James Champlin Fernald.

Concise standard dictionary of the English language ...: abridged from the ... online

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Journal of Education^ Boston : *^ In thoronghness, completeness, accuracy, typog-
raphy, style,1ind illustration, it challenges criticism and commands admiration."


Standard Dictionary

In features of dictionary-making it embraces many new
and exclusive ideas of far-reaching coavenience and value.


Disputed Spellings and Pronun-
ciations have been dealt with more
thoroughly than ever before.

Cqmpoitnding and Syllabication
OF Words have been, for the first time,
reduced to a scientific system.

The Proper Use of Capital In-
rriAL Letters is invariably indicated,
only such words as should begin with a
capital being so printed.

A System of Group^Indexes is pro-
vided exclusively in the Standard Diction-
ary, hy which all the facts concerning
important classes of words can be quickly

The Proper Use of Prepositions has
been explained with many illustrations.

A Valuable Department of
** Faulty DicTiok" gives many ex-
amples of the wroag use of words, and
corrects many common errors.

Many Thousands of Important
New Words are exclusively recorded
and defined.

To the Department of Synonyms
AND Antonyms the Standard devotes
more space than any other work, being
the only dictionary that gives antonyms
as well as synonyms.

'*It passes the wit of man to suggest
anything which ought to have been done
that has not been done to make the Standard
Dictionary a success.'' — Sir Joseph Nor-
man Lockybr.

'^ Clear, concise, accurate, comprehensive^
at once scholarly and popular admirably
arranged, easy to consult } a delight to the
eye and to the mind." — Prof. A. M.
Whbbler, Yale University.



FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY, New York and London



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fReg. U. S. Pat. Off. I

Concise Standard


Of the English Language

Designed to Give the Orthography, Pronunciation, and Meaning

OF about 28,000 Words and Phrases in the Speech and

Literature of the English-Speaking Peoples


Abridged from the Funk $5f Wagnalls Ztandard "Dictionary of the
English Language by


CuiTOR OF The Offics Standard Dictionary; The Comprehensive Standare
Dictionary} Engush Synonyms, Antonyms, and Prepositions j Etc.





Digitized by VjOOQIC

Ti!r. .^. ■-■■''' V-.i^




Copyright, 1902 and 1910, by Funk A WagnalU Company. HeffUUred at StaUonert^ Ball,
London, England.


'Minted ix the United States.

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The Concisx Standard Dictionary is abridged from the Funic & Wagnalls

Standard Dictionary of the English Language, ana contains about 28,000 words and

phrases. The basis of selection has been the inclusion of all

I. The Vocabalary. words that are sure to be used by the avera^ person in his

speaking and writing, with the addition of such words and

{>hrase8 as are sure to be found in the books, papers, and magazines which are most
ikely to be read; hi short, the choice has been for the most part of words at once the
simplest and the most common. Only such words as should be written with capital
initial letters are capitalized in the vocabulary.

The spelling and pronunciation are those of the Standard Dictionary as finally de-
termined with the aid of the Advisory Committee of Fifty leading Philologists and Educa-
tors. The pronunciation of words is indicated by phonetic

II. Orthography respelling in the characters of the Standard Scientific Alpha-
and Pronanctatton. bet. This alphabet was prepared and promulgated by the

American Pmlological Association, and indicating, as it
does, with a minuteness and accuracy unattained by all other systems for conve^ring
sounds, the powers of the letters, it is the simplest aid to exact pronunciation yet devised.
A full exposition of the Scientific Alphabet will be found in the Appendix, while the key
line at the foot of each page of the Dictionary will indicate the sounds of the phoneuc
letters sufficiently for ordinary purposes.

In definitions the aim has been to secure the utmost brevity and simplicity consistent
with accuracy. So far as practicable, the method of beginning each definition with a

definitive statement, as in the Standard Dictionary, has

III. I>efliitttoiis. been here employed. This has been done, even at the cost

of somewhat enlarging the volume, with the belief that the
leadins public will especially appreciate this feature of fulness of definition. Where defi-
nition oy synonym has been necessary for the sake of brevity, the endeavor has been to
define by a word which is itself more fully defined, or by one so simple and familiar that
its meaning can not be for a moment in doubt.

The most important prefixes and suffixes are quite fully treated in a special section of
the Api)endix. Many of these, especially of suffixes, form derivatives which are self •ex-
plaining when the meaning of the principal word and that of the affix are known. Hence
Buch a word is often indfeated by simply giving the suffix after the word to which it is
to be adjoined, or by entering the derivative m full under the principal word, to give
spelling and accent, with assurance that the meaning will be readily understood.

The illustrations, over 600 in number, have been especially selected as aids to

definition, conveying the meaning of terms through l^e eye to the mind, as in

many cases mere words can not do. Thus no words can

IV. The Illastra- express the meaning of anchor or anvU, or of the contrasted

ttons. terms endogen and exogen^ so clearly and readily as it is

given by a good picture.

In the Appendix will be found, besides the matters above specified, a set of simple

Rules for Spelling; an extensive pronouncing list of Proper Names, ancient and modem,

/ personal, geographical, literary, etc.; Foreign Words and

V. The Appendix. Phrases, with their translations; tables of Weights and

Measures (including the Metric System); the Current Coin-
age of the Chief Countries of the World; also. Symbolic Flowers and Gems, and an

^ explanatory list of common Abbreviations.
It is believed th

that the book will find favor among the many persons who desire a small,

inexpensive, and handy dictionary.which will give them in a moment the most necessary
information as to the spelling, pronunciation, and meaning of the woitls and phrases in
common use.

J. C. F.


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dlMKbaserdlsaffree, will be found under

the final element of each compoimd, as nnder
abase* avree*

Snlllxes f n Dellnftlons.

DxBiTATiYXs fonned by means of familiar
suffixes, when entered witmut definition, wiU
be understood to have the meaning of the prin-
cipal word, plus the meaning of the suffix (see
Pbxfixxs and Suffixxs in the Appendix).
ExAMPLx: Under the verb embalm will be
found the noun of agency embalmer« readily-
understood to mean " one who embalms."

Suffixxs. as -ly, •ness, following the
treatment of any vocabulary word denote that
the suffix is to be added directly to the vocab-
ulary word that immediately precedes it, to
form the corresponding adverb, or other de-
rivative. ExAMPLx: under harm will be
found harmful. * * * -It, adv., -ness, n.,
indicating that the adverb is harmfolly
and the verbal noun harmfalnesst also.
harmless* * * • -ly. adv., •ness, n.. indica-
ting that the adverb is in this latter case harm*
lesaly* and the noun harmlesaness.

Thb Singlb Hyphbk (-) connects parts of a
word that are arbitrarily separated, as at the
end of a line, or in the division of words into
syllables, the syllables which it connects being
closely Joined Inordinary writing or printing.
The single hyphen Is omitted when the prima-
ry or secondary accent is used, as in vocabu-
lary words: as-tron'o-my for aatronomj/;
in'Mi*Tid^u-aI for individual.

The Double Hyphen (-) connects only the

f tarts of a compound word, and indicates that
he parts so joined are to be connected by
a hyphen in ordinary writing or printing: as,
halrcmast'^ (written ordinarily half-mast).
The Single Accent (') Indicates the pri-
mary or chief accent; as, a'ble.

The Double Accent C) indicates the sec-
ondary accent ; as, as-so^ci-a'tion ; mul''*

AbbreTlatlons and Arbitrary

[Colloq.] Colloquial,
ipial.] "Dialectic.
Prep. Prepositions.
I Prov.] Provincial.
I Poet.] Poetical.
" hypothetical.

t = obsolete.

I = archaic.

§ = rare.

X = variant.
< = derived from.
> = whence.

For other abbreviations, see Cbe list of Ab-
breviations In the Appendix.

A Single Pabenthesis Mabk before the
last letter of a word, or of a syllable In a
word, as amiabUeness, usabKe, etc..
means that in the reformed spelling, reiom-
mended by the American Philological Assocla-
tion and the Philological Society of England,
the letter immediately following this sign is

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1. The SctentlAc Alphabet,

prepared and promnlgated hj The Akxrican PmLOLOOiCiO. Association, adopted and recommendad
by Thb Amebican Spblling Rsfobh Association, and used in the Standard Dictionabt.

Ab ii^^

Names. As in—
ah) ask fOr
ai(r)) fet, fare
bee) bat
,kee) cat




met, th§y



it, caprice


N, n
Ng, ng
e,e, 8

Names. As in—








Diphthongs: ai, aisle, I; an (on), stant
(stoat); ei, coin; ill, fiftd (fend), mifizic

For Script Alphabet, see p. vi.

All the letters of this alphabet represent
different elementary English sounds, ex-
cept the duplicates k^ q, and a;, and the
■ number of the elementary sounds is 32.
There are only 23 letters, excluding the
duplicates A;, q, and a;, in the common
alphabet, so that there are 9 elementary
sounds without letters. Three of these
sounds are provided for by new letters, a,
e, u.

3. Dlffraplis for liCtters; ch, dli,
ng, sh, til, zh.

The six remaining elementary sounds are
denoted by digraphs. The digraphs ch as
in church, ng as m king, sh as in she, th as
in thin are in familiar use for elementary
sounds and are never denoted in English
by a single letter.

3. . Dlplitliongs expressed by
their Elements.

el, now printed oi, is received at once, and
an, now commonly spelled with ou, as in
out, or with ow, as in how, is seen to need
two letters, and the two best suited to the
purpose are a (as in father) and Q (as in
rvde), these two Vowels spoken rapidly
blending perfectly in the required sound;
but al IS so generally written i, as in Une,
pine, described as "long i," and printed T
m dictionaries, that the expansion of it to

lo, noble
obey, no
net, what,
nSr, wall

(quit) cwit

Sh, sh
U, u, tl







X, x]=C8 (ex)
Y, y (yee)

Z, z (zee)

Zh, zh (zhee)





full, rfUe

but, bum







ai surprises, and its accuracy is only per-
ceived by combining the sound of & (as In
father) and of t (as in machtne), and
uttering them in succession with increas-
ing rapidity. A similar statement is true
about lu, which is generally written «, as
in music. But as t^ is found alone, as in
rude, phonetic necessity requires some
addition to the w of music, or change of it;
and so of ai; long i is the i of machine.
In whatever disguise the diphthongs at,
au, and lu may be hidden in common
spelling, they are represented by their
proper elements in the pronunciation of
this dictionary, as in the Oxford English
dictionary, and in the works of recent

4. Tlie Diacritics of tills

A pronouncing dictionary needs dia
critics for long vowels except in diph-
thongs. Long vowels are marked with the
macron " (as a), except in the case of €
and i, which when long are marked with
the circumflex ^, 6, t, the long vowels be-
ing thus designated as d, a, §, t, 0, S, Q, u.
The mark ^ below a vowel indicates a
weakening of its sound toward that of u
in but. The mark ^ below a vowel in-
dicates a weakening toward the sound of
i in pity. The use or _ has been extended
to g as in gsk, which has a variant pro-
nunciation from a as in far toward a as

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Two keyi to pronancUtion are here presented. The first colamn glTes the STmboIs
of the Mew Key, commonly known as the Scientillc Alphabet. The second colamn gives
the symbols of the Old Key, used by dictionaries i^nd text-books, bat now being saperseded
by the more systematic Scientific Alphabet. Any person familiar with one key who wishes
to ascertain the equivalent of any symbol In the other can easily do so. The pronnnciation
of words is indicated by the phonetic reepellins following the vocabnlary word; as, a^ble,
g'bl. The letters ased in the phonetic respelling have the soands given in the following






(See explanation of diacritics, etc., p,


a asinmonarch,breakfatt,iinal.

& as in arm, alms, calm, father.

& as in ask, chant, dance, fast.

S as in at, odd, man, random,

ft, d asinf are, btfor, fair, h«ir,th«re.
a as in alloy, accase, madman.

8 as in p«n, snns^t, ^zcose, ferry,

e as in eclipse, epistle, elegant.

8 as in moment, absence, colonel.

8r,Ir,fira8 in ever, fern, fir, bur.
g, ft as in they, rein, fate, ale, aid.
a, fi asinosage, preface, ultimate.
I, f as in Un, it, divide, fill, pity.
1, 6 as in machine, meet, eve, bier,
e aa in react, remain, create,

o as in obey, eulogy, theory.

as in no, glory, note, blow, over.

0, a as in not, odd, what, comma.
0, 4 ^^ ^OT^ abhor, oughU walk,
o as in actor, idiot, atom,

u, 9, oo as in fuW, could, hook, woman,
n, Q, do as in rule, n/de, food, wooing.
— as in measure, injure, nature.

1i, 6 as in but, tub, under, nation,
as in burn, cur, curl, hurt






I, y as in pine, eye, ply, hei^At.
oa,ow as in out, thou, ou'l, bound,
oi, oy as in oil, boy, avoid, joint.
11 , as in feu;, adduce, dtitj, mute,
u * as in duration, mulatto,
fi as in future, lecture, nature.

«,k, «h asineat,epocA,seepti<;,eAasnx.


as in oueen, gt/ite, quAlitj.

as in me, then^ smoo^.

as in/ancy, sul/Ur, pkjBic.

as in go, oun, oame, do^.

as in abn^A, locA (Scotch),
ach (German).*

as in wAy, when, where.

as ii\/a w, gem, pigeon, solciier.

as in tAng, long, tongue^ fivuig.

as in ink, bank, 1 unction.

as in bon (French).t
9, 8 as in ein, eell, eity, cypreee.
9h, sh as in she, eAaise, meuihine.
t h as in ^Ain, wor^A, brea^A , pi^A.
fi as in dune (French)4

z, g as in 2one, ie, livee, mneic.
zh,9 a8ina2;ure,treaeure,ambroeia,
•II=aAa; t A=Bilent; tii=inuBic— these English substitutes are only approximately correct.



c = k
ch ch

cw=qu kw
dh(^A) th













Cl flu qA/w\,


^ a

B d <JLui

£Z JUxaL

Gift dK\Jlrjun»(dJlytm^ TM /rvt n^vxwC
£ jt onf\jX Tl m. n^AjX


<T O^^tAf
6 & fYvgr

Cur cor Cf^uju/n,
yi A. A/oJi
S ^ Ajul odJL

3 t t^XAt

3Jh. XK tfui/rw'

y AT ii|)

V V v^
TIT ur \4AC

1^ r\f file umAtit
Z /^ /yovu*
'2J\,nJI^ oj^aaju

CUloaa. tumJt


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The Concise Standard

A, a


A, a, g (unaccented^ a), indef. article or ad-

jective. [aes, A's, or ^s, gz, pl.l One;

uiy; each: before a vowel, an.
a-back^, a-bac', adv. So as to be pressed

T)ackward, assails; backward; by surprise.
ab'a-cus, ab'a-cus, n. [-cus-es or -ci, -soi

or-oX^pl.'] 1. A

reckoning- table

with sliding

balls. 2. A slab

forming the top

of a capital.
a-baft^ a-bgft'.


prep. Pi
I'dun, 1 1.

Naut. I. adv,
back; behind. IL,

a-banMon, a-ban^dira, 1 1. To forsake or
renounce utterly; give up wholly; quit;
leave ; resign .— a-baii^don(e)d, pa. Given
over; profligate. — a-banMon-ment, n.
The act of abandoning, or the state of being
abandoned; a giving up; yielding (of oneself).

a-base^, a-bes', vt. [a-based'^; a-ba'sing.I
To make low or lowly; lower, as in rank-
humble.— a-base'ment, n.

a•ba8b^ a-bash', xt. fA-BASHBD'* or a-
basht'; a-bash'ing.] To make ashamed;
confuse; embarrass.

a-bate^ a-b§t', v. [a-ba'ted<>; a-ba'-
TiNQ.] I. t. To lessen! reduce; do away
with. II. i. To grow less; decrease.

— a-bate^ment, n. The act of abating,
or the amount abated.

ab^a-tls, t ab'a-tis, n. mi. Anobstruc-

ab'at-tls, ftion of felled trees. • [house.

*r!t** ^?**''' a"l>a*twar', n. A slaughter.

abf ba. ab'a, n. Father. - ab'ba-cy, n.
The dignity or office of an abbot.

ab^bess, ab'es, n. The lady superior of a

ab^bey, ab'§, n. [ab'bets«, pl.'\ A monas-
tery or nunnery; a monastic chapel.

ab^bot, ab'et, n. Bed. The superior of a
monastery.— ab^ot-ship, n.

ab-bre'Tt-ate, ftb-brt'vi-gt, vt. [-a"tm>«;
-A'TiNG.] To cut short; contract; reduce;
condense.— ab-bre''vi-a^tion , » . A short-
ening; an abridgment.

aVdi-cate, ab'di-k§t, vt. & vi. [-ca'tbd*;
-CA'TENG.] To give up voluntarily; re-
nounce office, etc. — ab^di-ca'tlon, n.

ab-do^men, ab-do'm§n, n. The visceral
cavity; belly.— ab-dom'i-nal, a.

ab-duct^<i, ab-duct', vt. To carry away
wrongfully; kidnap; draw aside.
— ab-duc^tion, n.— ab-dnct^or, n.

a-bed', a-bed', adv. In bed; on a bed; to

ab^'^er-ra'tlon, ab'gr-g'shun, n. Devia-
tion from a natural course or condition ;
wandering; insanity.

a-bet', a-oet', vt. [a-bet'ted*; a-bbt'-
TiNG.] To encourage (wrong-doing or a
wrong-doer), as by approval or aid; incite;
instigate; as, to abet a person in a crime.

— a-bet^ter or -tor, n. [action.
a-bey'ance, a-b^'ans, n. Suspense; ^-
ab-bor', ab-hSr', vt. [ab-hobbed'; -ib

hob'ring.] To view with horror; detest.
— ab-hor'rence, «.— ab-hor'rent, a.

a-blde', a-baid', v. [a-bode'; a-bi'ding.]
1, t. To await expectantly or defiantly;
endure. II. i. To remain; dwell.

a-bll'1-ty, a-bil'i-ti, n. [-tie8»,^.] The
state of being able; power; talent; facul^.

ab'ject, ab'ject, a. Sunk to a low state;
cast down in spirit; mean ; despicable; serv-
ile, -ly, adv. -ness, n.

ab-Jure', ab-jGr', vt [ab-jurbd'; ab-
jur'ing.] To renounce under oath: re-
cant.— ab^'^jn-ra^tion, n. [braze.

a-blaze^ a-blgz', a. & adv. Oh fire; in a

a^ble, 6'bl, a. [a'bler; a'blbst.] Hav-
ing adequate power; competent; capable.

— a'bly, adv. In an able manner.
ab-ln'tton, ab-lO'shtm, n. The act of

washing; a cleansing; bath.

papd, gsk; at, air; el^mgnt, th6y, usfge; It, g, t (ee); o, oh; erat^r, «r; full, rftle; but,
©r; fiatg||re (future); aisle; 'an (out); ell; c (k); cbat; db (the); go; sing, i^k; thJn.

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ab^ne-ca^tlon, ab'ne-gfi'thun, n. The
act of renouncing; renunciation.

ab-nor^maly aD-nOr^mcd, a. That does
not conform co rale; unnatural; irreg-
ular, -ly, odp. — ab'^nor-mal'l-ty, «.
[•TiX8«. pl.} IrresTularity; somettilng ab-

a^board^, a-bOrd'. I. (idv. On board;
alongside. II. prep. On board or along-
side of.

a-bode^, a-bod'. I. v. Imp. of abidb.
II. n. Dwelling'place; home; sojourn.

a-boFlshS a-b^'fsh, vt. To do away
with; _put an end to; annul; destroy.

— ab^o-lPtlon, ab'o-llBh'mi, n. The
act of aboUsblng; extinction.

a-bom'l-nate, a-beml-n§t, vt. [-na'-
TBD"*; -NA'TiNG.] To regard with horror;
abhor; hate.— a-bom^i-na-bl(e, a. Very
hateful; detestable; horrible. — a-bom^i-
na«bly« ad».— a -bom"i-na'tion, n.
Something detested or abhorred; loathing.

ab^o-rlg^l-nal, ab'o-rij'i-nal. I. a. Na-
tive to the soil; indigenous; primitive. II.
n. An original inhabitant.

— ab"o-riir'i-nes, ab'o-rlj'l-ntz, n. pi.
The original Inhabitants of a country.

a-boi^tlon, a-b3r'shun. n. An untimely

birth; failure.— a-bor'tivCe, a. Brought

forth prematurely; Imperfect; tmsuccessful.

-ly, adv. -ness, n.
a-bound^<*, a-baund% vi. To be or have

in abundance.
a-bout', a-baut'. I. adv. On every side;

around; almost; ready; to and fro. II.

prep. On the outside or on every side of;

all around^ over; beside; somewhere near;

in connection with; engaged in.
a-bove', a-buv'. I. adv. Vertically up;

overhead; on the upper side. 11, prep.

Vertically over; upon; in excess of; su-

Eerior to; beyond; free from.— a-bove'-
oard'^, a. & adv. Open; openly.

ab-rade% ab-rgd', vt. [ab-ra'ded"*; ab-
ra'ding.J To rub or wear away.— ab-ra'-
sioiit ab-r€'zhnn, n. The act or result of

^•breast^, a-brest', adv. Side by side.

a-brldge', a-brij', vt. [a-bridged'; a-
bridg'ing.] 1. To make shorter; con-

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