James Bryce Bryce.

The book of history. A history of all nations from the earliest times to the present, with over 8,000 illustrations (Volume 13) online

. (page 1 of 61)
Online LibraryJames Bryce BryceThe book of history. A history of all nations from the earliest times to the present, with over 8,000 illustrations (Volume 13) → online text (page 1 of 61)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


FRED
NIBLD




RECESSIONAL

kSod of our fathers , known, of old .
'Lord of our far-flung battle-line.
Beneath whose awful Hand we hold
Dominion over palm and pine-
Lord God of Hosts . be with us yet .
Lest we forget lest we forget!

fiT*" 1

'Uhc tumult and the shouting dies;

*The captains and the kings depart:
Still stands Thine ancient sacrifice,
An humble and a contrite heart.
Lord God of Hosts . be with us yet.
Lest we forget lest we forget!

LJJcvr called . our navies melt away-,
^On dune and headland sinks the fire:
Lo. all our pomp of yesterday

Is one with Nineveh and Tyre!
Judge of the Nations . spare us yet.
Lest we forget lest we forget!

'IJ f. drunk with sight of power, we loose
\Vild tongues that have not Thee in awe,

Such boastings as the Gentiles use.
Or lesser breeds without the Law

Lord God of Hosts . be with us yet.

Lest we forget lest we forget !

<r=r^

'LM or heathen heart that puts her trust
} In reeking tube and iron shard.
All valiant dust that builds on dust.

And guarding. calls not Thee to guard.

For frantic boast and foolish word

Thy Mercy on Thy People, Lord! Amen.

Rudyard Kipling






The Book of History

H Ibistors of all IRattons




WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

VISCOUNT BRYCE, P.C, D.C.L, LL.D., F.R.S.

CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS



W. M. Flinders Petrie, LL.D., F.R.S.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON

Hans F. Helmolt, Ph.D.

EDITOR, GERMAN "HISTORY OF THE WORLD"

Stanley Lane-Poole, M.A., Litt.D.

TRINITY COLLKCE. DUBLIN

Robert Nisbet Bain

ASSISTANT LIBRARIAN, BRITISH MUSEUM

Hugo Winckler, Ph.D.

UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN

Archibald H. Sayce, D.Litt, LL.D.

OXFORD UNIVERSITY

Alfred Russel Wallace, LL.D., F.R.S.

AUTHOR, "MAN'S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE"

Sir William Lee-Warner, K.C.S.I.

MEMBER OF COUNCIL OF INDIA



Holland Thompson, Ph.D.

THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK

W. Stewart Wallace, M.A.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

Maurice Maeterlinck

ESSAYIST, POET, PHILOSOPHER

Dr. Emile J. Dillon

UNIVERSITY OF ST. PETERSBURG

Arthur Mee

EDITOR, "THE BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE"

Sir Harry H. Johnston, K.C.B., D.Sc.

LATE COMMISSIONER FOR UGANDA

Johannes Ranke

UNIVERSITY OF MUNICH

K. G. Brandis, Ph.D.

UNIVERSITY OF JENA



And many other Specialists

Volume XIII

EUROPEAN POWERS TODAY

Russia . The Balkan Wars
Austria . Germany . Holland . Belgium

Switzerland . Italy . France
Spain . Portugal . Scandinavian States

THE BRITISH EMPIRE



AMERICA BEFORE COLUMBUS



NEW YORK . . THE GROLIER SOCIETY
LONDON . THE EDUCATIONAL BOOK CO.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XIII

RECESSIONAL, BY RUDYARD KIPLING FRONTISPIECE

SIXTH GRAND DIVISION (continued)

EUROPEAN POWERS TO-DAY

Great Dates from the French Revolution to our own Time . . . . ' 5279

Glimpses of Europe's Capital Cities ....... 5281

Plan of the Seventh Division . ....... 5293

Russia ............ . 5295

The Balkan Wars of 1912-13 .......... 5317

Austria-Hungary ............ 5329

Germany . .... , . . 5339

Holland and Belgium ........... 5357

The Grand Duchy of Luxemburg ......... 5362

Switzerland ............. 5365

Italy 5369

The Republic of San Marino .......... 5375

France . 5377

The Principality of Monaco .......... 5397

The Republic of Andorra ........... 5398

Spain . . 5399

Portugal ........... . . 5404

The Scandinavian States ........... 5411

United Kingdom ............ 5417

Types of British Battleships .......... 5425



THE BRITISH EMPIRE

Map showing Routes of Early Voyagers ....... 5440

The .-Empire in the Making .......... 5441

William the Conqueror granting a Charter to the City of London Plate facing 5464

British Trade and the Flag ... . . ... 5465

Slave Trade as a Factor in Colonial Expansion ...... 5473

Colonies grown from Convict Settlements ....... 5479

Wars of the Empire 5483

British Conquests in the East .......... 5497

Britain's Contests in Africa .......... 5509

Fighting Forces of the British Empire ........ 5525

Outposts of Empire ........... 5537

Composition of the Empire .......... 5545

Great Britain's Inner Empire .......... 5557

Parliaments of the Outer Empire ......... 5573

The Sinews of Empire ........... 558 r

British Expansion in Europe .......... 5599

British Expansion in America . . . . . . . ' . . . 5610

King Edward VII Plate facing 5614



THE BOOK OF HISTORY

PAGE

Britain's Great Indian Empire .......... 5615

British Expansion in Africa .......... 5623

Man's Triumph over Nature .......... 5631

Civilisation and Christianity .......... 5639

The Future of the Empire ........... 5644



SEVENTH GRAND DIVISION

AMERICA

THE ATLANTIC OCEAN

Map of Atlantic Ocean ........... 5656

The Atlantic before Columbus .......... 5657

The Atlantic after Columbus .......... 5663

AMERICA BEFORE COLUMBUS

Where did American Man come from? ........ 5675

Prehistoric South America .......... 5679

Races of the North and East .......... 5691

American Peoples of the West ......... 5707



GREAT DATES FROM THE FRENCH REVOLU-
TION TO OUR OWN TIME


A.D.




A.D.




1789


MAY : Meeting of States-General. JUNE : Tennis


1803


MARCH : Secularisation of ecclesiastical states in




Court Oath. The States-General becomes the




Germany. MAY : War declared between France




National or Constituent Assembly. JULY 14th :




and Great Britain ; French occupy Hanover.




Fall of Bastille. AUG. : Abolition of Feudal


1804


FEB. : Royalist Plot of Pichegru and Cadoudal ;




privileges. OCT. : Insurrection of Women.




Moreau exiled. MARCH : Murder of Due


1790


FEB. : Leopold II. Emperor. JULY : Treaty of
Reichenbach. AUGUST : Mutinies, and massacre




d'Enghien. Issue of the Code Napoleon. MAY :
Napoleon I. Emperor of the French. Pitt re-
turns to office. Russia forms alliance with


1791


MARCH : Death of Mirabeau. MAY : Canada Act.
JUNE : Flight of Louis to Varennes. AUG. :
Conference of Pitnitz. SEPT. : Louis accepts
the Constitution. OCT. : " Legislative " As-


1805


Prussia. Nov. : Alliance joined by Austria.
MARCH : Villeneuve sails from Toulon. MAY :
Italian Republic becomes a monarchy, with
Napoleon king. Eugene Beauharnais viceroy.
JULY : Calder defeats Villeneuve. SEPT :




sembly meets.




Third Coalition formed. OCT. : Capitulation of


1792


JAN. : Treaty of Jassy. FEB. : Treaty between




Ulm. Trafalgar. DEC. : Austerlitz. Treaties




Austria and Prussia. MARCH : 1st, Francis II.
Emperor ; 29th, Gustavus III. of Sweden




of Schonbrunn and Presburg. Bourbon Dynasty
of Naples deposed.




assassinated. APRIL : France declares war on


1806


JAN. : Death of Pitt. End of Holy Roman Em-




Austria. JUNE : Mob breaks into Tuileries.




pire. APRIL : Joseph Bonaparte King of Naples.




JUIY: 24th, Prussia declares war; 27th,
Brunswick's proclamation. AUG. : Mob attack




JUNE: Louis Bonaparte King of Holland. JULY:
Confederation of the Rhine. OCT. : Prussia




on Tuileries ; Louis a prisoner. Supremacy of




crushed at Jena and Auerstadt. Nov. : The




Paris Commune. Fall of Longwy. SEPT. :




Berlin Decree.




September massacres. Cannonade of Valmy.


1807


JAN. : The Orders in Council. Act abolishing




" National Convention " meets ; Republic pro-




Slave Trade. FEB. : Eylau. MARCH : Port-




claimed. OCT. and Nov. : Success of Repub-




land Ministry. Canning Foreign Secretary.




lican armies. DEC. : Trial of Louis XVI. opens.




APRIL : Treaty of Bartenstein. JUNE : Fried-


1793


JAN. : Second partition of Poland. Louis be-
headed. FEB. : Declaration of war with Eng-
land and Holland. Revolt of La Vendee.




land. JULY : Treaty of Tilsit. Jerome Bona-
parte King of Westphalia. SEPT. : Copenhagen
bombarded. OCT. : Treaty of Fontainebleau.


1794


MAR. : Revolutionary Tribunal. APRIL : Flight
of Dumouriez. JUNE : Fall of Gironde. JULY :
Revolt of Girondist departments. Death of
Marat. SEPT : Law of the Suspect. Carnot.
OCT. : Republican Calendar. Marie Antoinette
and Girondins guillotined. Nov. : Reign of
Terror. DEC. : Toulon captured.
MARCH : Fall of Hebertists. APRIL : Fall of
Danton : Robespierre supreme. Pichegru in
Netherlands. JUNE : 1st, Howe's victorv ;


1808


French troops enter Spain. Stein begins his
reforms in Prussia. DEC. : Junot at Lisbon.
MARCH : Abdication of Charles IV. of Spain. MAY :
Meeting at Bayonne. Rising of Spain. JUNE :
Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain. Murat King
of Naples. JULY : Capitulation of Baylen.
AUG. : Vimeiro. Convention of Cintra. OCT. :
Meeting of Erfurt. Nov. : Fall of Stein.
Napoleon goes to Spain. DEC. : Advance and
retreat of Sir John Moore. Napoleon leaves




26th, Jourdan's victory at Fleurus ; 28th,
Thermidorian reaction. Fall of Robespierre ;
end of Reign of Terror. OCT. : Pichegru over-
runs Holland.


1809


JAN. : Moore at Corunna. FEB. : Fall of Sara-
gossa. APRIL : Wellesley at Lisbon. Austria
declares war. MAY : Tyrolese revolt. Aspern.


1795


JAN. : Third partition of Poland. APRIL : Peace
of Basle with Prussia. JULY : Peace of Basle
with Spain. Emigr6s crushed at Quiberon.
OCT. : Insurrection of Vend6miaire suppressed.




Annexation of Papal States. JUNE : Soult
forced to evacuate Portugal. JULY : Wagram :
Talavera. Walcheren Expedition. OCT. : Peace
of Vienna. Bernadotte becomes Crown Prince
of Sweden


1798
1797


Directory established.
MAY : Bonaparte in Italy. Lodi. SEPT. : Archduke
Charles repulses invasion of Jourdan and Moreau.
OCT. : Spain allies with France. Nov. : Arcola ;
Paul I. Tsar of Russia. Gustavus IV. assumes
government of Sweden.
JAN. : Rivoli. FEB. : Cape St. Vincent. APRIL-
JUNE : Mutinies in British Fleet. Treaty of
Leoben. Repression of Venice. Cisalpine and
Ligurian Republics constituted. SEPT. : Coup
d'etat of Fructidor. Death of Hoche. OCTOBER :
Camperdown. Treaty of Campo Formio. NOV. :


1810

1811
1812


MARCH : Napoleon marries Marie Louise. JULY :
Annexation of North Sea Coast Districts.
SEPT. : Busaco ; Cortes meets at Cadiz. Nov. :
Torres Vedras. DEC. : Tsar withdraws from
Continental System.
MAY : Fuentes d'Onoro and Albuera.
JAN. : Ciudad Rodrigo. APRIL : Badajoz. JUNE :
Moscow Expedition starts. Liverpool Ministry.
JULY : Salamanca. SEPT. : Borodino. Burning
of Moscow. OCT. : Retreat from Moscow.
Nov. : Bridge of Beresina. DEC. : Agreement


1798
1799


Frederic William III. King of Prussia.
APRIL : Helvetic Republic constituted. MAY :
Egyptian expedition sails from Toulon. Rebel-
lion in Ireland. JUNE : Vinegar Hill. JULY :
Battle of the Pyramids. AUG. : Battle of the
Nile. Second coalition formed.
JAN. : Parthenopean Republic of Naples. MARCH :
stockach. APRIL: Magnano. MAY: Bona-


1813
1814


of Tauroggen.
FEB. : Treaty of Kalisch. MAY : Liitzen and
Bautzen. JUNE : Vittoria. Treaty of Reichen-
bach. AUG. : Katzbach and Dresden. SEPT. :
Treaty of Toplitz. OCT. : Leipzig.
JAN. : Treaty of Kiel. Norway joined to Sweden.
FEB. : La Rothiere. MARCH : Capitulation of
Paris. APRIL : Battle of Toulouse. Napoleon
goes to Elba ; Bourbon restoration. MAY :




parte repulsed at Acre. JUNE : Trebbia. AUG.
Novi. Capture ef Dutch Fleet in the Texel.




Treaty of Paris. Nov. : Congress of Vienna




SEPT. : Restoration of Naples monarchy.
Withdrawal of Suwarrow. OCT. : Return of
Bonaparte. Nov.: Coup d'etat of Brumaire.


1815


MARCH : Napoleon lands and returns to Paris.
MAY: Murat overthrown at Tolentino. JUNE :
Ligny, Quatre-Bras, and Waterloo. JULY :




Bonaparte First Consul.




. Second Bourbon restoration. Napoleon sent to


1800


JUNE : Marengo. AUG. : Union between Great




St. Helena. Holy Alliance. Nov. : Peace of




Britain and Ireland. DEC. : Hohenlinden.




Paris.


1801


FEBRUARY : Resignation of Pitt. Treaty of Lun6-
ville. MARCH : Abercrombie at Aboukir.


1818


Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle. Evacuation of France
by forces of the Allies. Plndari war in India.




APRIL : Nelson at Copenhagen. Alexander I.


1819


The Six Acts.




Tsar. OCTOBER : Peace preliminaries. The
Batavten Republic organised.


1820


Accession of George IV. Queen Caroline scandals.
Royalist reaction in France. Revolution of


1802


MARCH : Peace of Amiens. APRIL : French




Riego in Spain. Revolution in Portugal and




Concordat with Papacy. AUG.: Bonaparte




separation from Brazil. Insurrections in the




First Consul for life. SEPT. : Piedmont annexed




two Sicilies. Congress of Troppau, afterwards




to France.




Laibach.



5279



GREAT DATES FROM THE FRENCH REVOLU-
TION TO OUR OWN TIME



A.D.

1821
1822

1823

1824
1825

1826
1827
1828



1830



1831



1832
1833



1834
1835

1837
1838
1839

1840

1841
1842

1843
1845
1846

1847

1848



1849

1850

1851
1852



Death of Napoleon. Suppression of Italian revolts.
Greek insurrection against Turkey.

Canning, Foreign Secretary. Independence of
South American colonies recognised. Congress
of Vienna. Greek successes.

Ferdinand VII. of Spain re-establishes absolutism
by French help. Reaction in Portugal. Huskis
son's commercial policy in England.
M of Charles X. in France.

Ibrahim Pasha in Greece. Nicholas I. Tsar of
Kussia.

Canning prevents Spanish intervention in Portugal.
Fall of Missolonghi.

Canning, Prime Minister. Anglo-Russian Treaty of
London. Death of Canning. Battle of Navarino.

Wellington. Prime Minister. Test and Corporation
Acts repealed. Clare election. Usurpation of
Dom Miguel in Portugal. War between Russia
and Turkey.

Catholic emancipation. Treaty of Adrianople.
Greek independence recognised.

in of William IV. in England. Grey Prime
Minister. The July Revolution. Louis Philippe
King of the French. Risings in Belgium, Poland,
and Sicily. Accession of Ferdinand II. in Naples.

Belgium recognised as an independent kingdom.
1'olish revolt suppressed. English Reform Bill
rejected.

Reform Act passed.

Otto of Bavaria King of the Hellenes. Isabella
succeeds in Spain. Miguel expelled from
Portugal. Slavery abolished in the British
Empire.

Melbourne Ministry. Poor Law Reform. On
Melbourne's dismissal by the king, Peel attempts
to form Ministry.

Melbourne Ministry returns. Palmerston in control
of Foreign Affaire. Ferdinand I. Austrian
Emperor.

Accession of Victoria. Hanover separated from
.reat Britain. Papineau's revolt in Canada.

Lord Durham in Canada. Development of
Chartism.

Mehemet AH in Syria. Abd ul-Mejid sultan.
Peel and the Bedchamber question. Anti-Corn
Law League.

Mehemet Ali checked. Marriage of Queen
Victoria. Canadian Act of Reunion. Chinese
" Opium " War.

Kabul disaster. Peel, Prime Minister.

Dost Mohammed restored. Peel's sliding scale.
The Disruption in Scotland.

Annexation of Sindh. Gwalior Campaign.
-ikh War ; ended next year.

Repeal of the Corn Laws. Pius IX. Pope. Russell
administration.

Ficlden's Factory Act.

February Revolution ; Second French Republic.
Ri-iims in Sicily and Naples. March Revolu-
tion in Germany. Revolt of Bohlecwig-Holstein
from Denmark. Revolt* of Lombardy and
Venice against Austria. Frankfort Puttamfmt
Radetzky defeat* Charles Albert of Sardinia
at Custozza. Accession of Frederic VI 1. in
Denmark, Francis Jiiscjih in Austria; I.ouis
Napoleon PMidcal of French Republic. Dal-
hoiisir in India. Collapse of Chartist move-
ment in England. Reaction victorious in
my and Austria. Second Sikh War.

Hungarian revolt suppressed. Victor F.m-
inaniiel King of Sardinia. Dissolution of
-.fort 1'arliamt-nt. Ueaction in Central
Italy. Annexation of Punjab.

North German Confederation. Convention of
Olmutz. Australian Constitution Bill. The
Queen's memorandum to Palmi-rstoii.

Coup dvt.it in France. Palmerston dismissed.
i.r. at Inhibition.

Bchlemrig-Holstetai question. Cavour Mi
Death of Duke of Wellington. Napoleon III'



A.D.
1853
1854

1855
1856

1857
1858

1859
1860
1861

1862

1863

1864
1865
1866

1887
1868
1869
1870
1871

1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878

1879
1880
1881
1882
1884
1885
1886
1888
1889
1895

1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1909
1910
1911
1912

1912
1913



Turkey declares war against Russia.

Crimean war. Battles of Alma, Balaclava, and

Inkerman.

Palmerston Ministry. Fall of Sebastopol. Alex-
ander II. Tsar.
End of War. Persian and Chinese wars. Lord

Canning in India.
Indian Mutiny : revolt broken.
Orsini's bomb. Derby Administration. Mutiny

suppressed ; India transferred to the Crown.
Napoleon supports Sardinia against Austria ;

Magenta and Solferino. Peace of Villafranca.

Palmerston's return.
Union of Savoy and Nice to France. Garibaldi in

Sicily. The Commons, the Peers, and the

Paper Duty.
Victor Emmanuel King of Italy. Death of Cavour.

Abd ul-Aziz Sultan. William I. in Prussia.

Emancipation of Russian serfs. North American

Civil War.
Battle of Aspromonte. King Otto expelled from

Greece. Bismarck Prussian Minister. Cotton

famine.
Schleswig-Holstein war. Suppression of Poland.

The Alabama.
Death of Palmerston.
Russell Ministry. Gastein Convention.
Seven Weeks' War of Prussia and Austria.

Sadowa. Venetia ceded to Victor Emmanuel.

French in Rome. Dual Government of Austria-
Hungary.
Disraeli's Reform Bill. B.N.A. Consolidation Act.

Abyssinian War.
Isabella expelled from Spain. Fenian outrages.

Abolition of Church rates.
Gladstone Administration. Irish Land Bill and

Disestablishment.
Franco-German War; Sedan: Third Republic.

Italy unified. English Education Act.
Surrender of Paris. German Empire proclaimed.

Black Sea Conference.
Alabama award.
MacMahon President in France.
Alfonso XII. in Spain. Disraeli Administration.
Purchase of Suez Canal shares.
Bulgarian atrocities. Abd ul-Hamid Sultan.
Russo-Turkish War. Annexation of Transvaal.

Treaty of San Stefano. Berlin Congress. Afghan
wars ; ended in 1880.

Zulu War : Isandlhwana.

Gladstone Administration.

Majuba. Retrocession of Transvaal.

Bombardment of Alexandria. Tel-el-Kebir.

Franchise and Redistribution Acts.

Death of C. G. Gordon. Penjdeh incident.

First HomeJUile Bill. Salisbury Ministry.

Parnell Comnu-sion.

Annexation of Burmah.

Salisbury's Unionist Administration. Jameson

raid.

Conquest of Sudan.

Boxer rising in China. South African War begins.
Australian Commonwealth.
.\rccs~ion of F.dward VII.
End of Boer War.

i-aiie-e War.

Separation of Norway and Sweden.
(Dec.) Campbell- Hanncrman (Lib.). Prime Minister.
Grant of responsible government in S. Africa.
Union of S. Africa.

,,. y_

Republic in I'oitiiL'al.

Manehu dynasty expelled, and republic declared

in China.
Balkan States defeat Turkey.



I

jt

k



GLIMPSESfEUROPES
CAPITAL CITIES




IN THE HEART OF LONDON



*




VIEW FROM THE MONUMENT. SHOWING THE RIVER THAMES. THE TOWER & TOWER BRIDGE



TRAFALGAR SQUARE AND THE NELSON COLUMN AS SEEN FROM THE WEST SIDE




Vilcnuue

ANOTHER VIEW FROM THE MONUMENT. SHOWING ST. PAUL'S IN THE DISTANCE



5282



LONDON, THE CAPITAL OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE




PANORAMIC VIEW, SHOWING EIGHT OF THE BRIDGES ACROSS THE RIVER SEINE




THE AVENUE DE L'OPERA. WITH THE OPERA HOUSE IN TH* DISTANCE.
LA VILLE LUM1ERE"; SCENES IN THE BEAUTIFUL CAPITAL OF FRANCE.

5283



A GENERAL VIEW, SHOWING THE IMPERIAL PALACE AND THE CATHEDRAL




UNTER DEN LINDE



THE MOST FAMOUS STREETS IN EUROPE



IN BERLIN. THE PROSPEROUS CAPITAL OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE.
5284




NEVSKII-PROSPEKT, ONE OF THE FINEST THOROUGHFARES IN THE WORLD




THE OLD ADMIRALTY BUILDING FROM ONE OF THE BRIDGES SPANNING THE NEVA

PETROGRAD. THE MODERN CAPITAL OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

5285




OF THE FRANZENSRING. THE PRINCIPAL BOULEVARD OF VIENNA




Photochrome
BUDAPEST. SHOWING THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE ACROSS THE RIVER DANUBE



THE CAPITAL CITIES OF AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY



5286




A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW, SHOWING THE PICTURESQUE MOSQUES AND MINARETS




ANOTHER VIEW OF THE CITY. INCLUDING THE GALATA BRIDGE

CONSTANTINOPLE, THE CAPITAL OF THE TURKISH EMPIRE
336 5287



TOWARDS THE RUINS OF THE ACROP




GENERAL VIEW OF THE MODERN TOWN



ATHENS. THE CAPITAL OF ANCIENT AND MODERN GREECE.




ROME, SEEN FROM ST. PETER'S, SHOWING THE TIBER AND THE CASTLE OF ST. ANGELO




GENERAL VIEW OF BERNE. WITH THE BERNESE OBERLAND IN THE DISTANCE



ROME AND BERNE : THE CAPITALS OF ITALY AND SWITZERLAND

5289




PANORAMA OF MADRID, GIVING A GLIMPSE OF THE PRADO IN THE FOREGROUND




GENERAL VIEW OF LISBON. LOOKING FROM ST. PEDRO DE ALCANTARA



MADRID AND LISBON : THE SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE CAPITALS
5290




THE BRUSSELS PALAIS DE JUSTICE; ONE OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST BUILDINGS




THE BRONZE STATUE OF WILLIAM II. A"



SCENES IN THE CAPITAL CITIES OF BELGIUM AND HOLLAND



5291




Photochrome

A PICTURESQUE GLIMPSE OF BUCHAREST, THE CAPITAL OF ROUMANIA




A. WITH MONUMENT TO ALEXANDER II. OK RUSSIA




PANORAMIC VIEW OF BELGRADE AS SEEN FROM THE RIVER DANUBE



THE CAPITALS OF ROUMANIA, BULGARIA. AND SERVIA



5292






EUROPE: SEVENTH DIVISION

THE EUROPEAN
POWERS TO-DAY

AND A SURVEY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE

As concerns our present great geographical division
Europe we have now reached the last historical phase. It
remains for us to take the states into which that division is
now split up, to give an account of their present-day
characteristics, and to relate the present with the past and the
immediate future. For it is not the historian's part to
prophesy, though he has provided the data for prophetic
inductions, within very circumscribed limits.

At this stage, therefore, we give a picture of the political
and social conditions prevailing, first of all, in every Continental
state, large or small, from Russia to Andorra, dwelling on
those features which appear to be of the strongest interest in
each individual case.

Finally, we turn to Great Britain, and thence digress to an
account of her world -empire, which needs to be treate<! as a
unity, although such treatment of it has been impossible to
fit into our continuous narrative of world-history built up on a
geographical basis. For it is the history of an expansion into
every quarter of the globe, the picture of an empire whose flag
is planted on every continent, whose dominion in e-'ery
continent but Europe itself extends from sea to sea, and claims
to include, metaphorically at least, in that dominion the
boundless ocean itself.



RUSSIA

By Dr. E. J. Dillon

TURKEY. GREECE AND THE BALKANS

By F. A. McKenzie

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
By Henry W. Nevinson

GERMANY

By Charles Lowe, M.A.

BELGIUM. HOLLAND, LUXEMBURG. SWITZERLAND

By Robert Machray, B.A.

ITALY AND SAN MARINO
By William Durban, B.A., and Robert Machray, B.A.

FRANCE. MONACO. AND ANDORRA
By Richard Whiteing and Robert Machray, B.A.

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL
By Martin Hume, M.A.

SCANDINAVIA
By William Durban. B.A.

THE UNITED KINGDOM
By Arthur D. Innes, M.A.

THE BRITISH EMPIRE
By Sir Harry H. Johnston, K.C.B.






5293




THE FIRST DUMA, WHICH SAT FROM MAY 10TH TILL JULY 22SD, 1906

From the drawing by I.. Sabbatier




SECOND DUMA, WHICH LASTED FROM MARCH 5TH TILL JUNE 16TH, 1




r WHICH ASSEMBLED ON NOVEMBER 1ST. 1907



RUSSIA'S PARLIAMENT: PICTURES OF THE THREE DUMAS



5294




;UROPB\N POWERS TODAY

RUSSIA IN OUR OWN TIME

ITS POVERTY, CORRUPTION, AND OPPRESSION
WITH A GLOOMY AND UNCERTAIN OUTLOOK

By Dr. E. J. Dillon



THE Russia of the twentieth century is
the product of manifold social forces,
religious influences, and political currents,
of which the most salient and obvious
began to be keenly felt and generally
noticed in the reign of Peter the Great.
Down to that historic epoch the nation had
kept studiously aloof from the progressive
peoples of Europe, leading a life apart.

Unlike the Poles and Czechs, whom
communion with papal Rome had brought
into continuous contact with al 1 that was
stimulating in Western civilisation, Russia
isolated herself by embracing Byzantine
Christianity and accepting Byzantine cul-
ture. Peter the Great was the first ruler
to break with this paralysing
_ n past and to endeavour to

bring his people into line with
Two Camps ,, r? *

their European neighbours.

The task was superlatively arduous, and
the efforts constantly made since then to
accomplish it divided thinking Russia into
Vvo camps, which towards the middle of
the nineteenth century received the names
of the Slavophile and the Western. .

The men of the latter party yearned for
the regime of France 01 England. Those of
the former thanked God for having vouch-
safed to His chosen people the best of all
possible institutions : Greek orthodoxy as
the most perfect Christian creed ; Russian



Online LibraryJames Bryce BryceThe book of history. A history of all nations from the earliest times to the present, with over 8,000 illustrations (Volume 13) → online text (page 1 of 61)