James Burnette Eskridge.

The influence of Cicero upon Augustine in the development of his oratorical theory for the training of the ecclesiastical orator online

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FOITNDED BY JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER



The Influence of Cicero Upon Augustine

in the Development of his Oratorical

Theory for the Training of the

Ecclesiastical Orator



A DISSERTATION

SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ARTS AND

LITERATURE IN CANDIDACY FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

(department of latin)



BY
JAMES BURNETTE ESKRIDGE



MENASHA, WIS.

THE COLLEGIATE PRESS

GEORGE BANTA PUBLISHING CO.

1912



GR(^<^



/



^ PREFACE

This dissertation is the outcome of a year's work, 1902-03, in
the University of Chicago, with Professor George Lincoln
Hendrickson, now of Yale University. The work done under his
direction was a technical study of the rhetorical writings of Cicero.
In studying the influence of Cicero upon Augustine with regard to
the three styles, while preparing a thesis for the degree of Master
of Arts, it was impossible not to be impressed with his influence
upon Augustine's oratorical system as a whole. I have, therefore,
attempted to show the influence of Cicero in its entirety upon
Augustine's theory of oratorical training for the preacher.

Augustine, in an earlier work, entitled Contra Cresconium,
touched somewhat upon matters of a rhetorical character, though
the best of his technical treatment of the subject is to be found in
a small work entitled De Doctrina Christiana, in four books, three
of which are devoted to the method of interpreting Scripture
through the ascertaining of its proper meaning, and the fourth
to the manner of making this meaning known in the most
effective way. The fourth book, then, is rhetorical and literary and
draws on the theory of Cicero as treated in the De Oratore, the
Brutus and the Orator.

Finally, whatever excellence of method of treatment this dis-
sertati<?n may possess is due, in no small measure, to the instructors,
in general, with whom I came in contact, and in particular, to Pro-
fessor Hendrickson. Any errors of interpretation, treatment or de-
tail, are chargeable to myself alone.

J. B. ESKRIDGE.

Note. In Die Antike Kunstprosa, von Eduard Norden, Zweiter
Band, Zweiter Abdruck, 1909, page 617, the statement is made that
the first three books of De Doctrina Christiana pertain to inventio,
and the third to elocutio ; and that as regards Augustine, his grosse
Lehrmeister war Cicero, der auctor Romani eloquii. He further
calls attention to the fact that the three styles are taken from
Cicero. This is what Augustine himself tells us in so many words.
On page 505 Norden cites a passage of Scripture quoted by Augus-
tine as showing membra and caesa, and in other places free reference
is made to Augustine.



306160



I have not seen Colincamp's La Methode Oratoire dans St.
Augustine, 1848, nor Lezat's De Orafore Christiana apitd St.
Augustinum, 1871,

In my Master's dissertation, 1903, as above mentioned, the
question of the three styles of Augustine and his dependence upon
Cicero was treated. In A. J. P. Vol. XXVI, p. 276 ff., Professor
Hendrickson, in a historical treatment of the "Origin and Meaning
of Characters of Style", in so far as his purposes are concerned,
bears out my conclusions.



CONTENTS

PAGE

Preface iii

I. Introduction i

II. Augustine's Ideal Ecclesiastical Orator 4

III. The Offices of the Ecclesiastical Orator 16

IV. Derivation of the Three Styles of Oratory 18

V. The Plain Style, or Submissa Dictio 19

VI. The Middle Style, or Temperata Dictio 21

VII. The Grand Style, or Grandis Dictio 22

VIII. Combination of the Three Styles 24

IX. The Interpretation of the Divisions of Style 27

X. The Norm of Augustine ; Examples from Paul and

Amos 30

XI. Illustration of the Plain Style 37

XII. Illustration of the Middle Style 46

XIII. Illustration of the Grand Style 48

XIV. Fundamental Differences Between Augustine and

Cicero 50

XV. Summary 55



I. INTRODUCTION
The controversy between the philosophers and rhetoricians re-
garding the relative merits of philosophy and rhetoric, respectively,
had gone on for centuries before St. Augustine's day.^ Feeling,
therefore, that neither philosophy nor rhetoric was sufficient within
itself for the education of the ecclesiastical orator, but that both
were alike essential, in D. D. C. IV, 7 and 8, he encourages the
employment of both to the end that the orator may equip himself
with the best training possible for his profession.^ He would have
^ Notes from Prof. Hendrickson's Research Course in Cicero, University

of Chicago, 1903. i u *■ ^-^

In A Gellius XV, 11.2, Crassus banishes the teachers of rhetor c.
Sextus Empiricus contains an account of the attack of the philosophers

on rhetoric. W, ^a#,^axtxo05 B (Bekker p. 678. 20 f.) U,o, P,T«Qa,. sec-

''°"^d' D C IV 7 8- Sed cum alii faciant obtuse, deformiter, f rigide ; alii
acute ornate, vehementer; ilium ad hoc opus unde agimus, lam oportet
accedere qui potest disputare vel dicere sapienter, et:amsi non pot st
eloquenter. ut prosit audientibus, etiamsi minus quam prodesse. si et elo-
que'nter posset 'dicere. Qui vero affluit insipienti eloQuentia tanto mag
cavendus est, quanto magis ab eo in iis quae audire inutile est, de lectatur
auditor et cum quoniam diserte dicere audit, etiam vere dicere existimat.
Ha ^utem sententia nee illos fugit, qui artem rhetoricam docendam
putarunt: fassi sunt enim sapientiam sine eloquentia parum prodesse cm-
tat bus ; eloquentiam vero sine sapientia nimium obesse plerumque prod-
e mmquam. Si ergo hoc illi qui praecepta eloquentiae tradiderunt.
in eisdem libris in quibus id egerunt, veritate instigante coacti sunt con-
fiter veTam, hoc estNupernam quae a Patre luminum descendit, sap.entiam
nesckntes; quanto magis nos non aliud sentire debemus, qui hujus sapien-
Hae filfet ministri sumus? Sapienter autem dicit homo tanto magis ve
minus quanto in Scripturis Sanctis magis vel minus, quanto in Scnpturis
Tanctis magis minusve profecit. Non dico in eis multum legendis memon-
aeque manlandis, sed bene intelligendis, et diligenter earum sensibus m-
dagandis Sunt enim qui eas legunt, et negligunt ; legunt ut teneant, negligunt
n 'nte ligant. Quibus longe sine dubio praeferendi sunt qui verba ^arum
minus tenent, et cor earum sui cordis oculis vident. Sed utnsque ille mehor,
qui et cum volet eas dicit, et sicut oportet mtelligit.

Huic ergo qui sapienter debet dicere, etiam quod non potest eloquenter,
verba Scripturarum tenere maxime necessarium est. Quanto enim se pau^
periorem cernit in suis, tanto eum oportet in istis esse ditiorem ; ut quod
dixerit suis verbis, prabet ex illis ; et qui propriis ^^'^^'^^^"^'^21
norum testimonio quodammodo crescat. Probando enim delectat qui minus



2. CICERO's INFLUENCE UPON AUGUSTINe's 0R.\T0RICAL THEORY

him neither a wise teacher, lacking in the proper training along
rhetorical lines, nor a loquacious pedant devoid of that soberness
of thought and depth of wisdom which are to be obtained only
through philosophy. If one of the two must be neglected, it is
preferable for the ecclesiastical orator to possess wisdom rather
than eloquence. But far better is it that he should possess wisdom
and eloquence, both in harmonious combination, since it is in this
way only that he can attain more nearly to perfection.

Upon this fundamental conception, that of the employing of
philosophy and rhetoric.^ or in the case of the ecclesiastical orator,
Scripture, which stands in the same relation to the ecclesiastical
orator as philosophy does to the ideal orator of Cicero, Augustine
constructs his entire theory of ecclesiastical education. In this he
follows Cicero, who recognizing the futility and the absurdity of the
respective claims of philosophy and rhetoric when divorced from
each other, endeavored to unite the two in the training of his ideal
orator. In De Orat. Ill, 35, 142-3, Cicero says: Nunc sive qui
volet eum philosophum, qui copiam nobis rerum orationisque tradat,
per me appellet oratorem licet ; sive hunc oratorem, quem ego dico
sapientiam iunctam habere eloquentiae, philosophum appellare malet,
non impediam ; dummodo hoc constet, neque infantiam eius, qui rem
norit, sed earn explicare dicendo non queat, neque inscientiam illius,
cui res non suppetat, verba non desint, esse laudandam; quorum



potest delectare dicendo. Porro qui non solum sapienter. verum etiam elo-
quenter vult dicere, quoniam profecto plus proderit, si utrumque potuerit;
ad legendos vel audiendos et exercitatione imitandos eloquentes eum mitto
libentius, quam magistris artis rhetoricae vacare praecipio; si tamen ii qui
leguntur et audiuntur, non solum eloquenter, sed etiam sapienter dixisse vel
dicere veraci praedicatione laudantur. Qui enim eloquenter dicunt, suaviter;
qui sapienter, salubriter audiuntur. Propter quod non ait Scriptura, Multi-
tudo eloquentium ; sed, "Multitudo sapientium sanitas est orbis terrarum."
Sicut autem saepe sumenda sunt et amara salubria, ita semper vitanda est
perniciosa dulcedo. Sed salubri suavitate, vel suavi salubritate quid melius?
Quanto enim magis illic appetitur suavitas, tanto facilius salubritas prodest.
Sunt ergo ecclesiastici viri qui divina eloquia non solum sapienter, sed eloquen-
ter etiam tractaverunt : quibus legendis magis non sufficit tempus quam
deesse ipsi studentibus et vacantibus possunt.

^D. D. C. 1, i: Duae sunt res quibus nititur omnis tractatio Scriptura-
rum : modus inveniendi quae intelligenda sunt, et modus proferendi quae
intellecta sunt.



INTRODUCTION 3

si alterum sit optandum, nialim equidein indisertam prudcntiain quam
sttiltitiam loqiiacem ; si quaerimus quid unum excellat ex omnibus,
docto oratori palma danda est ; quern si patiuntur eundem esse
philosophum, sublata conlroversia est. Sin cos diiungent, hoc erunt
inferiores, quod in oratore pcrfecto inest illorum omnis scientia, in
phiiosophorum autem cognitione non continuo inest eloquentia; quae
quamvis contemnatur ab eis, necesse est tamen aliquem cumulum
illorum artibus adferre videatur.

As to the relative values, however, of philosophy and rhetoric,
further than that wisdom without eloquence is preferable to elo-
quence without wisdom, Augustine does not concern himself. Yet
he makes a like assumption, in the case of the training of the ecclesi-
astical orator, as that made by the teachers of rhetoric, that although
there can be no need in theological investigations for error to be
made to appear superior to truth, yet truth when wielded by a
worthy and conscientious defender, can be made to do quick and
effective service if adorned by the noble art of rhetoric.



II. AUGUSTINE'S IDEAL ECCLESIASTICAL ORATOR
Augustine, both before and after having discussed the aims of
the orator according to Cicero, in D. D. C. IV, 2"/,^ gives what may
with propriety be called his conception of the ideal ecclesiastical
orator, if by this it be understood that he is giving the treatment in
outline rather than specifically and in detail, and that it is rather as
a prelude to his after-treatment than as a technical discussion of what
the ecclesiastical orator should be. It is, furthermore, to be borne
in mind, that his fundamental conceptions are to be gathered up
here and there and put into an articulated form, before it becomes
apparent that he is developing his ideals along the lines of classical
models.

Nowhere does he state, with specific exactness, that he is draw-
ing his sketch of his ideal orator, but on the other hand, he says, in
D. D. C. IV, I and 2,- that the theory and rules of eloquence are to
be learned elsewhere, and are not to be expected from him, and that
he is merely going to say a few things about the mode of making
known the meaning of the Scripture. (D. D. G. IV, i.i.)'

Yet careful study will reveal the fact that however unsystemati-
cally, from the modern point of view, he may be proceeding with

^ D. D. C. IV, 12. 27 : Dixit ergo quidam eloquens, et verum dixit, ita
dicere debere eloquentem, ut doceat, ut delectet, ut flectat. Deinde addidit;
"Docere necessitatis est, delectare suavitatis, flectere victoriae." (Cicero, De
Oratore) . Horum trium quod primo loco positum est, hoc est docendi
recessitas, in rebus est constituta quas dicimus; reliqua duo, in modo quo
dicimus. Qui ergo dicit cum docere vult, quamdiu non intelligetur, non-
dum se existimet dixisse quod vult ei quern vult docere. Quia etsi dixit
quod ipse intelligit, nondum illi dixisse putandus est, a quo intellectus non
est: si vero intellectus est, quocumque modo dixerit, dixit. Quod si etiam
delectare vult eum cui dicit, aut flectere, non quocumque modo dixerit,
faciet : sed interest quomodo dicat, ut faciat. Sicut est autem, ut teneatur
ad audiendum, delectandus auditor ; ita flectendus, ut moveatur ad agendum.

^D. D. C. IV, 1.2: Primo itaque expectationem legentium, qui forte me
putant rhetorica daturum esse praecepta quae in scholis saecularibus et
didici et docui, ista praelocutione cohibeo, atque ut a me non exspectentur,
admoneo ; non quod nihil habeant utilitatis ; sed quod, si quid habent,
seorsum discendum est, si cui fortassis bono viro etiam haec vacat discere,
non autem a me vel in hoc opere, vel in aliqua alio requirendum.

'D. D. C. IV, I. I : Quia ergo de inveniendo multa iam diximus, et tria
de hac una parte volumina absolvimus. Domino adjuvante, de proferendo
pauca dicemus.



Augustine's ideal ecclesiastical orator 5

his undertaking, he is, after all, giving in outline his ideal of what
the ecclesiastical orator should be, and that this ideal is, in so far
as the nature of it will admit, taken from Cicero. The ideal orator
of Cicero is the lawyer, the statesman ; Augustine's is the preacher.
The fact of his having protested with vigor, D. D. C. IV. 2. 3,*
that rhetoric is as available to the preacher as to the sophist or
opponent of truth ; that there is a proper time to learn the rules of
rhetoric, D. D. C. IV, 3. 4f that the preacher must instruct, con-
ciliate and arouse his hearers, D. D. C. IV, 4. 6f that if wisdom or
eloquence is to be lacking in the preacher, he should be wise rather
than eloquent, D. D. C. IV, 5. 7 ;^ that he should endeavor always to
be clear and intelligible, D. D. C. IV, 10. 24 f that he should speak
* D. D. C. IV, 2. 3 : Nam cum per artem rhetoricam et vera suadeantur
et falsa, quis audeat dicere, adversus mendacium in defensoribus suis
inermem debere consistere veritatem, ut videlicet illi qui res falsas per-
suadere conantur, noverint auditorem vel benevolum, vel intentum, vel
docilem prooemio facere ; isti autem non noverint? illi falsa breviter,
aperte, verissimiliter ; et isti vera sic narrent, ut audire taedeat, intelligere non
pateat, credere postremo non libeat? illi fallacibus argumentis veritatem
oppugnent, asserant falsitatem ; isti nee vera defendere, nee falsa valeant
refutare? illi animos audientium in errorem moventes impellentesque dicendo
terreant, contristent, exhilarent, exhortentur ardenter; isti pro veritate,
lenti frigidique dormitent? Quis ita desipiat, ut hoc sapiat? Cum ergo sit
in medio posita facultas eloquii, quae ad persuadenda seu prava seu recta
valet plurimum : cur non bonorum studio comparatur, ut militet veritati,
si earn mali ad obtinendas perversas vanasque causas in usus iniquitatis et
erroris usurpant?

^ D. D. C. IV, 3.4 : Sed quaecumque sunt de hac re observationes atque
praecepta, quibus cum accedit in verbis plurimis ornamentisque verborum
exercitationis linguae solertissima consuetudo, fit ilia quae facundia vel elo-
quentia nominatur ; extra istas litteras nostras, seposito ad hoc congruo tem-
poris spatio, apta et convenient! aetate discenda sunt eis qui hoc celeriter
possunt.

^D. D. C. IV, 4.6: Debet igitur divinarum Scripturarum tractator et
doctor, defensor rectae fidei ac debellator erroris, et bona docere, et mala
dedocere; atque in hoc opere sermonis conciliare adversos, remissos erigere,
nescientibus quid agatur, quid exspectare debeant intimare.
' See page i, note 2.

^D. D. C. IV, 10.24: Quid enim prodest locutionis integritas, quam
non sequitur intellectus audientis, cum loquendi omnino nulla sit causa, si
quod loquimur non intelligunt, propter quos ut intelligant loquimur? Qui
ergo docet, vitabit omnia verba quae non docent; et si pro eis alia integra,
quae intelligantur, potest dicere, id magis eliget: si autem non potest, sive
quia non sunt, sive quia in praesentia non occurrunt, utetur etiam verbis
minus integris, dum tamen res ipsa doceatur atque discatur integre.



6 CICERO's INFLUENCE UPON AUGUSTINE's ORATORICAL THEORY

both clearly and eloquently, D. D. C. IV, ii. 26 f that the beauty of
his speech should be in harmony with his subject matter, and that
he should vary his style constantly, D. D. C. IV, 22. 51 ;i" that his
life should be in harmony with his teachings, D. D. C. IV, 27. 59 ;i^ —
all this shows that he had in mind a very high ideal, even though he
did not deem it necessary to develop it as thoroughly, or to elabo-
rate upon it as elegantly as Cicero did upon his ideal orator. It is
the purpose of this chapter, then, to point out the essential elements,
in outline, of Augustine's ideal orator, and to compare them with
those of Cicero, to ascertain, if we may, in just what particulars
they agree ; and also to show that the ideal orator in the mind of the

^ D. D. C. IV, 11.26: Prorsus haec est in docendo eloquentia, qua fit
dicendo, non ut libeat quod horrebat, aut ut fiat quod pigebat, sed ut
appareat quod latebat. Quod tamen si fiat insuaviter, ad paucos quidem
studiosissimos suus pervenit fructus, qui ea quae discenda sunt, quamvis ab-
jecte inculteque dicantur, scire desiderant. Quod cum adepti fuerint, ipsa
delectabiliter veritate pascuntur : bonorumque ingeniorum insignis est in-
doles, in verbis verum amare, non verba. Quid enim prodest clavis aurae,
si aperire quod volumus non potest? Aut quid obest lignea, si hoc potest?
quando nihil quaerimus nisi patere quod clausum est. Sed quoniam inter
se habent nonnullam similitudinem vescentes atque discentes, propter fastidia
plurimorum, etiam ipsa sine quibus vivi non potest, alimenta condienda
sunt.

^" D. D. C. IV, 22.51: Nee quisqnam praeter discipHnam esse existimet
ita miscere : imo quantum congrue fieri potest, omnibus generibus dictio
varianda est. Nam quando prolixa est in uno genere, minus detinet audi-
torem. Cum vero fit in aliud ab alio transitus, etiamsi longius eat, decentius
procedit oratio : quamvis habeant et singula genera varietates suas in
sermone eloquentium, quibus non sinuntur in eorum qui audiunt frigescere
vel tepescere sensibus. Verumtamen facilius submissum solum, quam solum
grande diutius tolerari potest. Commotio quippe animi quanto magis
excitanda est, ut nobis assentiatur auditor tanto minus in ea diu teneri
potest, cum fuerit quantum satis est excitata. Et ideo cavendum est, ne
dum volumus altius erigere quod erectum est, etiam inde decidat, quo
fuerat excitatione perductum. Interpositis vero quae sunt dicenda sub-
missius, bene reditur ad ea quae opus est granditer dici, ut dictionis impetus
sicut maris aestus alternet. Ex quo fit ut grande dicendi genus, si diutius est
dicendum, non debeat esse solum, sed aliorum generum interpositione
varietur; ei tamen genere dictio tota tribuitur, cujus copia praevaluerit.

" D. D. C. IV, 27. 59 : Habet autem ut obedienter audiatur, quantacumque
granditate dictionis majus pondus vita dicentis. Nam qui sapienter et
eloquenter dicit, vivit autem nequiter, erudit quidem multos discendi studiosos,
quamvis "animae suae sit inutilis." (Eccles. XXXVII, 22), sicut scriptum est.



Augustine's ideal ecclesiastical orator 7

Bishop of Hippo, was in all essential respects, the same as the ideal
orator of the great statesman of Rome.

(a) The Moral Character of the Ecclesiastical Orator
However great may be the ecclesiastical orator, and however
majestic his style may be, if his life and character be in accord with
his eloquence and with his teachings, he will have far more mfluence
in inducing compliance on the part of his hearers, than if he be lack-
ing in these essentials. It is possible, however, that the orator's
life may not be without serious blemish, and yet his teachmgs be
beneficial to those who hear, seeing that in just the proportion that
his life fails to accord with his teachings, in just this proportion
must he the more forcefully present the truth. Granting this, it still
remains true, that the teacher whose character is upright, and
whose name is free from reproach, if he be fitly trained for his
duties in all particulars, will wield an influence over his hearers that
the great and sublime orator, though of irregular morals, will never
accomplish. (D. D. C. IV, 27. 59.)"' To quote Augustine's own lan-
cruage, D. D. C. IV, 27. 60: Multis itaque prosunt dicendo quae non
faciunt sed longe pluribus prodessent faciendo quae dicunt. Abun-
dant enim qui malae vitae suae def ensionem ex ipsis suis praepositis
et doctoribus quaerant, respondentes corde suo, aut etiam si ad hoc
erumpunt, ore suo, atque dicentes : quod mihi praecipis, cur ipse non
f acis ? Ita fit ut eum non obedienter audiant, qui seipse non audit,
et Dei verbum quod eis praedicatur, simul cum ipso praedicatore
contemnant. Denique Apostolus scribens ad Timotheum, cum dixis-
set, "Nemo adolescentiam tuam contemnat"; subjecit unde non con-
ten^neretur, atque ait : "Sed forma esto fidelium in sermone, in con-
versatione, in dilectione, in fide, in castitate." (I Tim. IV, 12.)
(b) The Moral Character of the Legal Orator
As regards the moral character of Cicero's ideal orator, in De
Orat. II, 43. 182, he says: Valet igitur multum ad vincendum pro-
bari mores et instituta eorum, qui agent causas, et eorum, pro quibus,
et item improbari adversariorum animosque eorum, apud quos
agetur, conciliari quam maxime ad benevolentiam quom erga ora-
torem tum erga ilium, pro quo dicet orator. Conciliantur autem
animi dignitate hominis, rebus gestis, existimatione vitae; quae
facilius ornari possunt, si modo sunt, quam fingi, si nulla sunt.

" See page 6, note 11.



8 CICERO's INFLUENCE UPON AUGUSTINE's ORATORICAL THEORY

It is thus fair to conclude, that, with the exception of the idea
that the moral character of the ecclesiastical orator may not be with-
out serious defects, and yet that his preaching may be beneficial to
/ his hearers, the conception of Augustine as regards the moral char-

acter of his orator is the same as that of Cicero regarding his ideal
orator, and that this exception is more apparent than real, inasmuch
as it is the m.essage of the ecclesiastical orator and not the orator
himself that counts.

(2)

(a) The Ecclesiastical Orator and His Duty
The orator of St. Augustine is the divinarum Scripturarum trac-
tator et doctor, defensor rectae fidei ac debellator erroris. It is his
office to teach the true faith, and to urge men and women to accept
it. It is his duty bona docere et mala dedocere ; atque in hoc opere
sermonis conciliare adversos, remissos erigere, nescientibus quid
agatur, quid exspectare debeant intimare. Ubi autem benevolos,
intentos, dociles aut invenerit, aut ipse fecerit, cetera peragenda
sunt, sicut postulat causa. Si docendi sunt qui audiunt, narratione
faciendum est, si tamen indigeat, ut res de qua agitur innotescat. Ut
autem quae dubia sunt certa fiant, documentis adhibitis ratiocinan-
dum est. Si vero qui audiunt movendi sunt potius quam docendi,
ut in eo quo iam sciunt, agendo non torpeant et rebus assensum, quas
veras esse fatentur, accommodent, maioribus dicendi viribus opus
est. Ibi obsecrationes et increpationes, concitationes et coercitiones,
et quaecumque alia volent ad commovendos ' animos, sunt neces-
saria. (L>. Z). C. IV, 4. 6.)

It is, then, the duty of the ecclesiastical orator to teach the truth,
to refute error, to conciliate the hostile, to arouse the apathetic, to
render those who hear attentive, to make plain that which is obscure,
to entreat, to reproach, to upbraid, to exhort to duty ; in fine, to
make use of all the means possible to cause his hearers to act.

(b) Cicero's Ideal Orator and His Duty

With reference to Cicero's ideal orator,, whom he defines in
Orator, 2, 7 and 8 ; and as to his duties which he mentions in general
terms in De Orat. I, 8, and Orator, 2, 8 and 9, (the two latter under
the forms of exquisite eulogies on the art of eloquence) — in Orator,
2, 7 and 8, he says : Atque ego in summo oratore fingendo talem



Augustine's ideal ecclesiastical orator 9

informabo, qualis fortasse nemo fuit. Non enim quaero quis
fuerit; sed quid sit illud, quo nihil esse possit praestantius,


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