James Cleland.

Statistical tables relative to the city of Glasgow, with other matters therewith connected online

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Glasgow. The first Session in Glasgow was appointed in 1,572, although the elders were
members of Session and Assembly from that time, they were not called to the Synod till
after 1591. Parochial Sessions were first appointed on 13th April, 1649, soon after the
accession of Charles II.; but as these clerical courts assumed the power of censuring the
measures of Government, his Majesty put them down by Royal Proclamation, and it was
not till 28th April, 1662, that the legal restriction was removed. At that period, Andrew
J'airfoul, Archbishop of Glasgow, wrote to the Magistrates and Ministers that his Ma-
jesty had i)ermitted the Session to resume their functions to the extent of managing the
poors' funds, and taking order anent scandal.

f The disputes anent the forms of religion run so very high for some time after the Refor-
mation, that Clergymen found it necessary to go with arms to the pulpit. " On Sunday, 28th
August, 1587, as Mr. Weymss was coming from Church, he was met at the end of the Rot-
tenrow by Wm. Cunningham and his Son, who attacked him with a quhingear and a pistolet,
struck him, and called him a liar; on this Mr. Wemyss threw oflT his gown, and drew his
quhingear. The Parson of Renfrew coming down the Uottenrow at the time, and seeing
Uie afi'ray, drew his quhingear, when the Cunninghams were not only defeated, but after-
wards made to ask pardon of God, of Kirk, of the ^Magistrates, and of Mr. Weymss, first
at the Wynd held, and then before the Congregation of the Hie Kirk. The Presbytery
hereon admonished their Ministers to be diligent in their study, grave in their apparel, and
not vain, with long rufifels and gaudy toys in their clothes."




This City has long been eminent for the respectability
of its University, and its other Schools.

On 17th January, 1450, Pope Nicholas V. issued a
Bull from Rome, for constituting a University in the
City of Glasgow, on the plan of that of Bononia. At
present, the establishment consists of a Lord Chan-
cellor, Lord Rector,* Dean of Faculty and Principal,

* The Lord Rector is elected by a Court, consisting of the Office-bearers and Professors,
and the Matriculated Students, amounting in all to about 1400 persons who are divided
into what is called four Nations, viz. Glottiana, Transforthana, Loudoniana, and Rothseana,
the majority of each nation constituting one Vote. In case of equality the Rector decides.

The following is a list of eminent men who have filled the office of Lord Rector, during
the last hundred years.

1721-1722, Robert Dundas of Arniston.
1723-1724, John Hamilton of Aikenhead.

1725 Montgomery of Hartficld.

1726, George Martin of Uossie.

1727, John Hamilton of Aikenhead.

1728, George Martin of llossie.

1729-1730, James Dunlop of Dunlop.
1731-1732, John Orr of Barrowfield.
1733-1734, Colin Campbell of Blyihswood.
1735-1736, John Orr of Barrowfield.
1737-1758, George Bogle of Daldowie.
1739-1740, John Graham of Dougalston.
1741-1742, John Orr of BarrowHeld.
1743-1744, George Bogle of Daldowie.

1745-1746, Sir John Maxwell of Pollock.
1747-1748, George Bogle of Daldowie.
1749-1750, Sir John Maxwell of Pollock.
1751-1752, Sir John Graham.
1753—1 754, Colin Campbell of Blythswood.
1755-1756, Sir John Maxwell of Pollock.
1757-1758, George Bogle of Daldowie.

1759, John Graham of Dougalston,

1760-1761, The Earl of Errol.
1762-1 763, Thomas Miller of Barskimming
1764-1765, Baron Mure of Caldwell.
1766-1767, The Farl of Selkirk.
1768-1769, Sir Adam Fergusson.
1770-1771, Chief Baron Ord.


with Professors of Divinity, Church History, Oriental
Languages, Natural Philosophy, Mathematics, Moral
Philosophy, Logic, Greek, Humanity, Civil Law, Medi-
cine, Anatomy, Practical Astronomy, Natural History,
Surgery, Midwifery, Chemistry and Botany, and a Lec-
turer on Materia Medica.

Public Grammar School.

The Public Grammar School in this City, is of very
remote antiquity, it was organized long before the forma-
tion of the University, and is probably coeval with the
erection of the Cathedral. On ^8th October, 1595, the
Presbytery directed the Regents in the College to try the
Lish Scholars in the Grammar School, " twiching the
heads of religion;" at that period the School met at five
o'clock in the morning.

There are six classes in this Seminary, viz. The Rector's
for Latin and Greek, four for Latin, and a Commercial
class; at present there are from five to six hundred scholars
attending the Seminary.



Lord Frederick Campbell. 1 801-1 S02,

Lord Cathcart.

Lord Chief Baron INIontgomery 1 803-1 804,

Andrew Stewart. 1805-1806,

Earl of Dundonald. 1807 - 1808,

Henry Dundas.

Edmund Burke. 1809-1810,

Robert Graham of Gartmore. 1811-1812,

Adam Smith, L. L. D. 1813-1814,

Walter C.impbell of Shawfield. 1815-1816,

Thomas Kennedy of Dunure. 1817-1818,

William Mure of Caldwell. 1819,

William M'Dowallof Garthland.

George Oswald of Auchincruive. 1820-1821,

President Hay Campbell. ; 1S22,

Lord Craig, one of the Sena-
tors of the College of Justice.

Lord Chief Baron Dundas.

Henry Glassford of Dougalston.

Archibald Colquhoun, Lord

Arch. Campbell of Blythswood.

Lord Arcliibald Hamilton.

Lord Lynedoch.

Lord Justice Clerk Boyle.

The Earl of Gla?gow.

Kirkman Finlay of Castle

Francis JefTray, Advocate.

Sir James M'Intosh.


In October, 1822, Mr. James Evving, formerly Convener
of the Committee on the School, deposited a sum of money
in the hands of the Magistrates and Council, the interest
of one moiety to purchase a silver medal to be given an-
nually to the Student who produced the best exemplifica-
tion of a regular Greek verb, and the interest of the other
moiety to be laid out in the purchase of books for a library,
for the use of the School. Since the above period, Mr.
Ewing's plan for establishing a library, has been rendered
permanent by an i\.ct of the Magistrates and Council.

In 18 17, there were l44i Schools within the Moyalty of
Glasgow' The names of the Teachers and their profes-
sions are narrated in Cleland's Abridgement of the Annals
of Glasgow, page S07, of which the following is an abstract.

Students in the University, Andersonian Institution*, Grammar

School, and British new system of Education, 2795

Scholars in 144? Schools, 7488

Total Scholars where a fee is paid, 10283

Scholars in Charity or Free Schools, 6516

Total Scholars in the several Schools within the Royalty, 16799

In June, 1819, the number of Sunday Schools within

• The Andersonian Institution established in pursuance of the will of the late celebrated
Mr. John Anderson, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Glasgow, dated
7th May, 1795, and endowed by him with a valuable Philosophical Apparatus, Museum
and Library, was incorporated by a charter from the Magistrates of this City on the 9th
June, 1796. This Institution is placed under the management of 81 Trustees.

Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Materia Medica, Pliarmacy, Mathematics and Geo-
graphy, continue to be taught in this seminary. Popular and scientific lectures, from its
commencement, were delivered to both sexes, by Doctor Garnet, with great approbation, till
1799, when he was appointed Professor of Experimental Philosophy, Mechanics and
Chemistry in the Royal Institution of London, which had been formed on the model of
this primary Institution.

Dr. Birkbeck succeeded Dr. Garnet, who, in addition to the branches taught by his pre-
decessor, introduced a familiar system of philosophical and mechanical information to 500
operative Mechanics, free of all expense. The experiments were illustrated by an extensive
and valuable apparatus, models, &c. which have been productive of the best effects on this
useful and valuable class of the community. Dr. Ure who succeeded Dr. Birkbeck in 1804,
has increased the number and usefulness of this Class, by giving two evening lectures
weekly at a small fee. By a late arrangement, the Library and Models belonging to the
Mechanics' Class will be regularly extended and rendered permanent.



the Royalty, was ascertained for Cleland*s Rise and Pro-
gress of the Public Institutions, when it appeared, that
there were 106 Schools, 158 Teachers, and 4668 Children,
viz. Boys 2235, Girls 2433; and for the religious education
of Adidts, 3 Teachers and 3 Schools, which were attend-
ed by 79 persons, viz. males 25, females 54; so that in the
whole, there were 4747 persons receiving religious edu-
cation in the Royalty of Glasgow.


1796, Dr. Peter Wright.

1797, Alexander Oswald.

1798-1799-1800, William M'Neil.

1801, Dr. Monteith.

1802-1805-1804, John Ceddes.

1805, Alexander Oswald.

1806, John Sempel.

1807-1808 William Anderson.

1809, Robert Austin.

1810, Joshua Hejwood.

1811, James Cleland.

1812-1813 John Hamilton.

1814-1815-1816, John More.
1817-1818-1719, James Ewing.

1820 John Geddes.

1821-1822-1823, Walter Ferguson.

The following valuable bequest to a manufacturing community, has acted as a powerful
stimulus to mechanical ingenuity.

In 1788, Mr. James Coulter, late merchant in Glasgow, bequeathed =f200, which he
placed in the hands of the Town Council, the interest to be applied annually, or a medal
to that value, •• to any person, whether mechanic, manufacturer, or merchant, who shall
" invent, improve, or confirm in practice, any machine, or method of working a valuable
" manufacture in Glasgow, or within ten miles of it, or who shall open a new vent for such
" as shall have been already established." Mr. Coulter's example will no doubt be followed
by other public-spirited individuals.

As has been already mentioned, the Royal Institution of London was established in
1799, on the plan of the Andersonian Institution, so in 1822, a similar Institution, entitled
" The Society of Arts," has been established in Edinburgh, on a scale worthy of the metro-
polis of Scotland.

Tlie King, Patron.
Six Noblemen, Presidents — Dr. Brewster, Director,
John Robison and Thomas Guthrie Wright, Secretaries.

The plan of this valuable Society embracing a correspondence with the principal manu-
facturing Towns in Scotland, the following are the names of the Council in this City.

Corresponding Council in Glasgoiv.

Henry Monteith, M. P. President,
Charles M'Intosh, Vice-President.
James Cleland, Secretary and Treasurer.

James Ewing.
Professor Meikleham.
Professor Hooker.
James Smith, (Jordanhill.)

James Dennistoun.
Robert Dalglish.
Andrew Templeton.

Dugald Bannatyne.
Alexander Garden.
William Dunn.



Slaughter' of Cattle,

The slaughter of Cattle in Glasgow has increased very
considerably of late years. The number is taken from
the books of the hide-inspectors, appointed by Act of
Parliament, who receive a fee for each head of Cattle


Slaughter in the year 1772, being a
time of peace.

Cows and a few Bullocks, ... 5827

Calves, 11,597

Sheep, 27,955

Lambs, 14,723

Swine, 1000

Total, 61,102

Population at this period, 40,000 souls.

Slaughter in the year 1793.
War coynmenced this year, after ten
years of "peace.

Bullocks and Cows, 6608

Calves, 9597

Sheep, 27,401

Lambs, 44,107

Swine, 2000

Total, 89,713

Population at this period, 67,000 souls.

The following information connected with the slaughter
of Cattle in Glasgow, has been received from three res-
pectable rieshers who have been connected with the trade
for upwards of fifty years. " The smallest Bullock slaugh-
tered in this market (for now there are but few Cows,) is
about 14 stone, and the largest about 50, averaging a-
bout 26 stone, of 16 lib. 22^ ounces to the lib. Prior to
the year 1793, the Cattle slaughtered in this Market were
generally small and ill fed; since that time, the quality of
meat has been greatly improved in the Glasgow Market,


so that now it is inferior to none in the country. In 1811,
being a time of war, principal roasting pieces of beef
were sold at 14d. per lib. In 1815, the first year of
peace, tlie same quality was sold at lid. per lib.; and in
1822, the 7th year of peace, at from 6d. to 8d. per lib.*
Veal, Mutton, Lamb and Pork have declined nearly in
the same proportion."

Deacon Peter Brown, who has been a Flesher in this
City for more than sixty years, recollects when the slaugh-
ter of Bullocks was not known in this City; there were
only a few Cows killed in Glasgow through the year, (and
those chiefly IMilch) except at Martinmas, when it was very
common for almost every family, to purchase and slaughter
a Highland Cow, which they called their mart : these
Cows did not average more than 12 stone weight. When
Deacon Brown commenced business, he sold good roasting
beef at threepence per pound, and a quarter of Lamb
at from twopence halfpenny to ninepence, according to
season, quality and size.

Since opening the Live Cattle Market in this City in
1818, the supply of Cattle has greatly increased in the
Glasgow IMarket. Prior to that period, the Town was so
ill supplied, that the Fleshers were frequently obliged to
go to Dumbartonshire, Renfrewshire, Ayrshire, Dumfries-
shire, the Lothians, Berwickshire, Stirlingshire, and An-
gusshire for their supplies; whereas, since the opening of
the Live Cattle Market, where 9281 square yards of
ground are inclosed with a stone wall, 150 Sheep-pens e-
rected, and sheds for Cattle, and house accommodation
provided for Drovers, the Dealers from the foregoing Coun-
ties, send their Cattle to this Market on their own charges.

• The managers of the Royal Infirmarj- have contracted for the supply of Beef for the
year 1 823, as follows-: Shoulders, Spalds, and Neck Pieces in equal proportions at 4s. 7d.
per stone, being rather less than 3:|d. per lib.; and for principal roasting pieces, stakes and
rounds of Beef and Mutton at 7s. 4d. per stone, being 5-^d. per lib. The managers of the
Lunatic Asylum had previously made tlieir annual contract at a shade higher.


Valice of butcher -meat Sold in tJie Glasgoiv Market,
in 1815.

Peace commenced this year after twelve years of War.

On the supposition of the Meat being sold in whole,
half, or quarter Carcases.

Bullocks, 10859 averaging 26 Stone each,
282,334 Stones, at

9/6 per Stone, £l 34,108 13

Calves, 7128 at 38/ 13,54-3 4

Sheep, 38136 at 24/ 45,763 4

Lambs, 39683 at 8/ 15,873 4

Swine, 4194 at 48/ 10,065 12

100,000 Carcases, Value, £219,353 IT

Tallow, &c. belonging to these Carcases.

Bullocks, 10859 averaging 3 Stone each,

32577 Stones, at

11/6 per Stone, £18,731 15 6

Hides, 10859 at 20/ 10,859

Heads and Offals, 10859 at 7/ 3800 13

Calfskins, 7128 at 4/2 1485

Heads and Offals, 7128 at 2/ 712 16

Sheep Tallow, 38136 3 lib. each,
114,408 at

per lib. 9d. 4290 6

Sheep Skins, 38136 at 2/6 4767

Heads and Offals, 38136 at 9d. 1430 2

Lamb Skins, 39683 at 2/ 3968 6

Heads and Offals, 39683 at 4d. 661 7 2

Value of Tallow and Hides, &c. £50,706 5 8

Total value of Carcases, Tallow, Hides, &c. £270,060 2 8

Population at this period, 126,000.


Value of JButcher-ineat sold in the Glasgow Market,
in 1822,
Being the seventh year of Peace.

On the supposition of the Meat being sold in whole,
half, or quarter Carcases.

Eoyalti/. Suhurhs. Total.

Bullocks, 13009 1557 14566 average

28 Stones
407848 at

7/ £142,746 16

Calves, 7927 630 8557 f at 36/ 15,402 12

Sheep, 48896 8624 57520 at 20/ 57,520

Lambs, 59424 9213 68637 at 6/ 20,591 12

Swine, * 5899 640 6539 at 20/ 6539

Total, 135,155 20,664 155,819 £242,800

Tallow^ Sjc. belonging to these Carcases,

Bullocks, f 14566 averaging 3^

Stones 50981

at 7/ £17,843 7

Hides, 14566 at 28/ 20,392 8

Heads and Offals, 14566 at 8/ 5826 8

Calf Skins, 8557 at 2/ 855 14

Heads and Offals, 8557 at 1/6 641 15 6

Sheep Tallow, 57520 averaging 3^^

lib. 201 320 at 5d. 4194 3 4

Sheep Skins, 57520 at 1/6 4314

Heads and Offals, 57520 at 7d. 1667 13 4

Lamb Skins, 68637 at 1/3 4289 16 3

Heads and Offals, 6S637 at 4d. 1143 19

61,169 4 5

Total value of Carcases, Tallow, Hides, &c. £303,969 4 5

Population at this period, 147,043 souls.

•As Swine are not included in the parliamentary inspection, the number has been estimated
by a committee of Fleshers. Exclusive of the Swine killed in this Market, a very consider-
able quantity of Pork and Bacon is imported from England and Ireland.

f The Neat Cattle sold in Smithfield Market between 31st December, 1821, and 31st
December, 1822, amounted to 142,043. The population of London being 1,225,694, gives
one Bullock to eight persons, and jVo^o P^J^'s of a person.

The Neat Cattle sold in Glasgow Market during the same period being 14,566, and the
population 147,043, gives one Bullock to ten persons, and ypgo P^''^^ °^ * person, but if
Calves are included with Neat Cattle, tlien tliere is one Neat to six persons, and iVo^o P^^s
of a person.

The Sheep sold in Smithfield Market in 1822, amounted to 1,340,160, the population
being 1,225,694, gives one Sheep and iglg parts of a Sheep to each person.

The Sheep sold in Glasgow Market in 1822, amounted to 126,157, and the population,
147,043, gives iVc'oVo P^^s of a Sheep to each person, or rather more tlian scventeen-



The Magistrates of this City have not felt it their duty
to take an assize of Bread since 24th December, 1800.
On 29th January, 1801, the Magistrates and Council hav-
ing considered the Act (Stale Bread,) which was passed
during the last Session of Parliament, for regulating the
assize of Bread, resolved to discontinue for a time, the
practice of fixing an assize within the City and liberties
thereof, and to leave it to the Bakers to furnish Bread to
the inhabitants at such prices as they can afford it, with
this condition and declaration, that the weight of the
loaves furnished by the Bakers, shall be the same that they
used to be when an assize of Bread was fixed by the Ma-
gistrates, viz. Peck Loaf lylb. 6 oz. (Avoirdupois weight)
Half peck do. Sib. 11 oz. Quartern do. 4lb. 5 oz. 8 dr.
Half- quartern do. 2lb. 2 oz. 12 dr. Quarter-quartern do.
lib. 1 oz. 6 dr. and that the Bakers may make Twopenny
and Penny Loaves, provided their weight be in proportion
to the prices of the Quartern Loaf, and that in all other
respects they shall conform to the enactments of the
said statute, under the penalties therein contained. Half-
penny Rolls are considered as fancy Bread, and the weight
left to the discretion of the Baker. Household Bread is
priced as 12 to 16 with Wheaten Bread. Example. When
the Wheaten Loaf is sold at l6d. the Household is 12d.
the weight remaining always the same, without regard to
the quality.

During 1814, the price of the Quartern Loaf never
varied. In 1816 and I8I7, the price was altered 9 times
by the Bakers. The Wheaten Quartern Loaf on 14tli
January, 1820 was lOd. On 1st February, it was reduced
to9d. On 1st March, it was raised to lOd. and on the
29th May, to lid. On 1st January, 1822, the Wlieaten
Quartern Loaf was lOd. On 15th April, it fell to 9d. and
on September 2d, to 8d. at which price it remains on 26th
February, 1823.


The consiimpt of Bread in this City and Suburbs is
very considerable. Exclusive of Biscuit and Pastry Bak-
ers, there were in 1819, within the Royalty, 64 Batch
Bakers, who with one oven each, baked on an average If
Sacks of Flour daily, equal to 35,056 Sacks in the year.
When the Flour is of an ordinary quality, each Sack which
contains 280 pounds Avoirdupois, will bake 82 Quartern
Loaves; supposing the whole Flour was baked into Quar-
tern Loaves, tlie produce in the
year would be - - - 2,874,592

In the Barony Parish there were four con-'
cerns in 1819, viz. the Calton, Willow-
Bank, Anderston, and Perth Baking Com-
panies, who alone employed 12 Ovens, }> 1,129,304
where 44 Sacks were baken into Bread
daily, equal to 13772 Sacks, or in Quartern

As the Population of the Parishes of Barony"
and Gorbals is fully more than that of the Roy-
alty, it may be thought reasonable to sup-
pose, that the same quantity of Bread would
be used in those Parishes as in the Royalty, l i o 1 4^ i nfj
but as a number of the Persons who live in T ' '

the Landward part of these Parishes may
not probably consume so much Loaf Bread
as those Mho inhabit the Town part, 1 5 per
cent, is deducted, leaving Quartern Loaves,,

Total Quartern Loaves, 5,317,996

at 8d. each, £177,266 10 8

The Flour Mills at Partick and Clayslap, the property
of the incorporation of Bakers in Glasgow, are probably
the most complete in Britain. In this establishment, there
are 19 pair of Stones moved by water, and 6 by steam,
which can easily manufacture 65,000 quarters of AVheat
into Flour annually. In 1815, the members of the Cor-
poration manufactured 00,000 bolls of Wheat into Flour.
The granaries arc calculated to contain from SO to 35,000
bolls of Grain. The millstones used in these premises, are
from 4 feet 8 inches, to 4 feet 10 inches diameter, and

• The information respecting the number of Bakers and the quantity of Flour they baked,
was prepared by actual inspection for the Glasgow Statistical Tables, published in 1820,
and corroborated by the Deacon and a CommiUce of the Corporation of Bakers.


12| inches thick. They are built on the spot with small
stones from the neighbourhood of Bourdeaux, called
French Burrs. They are very hard, pretty free from sand,
and joined together by stucco cement within an iron hoop.
The grounds connected with these works, extend to about
fourteen acres. The value of the whole may be estimated
at somewhat between ^45,000 and ^50,000.

Analyzing Bread,

On 17th of May, 1820, the Magistrates inspected the
Bakers' shops in this City, with a view to ascertain if
the Bread sold by them was of sufficient weight. On this
occasion, a considerable quantity was confiscated as being
below the legal standard.

As some of the Bakers were in the way of selling below
the price fixed by the trade, insinuations were made that
the cheap Bakers put deleterious matter into their Bread,
the Magistrates therefore submitted the case to Dr. Tho-
mas Thomson, Professor of Chemistry in this University,
author of *' The Annals of Chemistry," &c. from whom
they received the following Report: —

" College, 12th August, 1820.
" Rather more than two months ago, I undertook at the request of Mr.
Cleland, a set of experiments with a view to ascertain whether any improper
substances were mixed up with the Flour, in the Bread baked by the diflerent
Bakers of this City. My experiments are now finished, and I beg leave to
state the results I obtained.

" 1st. The Loaves put into my hands were 20 in number,* and each was
marked by a number pasted on it, counting from 1 to 20 inclusive. I shall
designate each Loaf by the number belonging to it.

" 2d. I weighed each Loaf in order to detennine its weight.

* lliesc Loaves were purchased from twenty Bakers. — Auth,


" 3d. Tlie next object wliich I attempted to ascertain, was the relative
goodness of the Flour in making the respective Loaves. For this pm-pose, I
had recourse to two expedients. 1st. I digested each Loaf in water for some
days, pressed out the water, filtered it, evaporated it to dryness, and weighed
the residual matter left from each Loaf. Good Flour does not dissolve so
readily, nor in such great quantity in water as bad Flour, hence I considered
the goodness of each Loaf as inversely proportional to the residual matter left
by the water. 2d. My second experiment was to reduce each Loaf to ashes,
to weigh the quantity of ashes left, and to ascertain its composition, by sub-
jecting it to chemical analysis. Different \Micats differ very much from each
other in the proportion of earthy matter which they contain, and I conceive
that the difference is connected with the soil in which they have vegetated;
but in general, the best Wheat leaves the smallest residue of ashes, when
subjected to a complete combustion. Hence, I considered the goodness of
the Loaf, as inversely proportional to the quantity of earthy matter left.

" Tlie difference in the amount of the soluble matter, and of the ashes
yielded by the different Loaves was very great. But I conceive it to be un-

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