted the
language of their conquerors. There are
traces of a non- Aryan speech in the
Keltic districts of the British Isles,
but these traces are slight. In the
Keltic immigration two succes-
sive waves can be distinguished. First
came a tribe which bore the name of
Goidels ; next followed the Brythons, who
drove their forerunners to join the Iberians
in the more remote regions of the

3497



HISTORY OF THE WORLD



Britain

as a Land of

Tin Mines



British Isles. The dialects of the two
tribes were different. That of the Goidels
gave birth to the Gaelic, Manx, and Irish
tongues ; while from the Brythonic
dialect are descended those of Cornwall,
now a dead language, and of Wales. It
is probable that these two first and most
important swarms of invaders were con-
tinually followed up by smaller
bands. At all events, we know
that Britain was, in the first
century B.C., still liable to immi-
grations of Keltic tribes from Gaul. But
of these movements and the conflicts to
which they gave rise history has nothing
to record. Before the coming .of the
Romans, Britain was known to the civilised
world simply as a land of tin mines.

The development of the tin trade
appears to date from the time of Pytheas
of Marseilles a Greek scientist, who died in
322 B.C. who visited Britain with the
object of ascertaining what truth there
might be in the current rumours of the
country's mineral wealth. He explored the
east coast of Britain for a considerable
distance, and observed the habits of the
natives. Tin he can hardly have found in
the parts which he visited, but his native
city appears to have followed up the infer-
ences which he drew. There is the evidence
of coins to prove a trade connection be-
tween Britain and Marseilles at the close of
the third century B.C. When Posidonius,
another Greek explorer, visited Britain,
about no B.C., he found that the tin
trade with Marseilles had reached consider-
able proportions, and that the ore was
mined and smelted by the Britons with a
degree of skill which presupposed a long
experience.

In the wake of the Greek scientists
came the Roman legions. Julius Caesar
found the Kelts of Britain troublesome
neighbours to the newly conquered pro-
vinces of Gaul, and he raided Southern
Britain in 55 and 54 B.C. To these in-
Julios cursions we are indebted for

J 1 1 k . his highly interesting account
Caesar in t -n j_- {_ i-r
Britain British lite and manners.

Otherwise they had little result.
In the words of Tacitus, Caesar can be
said only to have indicated Britain as a
future field for conquests. At his first
attempt, he barely succeeded in effecting
a disembarkation before the approach
of the winter season compelled him to
withdraw ; on his second appearance, he
crossed the Thames and entered Essex,

349*



but withdrew after receiving the sub-
mission of the Trinobantes and some other
tribes. From this time forward the re-
lations of Britain with the Roman world
were peaceful, until Claudius undertook
the work of reduction in 43 A.D.

At this date, as in the time of Caesar,
Britain, though comparatively populous,
was weakened by political divisions. It
was inhabited by tribes of small size,
who rarely, if ever, agreed to unite under
a common leader ; and the task of the
invader was facilitated by the mutual
jealousies of tribal kings. Every stage
of civilisation appears to have been re-
presented among these tribes. Those of
the south-east had benefited by peaceful
intercourse with the Roman Empire and
by the infusion of new blood from Gaul.
They drove a considerable trade with
the continent, not only in slaves and skins
and metals, but also in corn and cattle
a fact from which we may infer that
they had reached considerable proficiency
in agriculture and stock-breeding.

These tribes made use of coins of gold,
silver, brass and copper. They showed some
w skill in working bronze and iron

and clay. The remoter peoples,
of the Early , , , , ^

B . however, conducted their trade

by the primitive methods of
barter, were barely able to manufacture
the rudest types of pottery, and depended
largely on stone instruments. The interval
between the most and the least civilised
was great. But even the tribes of the
south-east had made little progress in the
art of war. Their strong places were
defended by earthworks and wooden
palisades ; there was no walled town or
fort to be found in Britain, and the
ordinary village was open to the first
attack. The strength of a British army
lay in the scythed chariot and light
cavalry. The skill of the individual
combatant was often great, but the armour
and weapons of offence were poor. There
was a want of discipline, and if the initial
onslaught proved unsuccessful, the entire
host melted rapidly away.

Such difficulty, therefore, as the Romans
experienced in effecting the conquest
and holding the conquered country was
due rather to the circumstances of geo
graphy and to the scattered nature of the
population than to the strength of the
tribal communities with which they had
to deal. The work of reduction pro-
ceeded steadily, though chequered with




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3499



HISTORY OF THE WORLD

he built between the Sol-
way and the Tyne, ap-
parently less as a boundary
for the Roman province
than to regulate the com-
munications of the subject
tribes on each side of the
wall. As far as the Forth
and Clyde the whole land
remained Roman territory.
Recent archaeological dis-
coveries suggest that
Roman garrisons were at
one time stationed even
further to the north ; but
the attempt which Severus
made, in 208, to continue
the northern conquests of
Agricola was rudely
checked. The Roman occu-
pation of Britain lasted for
about 350 years. Little,
however, is known of the
history of this period.
The legions of Britain
were an important factor
in several dynastic revolu-
tions. Carausius in 288
attempted to make his
governorship of the island

JULIUS CJESAR LANDING ON THE SHORES OF ENGLAND stepphl^ stone to the
Following in the wake of the Greek scientists, the Roman legions found their way to => j -Q .,

the shores of Britain, Julius Caesar landing in 55 B.C. , and raiding Southern Britain, empire , and
The Roman occupation, beginning a century after Caesar, lasted about 350 years.




Under hi^ rule an

occasional reverses, until the time of the imperium in imperio for eight years. In

Emperor Hadrian. Of the early governors Diocletian's scheme for the administration

of Britain the most successful

was Julius Agricola (78-84

A.D.), who completed the

conquest of Wales, extended

the sphere of Roman

influence to the Firths of

Forth and Clyde, instilled

into the tribes farther

north a wholesome fear of

the Roman name, and was

meditating an invasion of

Ireland at the time of his

recall. It was in his time

that the leading British

families were induced to

adopt Roman manners and

send their sons to Roman

schools.

Hadrian, who visited the
island in 119 A.D., is
remembered in British

riictr. for tr>^ crr^a* MONUMENT TO THE BRAVE QUEEN BOADICEA

Illbiory j : great \V ail B oadicea, an early English queen, fought the Romans in the first century,

Of Stone, Studded With fortS leading her people to the battle. It is said that rather than be taken prisoner

nt ,-,., f ,,lor- ;,^f^y-,^1r- ..,U,'u sne s l ew herself. This statue group, by the late J. L. Thornycroft, stands

regular intervals, WniCn a t the foot of Westminster Bridge, London, facing the Houses of Parliament

3500




A FINE SPECIMEN OF THE ROMAN BATHS IN THE CITY OF BATH



THE PR^ETORIUM OF BOROVICUS AT HAYDON BRI




CIRCULAR BATH STILL IN FAIR PRESERVATION IN THE CITY OF BATH



RELICS OF THE ROMAN OCCUPATION OF ENGLAND

Photos by Valentine



223



3501



HISTORY OF THE WORLD



of the empire, Britain, Gaul, and Spain
were grouped together under a Caesar,
who was subordinate to the Augustus of
the West. Constantius, the first holder
of the new office, who died in 306,
became in due time an Augustus, and
planted his capital at York. Through
him Britain may claim a connection with
the work of his son Con-
e stantine, the founder of the new

Unr ian Rome Qn fae Bosphorus and the
Emperor -. , ,, ~, . f.

first of the Christian emperors.
Britain, therefore, plays a certain part
in the general history of the empire. But
of the provincials, as distinct from the
legionaries and their governors, history
is almost silent.

Christianity found its way into the
island by the beginning of the fourth
century ; but the old Keltic deities long
continued to receive the veneration of
the natives. Roads and colonies and
camps were built ; in tho south-east, in
the Severn valley, along the lines of the
great roads, and in the neighbourhood of
the great military stations the dominant
race built sumptuous villas, and attempted
to maintain the luxury of the Roman
fashionable life.

But however much the noblest Keltic
families may have been affected by Roman
example, there was a broad gulf fixed
between the conquerors and the great
mass of the conquered. City life and
Roman administrative methods offered
little attraction to the provincial, and
Caracalla's gift of the citizenship to all the
free-born inhabitants of the empire was
an inadequate return for the crushing
taxation which was necessitated by an
elaborate and centralised government, a
magnificent imperial court, and the enor-
mous armies of the continental frontiers.
In Gaul and Spain the empire took firm
hold upon the minds of its subjects, and a
new Gallo-Roman nationality came into
existence in these countries; but in
Britain Britain the Kelt remained, as
Att&cked by ^ ^' turrj ulent, "attached to
Barbarians ms tribal traditions, impatient
of civilisation, apparently in-
capable of political development.

In the fourth century A.D., Britain,
though shielded by the sea from the pres-
sure of the main barbarian advance, began
to suffer from the guerrilla attacks of the
untamed Kelt on the one side, and of the
Teutonic pirate on the other. The country
lying north of the Roman walls was overrun

35 02



by Scots from Ireland. The Picts, or
" painted people," the older inhabitants
of the north, recoiling before the invasion,
sought to make a passage through the
Roman frontier and to find a safer dwelling
in the south. Flying squadrons of the
Scots harassed the south-west coast of
Britain, while the appointment of a
" Comes Litoris Saxonici," to supervise the
defence of the south and east coasts, bears
witness to the raids of a people hereafter
to be intimately connected with the
fortunes of the British Isles. '

In 367 the Roman armies of occupa-
tion were utterly defeated by invaders
from the north and pirates from the
sea ; two years elapsed before the security
of the province could be restored.
In 383 a Roman governor, Clemens
Maximus, denuded the British provinces
of their legions in order to make a
bid for the empire ; and although,
fifteen years later, a few soldiers were
sent from Rome to Britain, no attempt
was made to raise the garrison to the old
strength. In 407 the last of the Roman
governors left Britain to repeat the
adventures of Clemens Maxi-
mus ; with his departure the

Roman occupation came to an
Britain , /~, T/.,

end. I he Britons, so long pro-
tected by the armies of the empire, were
left to defend themselves as best they might.
Some great roads, some decaying cities,
soon to be reduced to ruin, a Christian
Church of dubious vitality, a degraded
Latin dialect as the language of educated
society, a few improvements in the art of
agriculture, a few titles of office and
insignia of rank such appear to have been
the legacies which the Roman conquerors
left behind them.

There followed on the Roman period a
time of wild confusion and anarchy,
extending over the best part of two
centuries. It is the time in which Britain
was colonised by the Angles, Jutes and
Saxons ; in which the Keltic population
was pushed to the far west, or extermin-
ated, or enslaved, according to the humour
of different bands of Teutonic invaders.

These invaders came from the German
coasts of the Baltic Sea : at first, if
the traditions may be trusted, as pirates
under war leaders, afterwards, when the
opportunities afforded by Britain were
more fully realised, by tribes and nations
with their wives and children and house-
hold gods. Ea,ch, band chose its owrj




THE ROMANS IN LONDON : MEMORIALS OF THEIR OCCUPATION
It is an interesting fact that the first mention of London by classic writers is that which occurs in the Annals of Tacitus.
Excavations for building purposes, carried on in recent years in the vicinity of the Mansion House, have brought to
light many important evidences of the occupation of London by the Romans. The above illustrations show several
discoveries. The stone sarcophagus was found at Haydon Square in the Minories, the sculptured figure on the left
was unearthed in Camomile Street, Bishopsgate. while the piece of tessellated pavement was discovered in Bucklersbury.

3503



HISTORY OF THE WORLD



point of descent, and worked inland till
settlements were provided for all the
adventurers, or natural boundaries were
reached, or the way was barred by the
settlements of earlier swarms. Bernicia
and Deira later united as Northumbria
between the Forth and the Humber ; East
Anglia, between the Wash and the Stour ;
Essex, Kent,
Sussex, and the
West Saxon
state, which,
beginning at
Southampton,
spread out fan-
wise on each side
of the Itchen
valley and on the
north extended
into the basin of
the Thames, are
the chief of the
early settle-
ments. Far in-
land, in the upper
valley of the
Trent, and round
the Peak in
Derbyshire, were
clustered the
tribes which
afterwards
coalesced to form
the Mercian king-
dom. IP Corn-
wall, Wales,
Strathclyde
that is, Cumber-
land, Westmor-
land, and the
western lowlands
o f Scotland
were huddled
together the
remnants of the

U n S U D J U g a t e d The fifth k{ng Qf Kent Ethelbert began his reign in 568, and followed

Keltic people. i n the paganism of his fathers. His wife, Bertha, daughter of rpugn and pnmi-

Of intercourse Charibert, the Prankish king, was a Christian, and worked persist- tive Society the

between the tWO entl yt induce her husband to adopt Christianity. When Augustine, Christian religion

races there
have been little
save such as

was imported from Rome,




THE BAPTISM OF KING ETHELBERT



the influence of a common religion had
softened their antagonism. The political
system and the private law of the early
English kingdoms are purely Germanic.
These kingdoms are ruled by descendants
of Woden ; in the smaller of them the old
national assembly of all the freemen has
still the ultimate authority. In the gesiths
of kings and
great men we
may recognise
the comitatus de-
scribed by Taci-
tus. The popular
law courts, in
which the free-
men a.ct as
assessors to an
elected judge, the
village com-
munity, in which
land is periodi-
cally redivided,
the methods of
agriculture, the
law of succession,
the division of
social classes
all remind us of
the society de-
picted in Ger-
mania. The
religion, too, so
far as we can
judge from scant
memorials, can
be referred to
the same source
a dry, prosaic
rendering of the
mythology
which Scandi-
navian imagina-
tion has glorified

and immortal-
f ^



convert,

From thc fresc



despatched by Pope Gregory on a missionary enterprise, reached j -, ,

1 England, he had conferences with Ethelbert, who ultimately became r

and submitted to the Christian rite of baptism, the end of the

of Lords by William Dyce, R.A. S i X t h CentUrV

It was imported from Rome, and not
from Keltic Britain. Not that Chris-
tianity had failed to take hold, upon
the British Kelt. The names of St.
Patricias, the evangelist of Ireland, and
of Pelagius the heretic, are enough to
prove the interest of Roman Britain



exists between master and slave. Place
names apart, the Keltic element in the
English language is small and unimportant.
Whatever traces of Keltic tribal institu-
tions survive in the Teutonic parts of
Western England must be attributed to
the fusion of races at a later period, when

3504




EDWIN, KING OF NORTHUMBRIA, A CONVERT TO CHRISTIANITY



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