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THE EVENTS OF 1916
AND SUMMARY

THE EVENTS OF 1917
AND SUMMARY




WOODROW WILSON
President of the United States, 1913-1921



The Book of History

ITbe Worlds Greatest Mar

FROM THE OUTBREAK OF THE WAR
TO THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

WITH MORE THAN 1 ,000 ILLUSTRATIONS

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

HOLLAND THOMPSON, PH.D.

'Che College of the City of New York
CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS AND EDITORS



Maj.-Gen. Leonard Wood, U.S.A.

COMMANDING 89TH AND 10TH DIVISIONS

G. C. Marshall, Jr.

COLONEL, GEN'L STAFF, A. D. C., U. S. ARMY

Herbert T. Wade

LATE CAPT. ORDNANCE DEPT., U. S. ARMY

John H. Finley, LL.D.

COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION,

N. Y. STATE
COLONEL, RED CROSS IN PALESTINE

Albert Sonnichsen

NEWSPAPER CORRESPONDENT IN
BALKANS

Basil Clarke

THE LONDON DAILY MAIL

Nelson P. Mead, Ph.D.

COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK
EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT A. E. F.

Muriel Bray, L.L.A.

ASST. EDITOR, CANADIAN BOOK OF
KNOWLEDGE

Vernon Kellogg

DIRECTOR IN BRUSSELS OF COMMISSION
FOR RELIEF IN BELGIUM



Rear-Admiral William S. Sims

COMMANDING U. S. NAVY IN EUROPEAN
WATERS

Carlyon Bellairs, M.P.

LATE COMMANDER OF THE ROYAL NAVY

Lt.-Gen. Sir Arthur Currie,
G.C.M.G., K.C.B.

COMMANDER OF THE CANADIAN CORPS
IN FRANCE

Sir John Willison

PRESIDENT CANADIAN RECONSTRUCTION
ASSOCIATION

W. S. Wallace

LATE MAJOR CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY
FORCE

Robert Machray

THE LONDON DAILY MAIL

L. Marion Lockhart, B.A.

ASSISTANT EDITOR, BOOK OF HISTORY

Michael Williams

NATIONAL CATHOLIC WAR COUNCIL
BULLETIN

Viscount Northcliffe

PROPRIETOR, LONDON TIMES



And Other Contributors




NEW YORK . . THE GROLIER SOCIETY
LONDON THE EDUCATIONAL BOOK CO.



COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY
THE GROLIER SOCIETY



A*l rights reserved, including that of translation
into foreign languages.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II

Chapter

XXVII THE UNITED STATES AND THE WORLD WAR .

XXVIII THEY SHALL NOT PASS : THE STORY OF VERDUN I

XXIX THE BATTLE OF VERDUN II

XXX THE BRITISH NAVY AND THE JUTLAND FIGHT

XXXI FRANCE IN WAR TIME

XXXII THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME I

XXXIII THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME II

XXXIV THE FIRST OPERATIONS AROUND SALONIKT
XXXV THE FIRST ITALIAN CAMPAIGNS .

XXXVI ON THE EASTERN FRONT DURING 1916 .

XXXVII THE SACRIFICE OF RUMANIA .

XXXVIII THE WAR IN THE NEAR EAST . . . .

XXXIX THE COURSE OF THE WAR DURING 1916

XL THE BRITISH PEOPLE AT WAR .

XLI M. POILU, AS I KNEW HIM . .

XLII THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION ......

XLI 1 1 GREECE AND THE WAR THE VENIZELIST REVOLT

XLIV MILITARY OPERATIONS DURING THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

XLV THE UNITED STATES ENTERS THE WAR .

XLVI THE CAPTURE OF BAGDAD ......

XLVII THE ITALIAN DISASTER AT CAPORETTO .

XLVI 1 1 ON THE FRENCH FRONT IN 1917 .

XLIX ON THE BRITISH FRONT IN 1917 .

L THE CONQUEST OF PALESTINE .

LI TRAINING THE CITIZEN ARMY . . .

LII THE COURSE OF THE WAR DURING 1917



Page
421

433
455
469
491
5ii
535
559
577
599
613
623

637
645
669

675
699

715
729

753
767
787
805
827

853
867



LIST OF MAPS

VOLUME II

Page

THE SALIENT OF VERDUN . . . . . . . .437

DEFENSES OF VERDUN ON EASTERN BANK OF THE MEUSE . . 452

DEFENSES OF VERDUN TO THE WEST OF THE MEUSE . . . 457
DIAGRAMS OF JUTLAND BATTLE ...... .478-482

FROM YPRES TO THE SOMME, BRITISH FRONT IN 1916 . . . 515

AREA OF GREAT BATTLE OF THE SOMME . . . . 517

FRENCH SUCCESSES ON THE SOMME, 1916 . . . . . 521

AREA OF BRITISH FIGHTING ON THE SOMME . . . . . 534

ALLIED OPERATIONS FROM SALONIKI . . . . . 561

ALLIED ARMY OPERATIONS AGAINST MONASTIR . . . . 573

THE VALLEY OF THE ISONZO AND THE CARSO PLATEAU . . . 579

ITALIAN ADVANCE IN AUGUST 1916 . . . ... . 593

THE ISONZO FRONT AND ADJOINING AUSTRIAN LANDS . . 595

BROKEN TERRAIN BETWEEN GORIZIA AND TRIESTE .... 596

RUSSIAN NORTH FRONT LINE FROM RIGA TO DVINSK . . . . 603

RUSSIAN VICTORIES ON THE STRYPA ...... 605

RUMANIA SHOWING AREA CAPTURED UP TO THE END OF 1916 . 618

TURKISH DEFENSES BEFORE KUT ....... 629

THE LAST RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE . . . . . . . 719

OPERATIONS AROUND THE GULF OF RIGA . . . . . 727

GERMAN BLOCKADE OF EUROPE . 730

FROM KUT TO TEKRIT ......... 756

MESOPOTAMIAN OPERATIONS DURING THE WAR .... 764

COMMUNICATIONS IN MODERN WARFARE 765

ITALIAN ADVANCE, AND RETREAT TO THE PIAVE .... 779

SECOND BATTLE OF THE AISNE . . . . . . . 791

CHEMIN DES DAMES AND CONTIGUOUS COUNTRY .... 792

NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST OF ARRAS ...... 806

ADVANCES NEAR THE SOMME AND THE ANCRE .... 809



Page

VIMY RIDGE AND THE DOUAI PLAIN 812

THE MESSINES-WYTSCHAETE RIDGE. . . . . . . 816

PUSHING THE LINE BACK FROM YPRES, 818

THE ROAD TO POELCAPPELLE AND PASSCHENDAELE ... 821

THE TURKISH DEFENSES ON THE GAZA-BEERSHEBA LINE. . . 834

LAST STAGES IN ALLENBY'S CAMPAIGN AGAINST JERUSALEM . 839

ADVANCE OF THE EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE . . . 847

FULL EXTENT OF ALLENBY'S CONQUESTS. .... 851



LIST OF COLOR PLATES IN THE WORLD'S
GREATEST WAR

WOODROW WILSON . . . . . . . . .421

ADMIRAL SIR DAVID BEATTY ........ 469

RIGHT HON. DAVID LLOYD GEORGE 645

M. GEORGES CLEMENCEAU 786




President Wilson Addressing the United States Congress

CHAPTER XXVII

The United States and the World War

THE PEOPLE BEGIN TO REALIZE THAT THE STRUGGLE

CONCERNS THEM



TT is perhaps, not an exaggeration to
say that the two years following the
outbreak of the Great War, brought
about more fundamental and far-
reaching changes in the economic and
social conditions in the United States
than had been witnessed in the fifty
years which had preceded the war. The
foreign trade was at first disrupted and
then completely recast; the revenue
system was reorganized government
receipts and expenditures were no longer
expressed in millions but in billions;
government control of private business
was indulged in on an unheard of scale;
semi-socialistic measures, which would
not have been dreamt of a decade be-
fore, were accepted without protest;
new industries grew up like mushrooms
in the night, money flowed into the
country in unprecedented amounts.
The nation changed from a debtor to a
creditor country. Underlying all of
these tremendous changes there was
going on a fundamental recasting of the
relations between capital and labor.
Labor found itself more powerful than
it had ever been before and it was not
slow to wield this power. These changes
were an eloquent commentary to the
comfortable illusion of American isola-
tion from the affairs of Europe.

''pHE FIRST EFFECTS OF THE WAR UPON
1 BUSINESS.

The first reaction of the war upon
the business interests of the country



was certain to be unfavorable. The in-
tricate mechanism of international
trade was for the moment completely
disrupted. American manufacturers
found many of their accustomed for-
eign markets suddenly cut off. Shipping
facilities were greatly curtailed by the
transfer of merchant shipping to mili-
tary uses. The European stock ex-
changes closed either immediately be-
fore or after the outbreak of hostilities.
The London exchange closed on July
31 for the first time in its history, and
left the New York Stock Exchange the
only important exchange remaining
open. Brokers were deluged with sell-
ing orders from abroad and a scene of
confusion approaching panic resulted.
To relieve the situation the governors
determined to close the exchange tem-
porarily. The rate of foreign exchange,
at first, ran heavily against the United
States, especially in England, due to
the large amounts owed by American
business interests. At one time the rate
reached seven dollars to the pound
sterling.

It was not long, however, before the
situation improved materially. Early
in 1915, the Entente Allies began plac-
ing orders for large quantities of muni-
tions and foodstuffs in the United
States. A feeling of confidence was re-
stored. Trading on the Stock Exchange
was gradually resumed. The exchange
rate on London rapidly declined until

421



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR



it once more touched par and then be-
gan to run against London as the
amount of foreign purchases in the
United States steadily mounted. To
check this unfavorable balance of trade,
large quantities of American securities
held abroad were sent to the United
States. It was estimated that during
the years 1915 and 1916 more than
$2,000,000,000 of such securities were
transferred to American investors.
Even this proved adequate but for a
short time and the Entente powers
and many neutral powers resorted to
loans in the United States to sustain
their credit.

T7OREIGN BONDS SOLD TO INVESTORS IN
Jr THE UNITED STATES.

During 1915 and 1916 more than
$2,000,000,000 of such loans were made
to Great Britain, France, Switzerland,
Sweden, Norway, Greece, Russia, Italy
and Argentina. In addition, $10,000,-
ooo of German Treasury notes were
sold to American investors. The
greater part of this sum was used to
finance German propaganda in the
United States and Mexico. These
loans marked a new era in American
finance. Never before had foreign
bonds appeared in the American mar-
ket in any considerable amounts. This
tremendous transfer of capital pro-
foundly affected world trade and
finance. In two years the United
States had been transformed from a
debtor to a creditor nation.

The immense increase in the volume
of American foreign trade created a
critical situation in the shipping indus-
try. More than ninety per cent of the
export trade of the United States at
the beginning of the war was carried in
merchant ships of foreign nations,
chiefly British and German. In the
first weeks of the war German shipping
was driven from the seas and British
tonnage available for American com-
merce was greatly reduced. By the
fall of 1915 it was almost impossible to
obtain cargo space despite the fact that
every type of sailing and steam vessel
was pressed into service. Freight rates
went to four times the pre-war level,
or even higher. In some cases a vessel
would earn its entire cost on one round

422



trip. To meet this critical situation the
Administration proposed the estab-
lishment of government steamship
lines. Congress did not finally act on
this recommendation until September,
1916, when a ship-purchase law was
passed.

THE GOVERNMENT GOES INTO THE SHIP-
PING INDUSTRY.

This act provided for a Shipping
Board of five members which was em-
powered (i) to form one or more cor-
porations for the purchase, lease, and
operation of merchant vessels with a
maximum capital of fifty million dol-
lars, (2) to acquire vessels suitable for
naval auxiliaries, (3) to regulate com-
merce on the Great Lakes and the high
seas including the fixing of rates, (4) to
cancel or modify any agreement among
carriers that was found to be unfair as
between carriers and exporters, or
which operated to the detriment of
United States commerce, (5) to sanc-
tion pooling agreements among, ship-
pers which were exempted from the
operations of the Sherman Act. Ves-
sels were to be operated by the board,
however, only if it was unable to sell,
lease or charter such vessels to citizens
of the United States and government
ownership was limited to five years
after the close of the war. The effects
of this act did not begin to be felt until
after the entrance of the United States
into the war.

While the struggle in Europe brought
a large measure of prosperity to the
United States it also brought a heavy
financial burden. Measures to protect
neutrality together with legislation
providing for a greater degree of mili-
tary preparedness called for increased
appropriations. In three years Con-
gressional appropriations increased from
$1,089,408,777 for 1914, to $1,626,-
439,209 for 1917. To meet this increase
the fiscal system, or lack of system, was
poorly adapted. Repeated efforts to
have Congress adopt a budget system
had met with no success. One of the
chief items of national revenue, cus-
tom receipts, was materially reduced
on account of greatly diminished im-
ports. It was necessary to find new
sources of revenue.



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR



THE WAR REVENUE ACT INCREASES TAX-
ATION.

To meet this situation the President
urged upon Congress the raising of ad-
ditional revenue by increased taxation,
rather than by borrowing. In response
Congress passed the first War Revenue
Act, which was to remain in force one



urged that the additional ' revenue
should be obtained from taxation rather
than borrowing. The new revenue law
passed by Congress doubled the normal
rate of the income tax and materially
increased the surtaxes on incomes. A
progressive inheritance tax was placed
on estates in excess of $50,000 and an




FUNERAL SERVICE FOR THE LUSITANIA VICTIMS

In the churchyard at Queenstown a service was held over the remains of the victims of the tragedy that shocked
Christendom in May, 1915. The story of horror and heroism is familiar: the warning issued by the German
Embassy, the torpedoing of the ship on May 7, the noble behavior of officers and men, the suffering and exposure
and death of innocent victims, the protest by the United States, and the exultation in Germany.

International Film Service



year and was expected to produce fifty-
four million dollars. The excise tax on
liquors and tobacco was increased and
license taxes were levied on bankers,
brokers and theatres. Stamp taxes were
placed on promissory notes and legal
documents, insurance policies, bills of
lading, telegraph and telephone mes-
sages.

During 1915 the Administration pre-
sented a program calling for large ex-
penditures for national defense. To
meet these expenditures fresh revenue
had to be found. The President again



excise tax of 12^2 per cent on the net
profits of munition manufacturers.
These new taxes showed a distinct ten-
dency to place the added burden of tax-
ation upon persons of wealth and upon
those deriving profits from war indus-'
tries. This policy was continued and
expanded after the entrance of the
United States into the war.

THE ATTITUDE OF THE PEOPLE OF THE
UNITED STATES TOWARD WAR.

It was inevitable that the people of
the United States would be profoundly
affected by the great struggle in Europe

423



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR



though this fact was not realized at
first. T Nearly a century before Presi-
dent Monroe had laid down the prin-
cip'e that the affairs of Europe did not
concern us, and the statement became
a part of the mental attitude of most
citizens. Though challenged by the
Spanish War, nevertheless in 1914, the
great majority of American citizens did
not dream that their country had any
vital interest in the struggle beginning
in Europe. A few, chiefly in the Eastern
States, wished the United States to
take a strong position from the be-
ginning.

Few Americans, however, had any
accurate knowledge of foreign affairs,
and did not understand the reasons why
Europe was an armed camp. The reac-
tion from the Civil War had produced
a distaste for war. The efficient navy
of that period had been allowed to rot
and only slowly had the advocates of
a greater navy gained followers. For
a short time the navy of the United
States was second in strength, but it
had lost this position in 1914. Until
the Spanish War the tiny regular army
was hardly large enough for defense
against the Indians, and it was still
small in 1914. The American people,
engrossed in internal development, had
come to believe that a real war on this
continent was improbable. For a hun-
dred years not a gun had been fired
along the 3,000 miles of frontier with
Canada. Relations with Mexico had
been less peaceful but the people of the
United States were not belligerent.
This attitude had been even strength-
ened by the trifling contest with Spain.

THE EFFECT OF IMMIGRANTS ON PUBLIC
SENTIMENT.

The United States, however, is to a
great extent an immigrant nation. Of
the hundred million people in the coun-
try, about one-third are of foreign
birth, or have at least one parent for-
eign born. About one-fourth of this
foreign element was of German origin.
Ties of blood, race and former nation-
ality soon asserted themselves. Brit-
ish or French immigrants naturally
took the side of the Entente Allies,
though a part of the Irish and the
French Canadians were, to say the least,

424



lukewarm. The part of the population
classed as Russian was very largely of
Jewish birth, who had fled from bitter
persecution. It was difficult for many
of these to feel that any alliance which
included Russia could be fighting upon
the side of civilization. They were not
so much pro-German as anti-Russian.
As the war went on the sentiments of
this group changed.

GERMAN EFFORTS TO INFLUENCE OPIN.
ION IN THE UNITED STATES.

Of all the belligerent powers, Ger-
many made the most persistent efforts
to influence opinion in the United
States. Dr. Bernhard Dernburg, for-
merly Colonial Secretary of the German
Empire, was sent to convince Ameri-
cans of the justice of the German cause.
A Press Bureau was established in New
York and newspapers and magazines
were subsidized throughout the coun-
try. This agitation became so wide-
spread that President Wilson deemed
it wise to issue an appeal to all Ameri-
cans to be "neutral in speech as well as
in action." He pointed out that the
spirit of the nation would depend on
what was said at public meetings and
in the pulpit, and what was printed in
the papers. He "ventured therefore to
speak a word of warning against par-
tisanship in order that the country
would be free to do what is honest and
truly serviceable for the peace of the
world."

The open and avowed pro-German
propaganda in the United States re-
ceived a serious set-back as a result of
the Lusitania outrage. The horror
which this barbarous act aroused
brought to an end the easy-going toler-
ance of German agitators throughout
the country. Thereafter the German
agents and their American sympa-
thizers were forced to adopt different
methods. In urging an embargo on
munitions they appealed to humane
sentiments against the prolongation of
the war. They sought to stimulate
and capitalize American resentment
against the British restraints on Amer-
ican commerce. Every effort was made
to take advantage of Irish-American
antipathy to Great Britain. Organi-
zations with appealing names such as



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR



the American Independence Union,
American Truth Society, Friends of
Truth, Friends of Peace, Organization
of American Women for Strict Neu-
trality, American Peaceful Embargo
Society and Labor's National Peace
Council sprang up throughout the coun-
try. While all of these societies dis-
claimed any connection with German
propaganda there was a suspicious



national bridge at Vanceboro, Maine.
From the confession which he made to
the authorities of the Department of
Justice it was clear that Captain Franz
von Papen, the German military
attache, was involved in the plot. Fires
in factories engaged in the production
of war materials for the Allies occurred
with remarkable frequency. Within
twenty-four hours on November 10-




HAVOC BY FIRE AT THE ROEBLING WORKS

The first of many incendiary fires in industrial plants, in the year 10,15, caused destruction to the amount of $1,500,-
ooo in the works of the John A. Roebling's Sons Company at Trenton. N. J. This happened in January. In November,
the Roebling plant was again damaged by fire, the loss being estimated at Si, 000,000. This was one of a series of
disasters which occurred within twenty-four hours in several different establishments. International Film Service



unanimity in their methods and aims.
Later it was proved that some at least
had received German funds. Finding
themselves unable to carry through
the program for declaring an embargo on
arms and ammunition, German and
Austrian agents began a concerted
move to cripple the production of muni-
tions by fomenting strikes in munition
factories, causing explosions in such
factories, placing bombs on munition
ships and by other similar methods.



EFFORTS TO DESTROY FAC-
\JT TORIES AND SHIPS.

On February 3, 1915, one Werner
Horn attempted to blow p the inter



II, 1915, fires broke out in the works of
the John A. Roebling's Sons Co., the
Bethlehem Steel Co., the Mid vale
Steel and Ordnance Co. and the Bald-
win Locomotive Works. Bombs were
discovered on steamships carrying sup-
plies to the Allies and a suspiciously
large number of fires broke out on such
steamships while at sea. For some
months the government was unable to
fix responsibility for these acts. But
on October 24, 1915, the secret service
agents arrested one Robert Fay who
claimed to be a lieutenant in the Ger-
man army. In a confession made to
the police Fay admitted that he had

425



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR



been engaged in making bombs to be
placed on munition ships.

There was more than a suspicion
that the activities of these German
agents were being directed by persons
closely identified with the German
diplomatic representatives in the United
States. Confirmation of this feeling
was shortly furnished. Dr. Heinrich
Albert, Financial Adviser of the Ger-
man Embassy, while traveling on the
Elevated Railway in New York, lost a
portfolio filled with documents. These
documents came into the possession of
the New York World and were pub-
lished by that paper. Some of the let-
ters bore the signatures of Count von
Bernstorff, the German Ambassador,
Captain von Papen, Dr. Albert, and
Hugo Schmidt, representative of the
Deutsche Bank of Berlin. From these
documents it appeared that the Ger-
man representatives in the United
States were financing efforts to influ-
ence the press of the United States, to
establish news services, moving pic-
ture shows and to subsidize lecturers.
Further it was shown that the German
Government was negotiating for the
manufacture of munitions for itself in
the United States at the same time
that it was protesting against the sale
of such munitions to the Entente Allies.

THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN AMBASSADOR
IS DISMISSED.

More direct and more serious was the
evidence of Teutonic activities ob-
tained as a result of the arrest of an
American newspaper correspondent,
Mr. James J. F. Archibald, by the
British authorities at Falmouth.
Among the letters found in Archibald's
possession was one written by Dr.
Theodor Dumba, the Austro-Hungar-
ian Ambassador to the United States,
to Baron Burian, the Austro-Hungar-
ian Foreign Minister. In this letter
Dr. Dumba said "It is my impression
that we can disorganize and hold up
for months, if not entirely prevent,
the manufacture of munitions in
Bethlehem and the Middle West,
which, in the opinion of the German
Military Attache is of great import-
ance and amply outweighs the expendi-
ture of money involved. "

426



When this letter was brought to the
attention of Dr. Dumba he admitted
its authenticity and defended it on the
ground that it was his duty "to bring
before our races employed in the big
steel works the fact that they are en-
gaged in enterprises which are un-
friendly to their Fatherland and that
the Imperial Government would hold
the workers in munition plants where
contracts are being filled for the Allies,
as being guilty of a serious crime
against their country." This explana-
tion was not accepted by the United
States Government and the Austrian
Government was notified that "by
reason of the admitted purpose and - '*
intent of Dr. Dumba to conspire to t
cripple legitimate industries of the ;
people of the United States and to in-
terrupt their legitimate trade, and by
reason of the flagrant violation of dip-
lomatic propriety in employing an
American citizen, protected by an
American passport as a secret bearer of
official dispatches through the lines of
the enemy of Austria Hungary" he
was no longer acceptable to the Gov-
ernment of the United States as the
Ambassador of Austria Hungary.

Another of the Archibald letters was
one written by Captain von Papen to
his wife. In referring to the German
victories on the Eastern front, he said ;
"How splendid on the Eastern front.
I always tell these idiotic Yankees they
had better hold their tongues it's
better to look at all this heroism full of
admiration. My friends in the army
are quite different in this way."

The names of Captain Franz von
Papen and Captain Karl Boy-Ed, the
German military and naval attaches
at Washington constantly recurred in
connection with the investigation of
various plots and after an inquiry made
by the State Department the German



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