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Statistical tables relative to the city of Glasgow, with other matters therewith connected online

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known, which is the cause of great confusion and of ma-
nifest frauds. For the remedy and prevention of these
evils for the future, and to the end, that certain standards
of Weights and Measures should be established through-
out the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland,
Be it therefore enacted," &c. &c.

On 25th February, 1823, Sir George Clerk introduced
the Bill again into the House of Commons ; on which oc-
casion he said that it was not intended to make any altera-



6^

tion on the Measures for the sale of malt liquors. The Bill
has been twice read, and ordered to be committed, when
this article went to press.

The Royal Burghs in Scotland, have each their parti-
cular standards for the sale of Liquors, Grain, and other
articles of merchandise ; so very arbitrary, however, are
these Standards, that even in the same County, provisions
and other articles of merchandise are often sold by Weights
and Measures differing from one another ; as the same
thing takes place over the United Kingdom, the public are
often at a loss to know the particular kind of Weights
and Measures with which they should buy and sell.

Although there is now every reason to believe that
the time is approaching when the Weights and Measures
of the whole Kingdom will be equalized, yet as that
period is still at some distance, and even after the equali-
zation has been completed, a considerable time will elapse
before the new Weights and Measures can be introduced
into general practice ; it has been thought proper, in the
meantime, to prepare exemplifications of the Weights and
Measures of this City. * In doing which, the suggestion
of the Merchants' House in 1789, has been attended to.

The City of Glasgow had all along a very complete set
of the original Unit Standards, which were sent down to
them by the Barons of Exchequer at Westminster, at the
Union of the two Kingdoms in I707, and from these Unit
Standards, Aliquot parts have been made, and the Exem-
plification Tables formed.

As a work of this nature can only be valuable in pro-



* The City of Edinburgh has been highly favoured in having the distinguished
names of Professors Robison and Playfair, associated with the exemplification of
their local Weights and Measures, while Sir George Clerk, another of her
scientific Citizens, is now engaged in bringing about the general equalization.



63

portion to its accuracy, the following information as to the
mode in which it has been prepared seems necessary.
After some preliminary procedure, the Dean of Guild
Court gave the following intimation to the Public :

** The Dean of Guild and his Brethren of Council, con-
" sidering that different erroneous practices in the use of
" Weights and Measures in the sale of Commodities, have
" for some time past prevailed in this City, and Royalty
" thereof, to the great detriment of the Inhabitants, have
** requested Mr. Cleland, Superintendent of Public Works,
" to prepare an Exemplification of all the Standard Weights,
" and of all the Standard Liquid and Dry Measures recog-
" nized by Law, and used in this City, and also a specifi-
" cation of the particular Weights and Measures by which
" the different kinds of Commodities are sold in this City,
" according to established usage."

Conformably to the above authority, the whole of the
unit Standard Weights and Measures were examined, and
Aliquot parts of the Liquid and Dry Measures provid-
ed; when the experiments were completed, the Dean of
Guild and his Brethren of Council, assisted by their
learned Assessor, witnessed a revisal of the experiments
with Water and Grain, whereby nine Liquid, and forty-
five Dry Measures underwent the test of experiment.

When the proof sheets of the Exemplification were
thrown off, the Dean of Guild Court directed copies to
be sent to the Members of the Town Council, the Mer-
chants' and Trades' Houses, the Chamber of Commerce,
and the Commissioners of Police, with a request that the
individual Members of these Bodies would peruse them,
and favour the Court with their remarks in the course
of ten days. At the expiry of which, the Court enact-
ed and ordained that the regulations therein contained,
should be strictly enforced within the City and Royalty
thereof.



64

Immediately after the publication of the first edition of
the Exemplification of the Weights and Measures of
Glasgow, which among other matters not herein detailed,
included a minute Specification of all the Weights and
Measures in the possession of the Corporation and Dean
of Guild Court, and also Regulations for the Government
of Dealers, Adjusters, and Beam Makers, the following
expression of approbation emanated from the Court.

*' Dean of Guild Court Hall,
20th December, 1821.
" The Dean of Guild and his Brethren of Council,*
•* having taken into consideration the great zeal for the
*• Public good, evinced by Mr. Cleland, Superintendent
** of Public Works, in undertaking the laborious task of
" adjusting the different Weights and Measures used in
" this City according to the legal Standards, and of pre-
" paring a minute and accurate Exemplification of all these
" different Weights and Measures, and a Specification of
" the particular Weights and Measures by which Commo-
" dities are sold according to established usage, and also
*' the great ability, accuracy, and research, displayed by
" him in the preparation of these Documents, and of an
" Historical Account of the Regulations adopted in this
** Country at different times for the proper adjustment and
" equalization of Weights and Measures, deem it their
" duty, thus to express the high sense they entertain of
" Mr. Cleland's services on this occasion, and of the great
** public utility of the Work before mentioned."



» MEMBERS OF THE DEAN OF GUILD COURT.
WILLIAM SMITH, Esquire, Dean of Guild.



BRETHREN OF COUNCIL.



John Wardrop, Esq.
John M'Call, Esq.
Robert D. Alston, Esq.
Archibald Lawson, Esq.

JAMES REDDIE, Esqvibe, Advocate, Aasasor.



Robert Hood, Esq.
John Alston, Esq.
James Graham, Esq.
Archibald Murray, Esq.



do



WEIGHTS.



AVOIRDUPOIS, OR ENGLISH WEIGHT.

The following articles are sold by English Weight, to
wit: Groceries, Drugs, Flour, Bread, Boiling Pease,
Beans, and Barley, Field Turnips, Fruit, Soap, Candles,
Salt, English Cheese, (English and Irish Butter in whole-
sale,) Minced Collops, Sausages, Seasoned Meats, and all
Salt Provisions, such as Beef, Bacon, Pork, Hams, Fish,
&c.: Tobacco, Snuff, Cotton Wool, Cotton Yarn, Wors-
ted and Woollen Yarn : Paints and Metals, such as Lead,
Tin, Iron, Steel, Copper, Brass, and Wire: Coals, Leather
for Saddlers, Shoemakers, &c. Sheep and Lamb Skins
are sold by number. Five pounds Avoirdupois are consid-
ered equal to, and taken for, a pint of Honey.



TABLE or AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.
Troy Grains


27.3515625


1 Dram


437.625


16


1 Ounce


7002. *


256


16


1 Po


und


98028.


3584


224


14


1 Stone


784224.


28672


1792


112


8


1 (


15684480.


573440


3584012240


160


20



1 Ton



* Prior to the year 1759, the pound Avoirdupois contained only 7000 Troy
grains, but, by the Report of a Committee of the House of Commons in that year,
the pound Avoirdupois, according to the medium of several Weights, accounted
Standards, was found to contain 7002 Troy grains. — See Pari. Reports.

f The Hundredweight was gradually raised from 100 to 112 lbs. In the time of
Edward 1., in the year 1303, a Hundredweight of wax, and of many other gro-
ceries, was 108 pounds. The signification of the word hundred, as a number, has
varied still more. At one and the same time, 112 articles are sold for a hundred,
while others are sold at 120, nnd some even at 100. — Sec Par/. Hep, on }l'cig/i(s
Hint Mcasnren, 1819, p. lo.

U



66



TROY WEIGHT.*



Bullion, Gold and Silver Plate, &c. are sold by this
Weight.



TABLE or TROY WEIGHT.
Grains

1 Pennyweight
1 Ounce



24



480



5760



20



240



121 Pound



APOTHECARY WEIGHT.



Medical prescriptions are made up by this Weight,
which contains the same number of grains in the pound
as Troy Weight.



TABLE OF APOTHECARY WEIGHT.



Troy Grains
1 Scruple
I Dram



20



60



480



5760



24



288



96



1 Ounce



12 1 Pound



* Plate of all kinds must be sold by Troy Weight, under a heavy penalty, Act
24th George II. 1751. In England, the Troy pound is frequently divided thus:
24 blanks make one periot, 20 periots 1 droit, 24 droits 1 mite, 20 mites 1 grain,
24 grains 1 pennyweiglit, 20 pennyweights 1 ounce, and 12 ounces one pound-



67



DUTCH WEIGHT.*



Meal t made from Oats, Pease, and Beans, is sold by
this Weight ; eight pounds making one peck. It is not
numbered higher than the stone of 16 pounds.



TABLE OF DUTCH WEIGHT.



Troy Grains



27.3515625



437.625



7631.0159375



122097.375



1 Dram

1 Ounce



16



279



17 02. 7 dr.



4.464279



1 Pound
1611 Stone



* This Weight, which the Scotch Parliament imported from France in 1618, is
the same as Scotch Troy, Paris Troy, or Amsterdam Troy. It contains only 17
ounces, 6 drams, and 15-16th parts of a dram, in the pound, although, in practice,
17 ounces and 7 drams are given. It is not numbered higher than the stone.
The Dutch Standard Pound of Glasgow was sent to the Corporation by the Con-
servator of Privileges at Dort, in the Netherlands, and is of curious workmanship.

In a paper, read before the Lit. and Antiq. Soc. of Perth, Mr. Anderson demon-
strated that the original weight of the Dutch Pound Troy had been 7680 grains.
After stating the theoretical investigation by which he arrived at this result, Mi\
Anderson remarked, that it was strongly confirmed by an examination which he
entered into some time before, with the view of determining the weight of the
Dutch Pound, from the various multiples and subdivisions of that Weight, in the
possession of the Guildry of Perth. This set of Weights he stated to have been
presented by Government to the Guildry of Perth at the time of the Union, and to
be uncommonly accurate from the otmce to the stone, throughout all its denomi-
nations, never varying 1-loth of a grain from what it ought to have been, on the
supposition of the pound being 7680 grains. — See Brewster's Phil. Journ. No. 8.1821.

" The Scotch Merchants introduced what is called the Dutch Weight, from their
early intercourse with the Netherlands." — Chalmers' Caledonia, Vol. I. p- 815. " In
the Orkney and Shetland Islands, the Weights of the original Norway settlers are
still used for grain and other articles. The instruments are called Pundlars and
Bysmars, and the Weights Marks, Setteens, or Lyspunds, and Meils." — Swinton,
p. 104.

f Prior to 1696, it seems to have been the practice to have sold meal by measure.
Act William and Mary, Pari. ]. Sess- 6. cap. 6. 1696, it is enacted, that all sorts
of meal bought and sold within the kingdom shall be sold and delivered by weight,
in place of the Boll of Linlithgow Measure.



6S



TRON WEIGHT*



The Troll was the original Weight of Scotland. It is
not numbered higher than the stone of l6 pounds.

The following articles are sold by Tron Weight: Fresh
Fish, Scotch Cheese, and Fresh and Salt Scotch Butter.
Although English and Irish Butter is sold by Avoirdupois
Weight in wholesale, it is retailed by Tron. Hay and
Straw, are sold by Tron, five stones making 112 lbs.,
S ounces, Avoirdupois, which are considered as a hundred-
weight of Hay and Straw. Sheep Wool, in retail, is also
sold by Tron Weight; but in wholesale, 24- lbs. Avoir-
dupois is given for a stone. Beef, Veal, Mutton, Lamb,
and Fresh Pork, are sold by the Tron pound, which con-
tains 221 ounces.t In 1681, it was directed that Butcher
meat should be sold by weight. Act Charles II. Pari. 3.



TABLE OF TRON WEIGHT.

Troy Grains



27.351562511 Dram

1 Ounce



437.625



9819.2109375



157107.375



16



359



5744



22oz,7dr. 1 Pound



359



16 1 Stone



* This Weight, though abolished by Act of Parliament, James VI., 1618, when
the Dutch was introduced, has nevertheless, been in constant use in Glasgow.

f Towards the beginning of the last centurj-, the Magistrates and the Incorpo-
ration of Fleshcrs entered into an agreement that all fresh butcher-meat should be
sold by a pound contaming 22 ounces and a half, instead of the Tron pound, which
contains only 22 ounces and 7 drams; by which agreement the public receives one
dram in the pound more than Tron Weight. At the time of the agreement, a par-
ticular set of Weights were prepared, ^hich have been in use ever since.



69
LIQUID MEASURES.



GLASGOW STANDARD GALLON,

For the Sale of Wine, Oil, Spirits, Vinegar, Turpentine, Sfc.

TABLE.

Contents in Cubic Inches, and Weight of Water Avoirdupois, in a Gallon and itt

Aliquot Parts.



This Gallon contains 35 Gills and


Cubic
Inches.


Weight of pure


filtered riverl


very near one-fourth part of
a Gill.


water, at


a temperat. of 52 ° •]


Lib.


Oz.


Drams.


Gallon,


231.


8


5


10.4


Half Gallon,


115.5


4


2


13.2


Fourth Gallon,


57.75


2


1


6.6


Eighth Gallon,


28.875


1





11.3


Sixteenth of a Gallon,


14.4375





8


5.65


Thirty-second of a Gallon,


7.21875





4


2.825


Sixty-fourth of a Gallon,


3.609375





2


1 4125



The Wine Gallon of Excise contains 231 cubic inches, or, according to the di-
mensions of the 5th of Queen Anne, 230.907 cubic inches — See Dr. Skene KeitVs
Observations on the Final Report of the Commissioners of Weights and Measures,
Nov. 1821, p. 44.

The Standard Wine Gallon, dated 1707, kept at the Exchequer, Westminster,
was examined on the 22d and 24th of April, 1819, by Sir George Clerk and Dr.
Wollaston, and found to contain 230.9 cubic inches. An experiment of Dr.
Wollaston and Mr. Carr, in 1814, gave 250.8, the mean being 230-85, while the
measurement of a Committee of the House of Commons, in 1758, made it 231.2. A
duplicate of this Measure, and of the same date, is kept at Guildhall. — See Pari. Reji.

In 1800, John Robison, LL.D., the learned and Scientific Professor of Natural
Philosophy, late of the University of Edinburgh, having been requested by the
Dean of Guild, to make an Exemplification of the Wine Gallon of that City, in
exact accordance with the Wine Gallon of Excise ; after the most minute investi-
gation, the Professor found that the Quartern, or the 32d part of a Gallon, con-
tained exactly 1828 Troy Grains, he then directed a piece of metal to be prepared
to represent the Quartern, on which he caused the following words to be inscribed
** Quartern 1828 Troy Grains, compared with the Standard by Professor John
" Robison." This quartern containing J 8 28 Grains as aforesaid, multiplied by 52,
the number of Quarterns in a Gallon, makes that vessel to contain 58,496 Troy
Grains.

In the first Edition of the Exemplification, a small fraction was appended to
231 Cubic Inches, because the Glasgow Standard Gallon, which is 7 inches wide
at the mouth, contained that fraction, its removal, for the purpose of assimilation
to the Excise Gallon, makes the Glasgow Standard 7 grains and nearly 2-5ths of a
grain less than the Edinbui-gh one, or in other words, very near the eight thou-
sandth part of a gallon less than the Edinburgh one; whereas, by the Exemplifica-
tion alluded to, it was two Grains above it. — For tlucidation see next page.

The Glasgow Standard Wine Gallon is made of a composition similar to Bell-
metal. It has a handle, a crown with the initials A. R., and the following inscrip-
lion, " Wine Gallon 1707, Anno Rcgni, VJ."



70



ELUCIDATION

Of the Conteuts aud Weight of the Glasgow Stiuidard Wiae and Spirit Gallon,
In Cubic Inches, Pounds, Ounces, Drams, and Grains Avoirdupois.



Parts.


Cubic Inches.


Weight of Water at a temperature


of 52=.


lb.


oz.


Drams.


Drams.


Grains.




231.


8


5


10.4011555


2138.4011555


58488.61285478904


i


115.3


4


2


13.20057775


1069.20057775


29244.30642739452


1


37.75


2


1


6.600288875


534.600288875


14622.15321369726


*


28.875


1





11.3001444375


267.3001444375


7311.07660684863


-fV


14.. 4375





8


3.65007221875


133.65007221875


3655.5.3830.3424315


tV


7.21875





4


2.825036109375


66.825036109375


1827.7691517121575


1


3.6093751


2


1.4125180546875


3.3.4125180546875


913.88457585607875



GLASGOW STANDARD PINT,

For the Retail of Wine, Oil, Spirits, Vinegar, Turpentine, Sweetmilk, Sfc.

It is from this Pint that all the Dry Measures are raised.
Prior to December 1821, several of the Dry Measures
were raised from the Ale Pint, while others emanated from
the Spirit Pint, which causes a variation in the number
of Pints in some of the present Standards ; when com-
pared with those formerly in use, the cubical contents,
however, remain the same as formerly.

TABLE.

Contents in Gills, Cubic Inches, and Weight of Water Avoirdupois.



This Pint contains 16 gills.


Cubic Inches.


Lib.


Oz.


Drams.


Standard Pint,

Chopin,*

Mutchkin,

Half Mutchkin,

Gill,

Half Gill,


105.
52.5
26.25
13.125
6.5625
3.28125


3

1


12

14

15

7

3

1


12

6

3

9.5
12.75
14.375



* A Chopin in Scotland is one lialf of a Scotch Pint, equal to .52.5 cubic
inches. — See Second Pari. Rep. 1820, p. 14. This is exactly the Glasgow Standard
without a fraction.

With respect to wine bottles, nothing short of legislative enactment can effectu-
ally regulate their size.

The Spirit Standard Pint is nunic of the same kind of metal as the Gallon, it
has a handle, a rampant lion, and another fiuadrujied on a separate bliield, with the
letter S engraven on it.



71



GLASGOW ALE PINT.*

For the Sale of Ale, Beer, Porter, and Butlcrmilk.
This Pint is also used for measuring Brewers' casks.

TABLE.

Contents in GUIs, Cubic Inches, and Weight oj Water Avoirdupoix.



This Pint contains 17 gills.


Cubic Inches.


Lib.


Oz.


Drams.


Pint,


111.562


4.





8.75


Half Pint, f


55.781


2





4..375


Fourth Pint,


27.8905


1





2.1875


Eighth of a Pint,


13.94.525





8


1.09375


Sixteenth of a Pint,


6.972625





4


0.546875


Thirty-second part.


3.4863125





2


0.273437



* " The Ale Standard Pint used in Glasgow was fixed by Act, William and
Mary, Pari. I. Sess. 6. 1696.

The Ale Standard Pint is made of a composition metal, has a handle, a D. G.
and 1696, stamped on it. The city arms and the following words are engraven on
it. To touch the pluhc is the Measure.

•j- The half pint and fourth pint measures are equal to what is called pot and
pint, for the sale of DraVight Ale, Beer, and Porter, in Glasgow.

The local Act 39. Geo. III., cap. 40. enacts, that a barrel containing 36 English
Ale Gallons shall be held and deemed to contain 97 Scotch Pints; and a barrel
containing 34 English Ale Gallons shall be held and deemed to contain 92 Scotch
Pints, and no more, and so in proportion for a larger or lesser quantit}-. A duty
of two pennies Scots, or one-sixth of a penny Sterling, is exacted on every Scotch
Pint of Ale, Beer, or Porter, brewed or brought into the Glasgow impost district.
Although the duty is thus charged, the Brewers do not sell their liquor by the pint
or barrel, but by the Scotch Gallon. A cask of two gallons should legally contain 16
of the above pints, but as sediment fajls to the bottom, in Small-beer casks, the
two gallon casks aie made to contain 1 7 pints and one chopin, A four gallon cask
of 32 pints, contains 35. An eight gallon cask of 64 pints, contains 70, and a 16
gallon cask of 128 pints, contains 140. As the surplus measure, above the legal
proportion of 56 English Ale Gallons to a barrel, is optional with the Brewer, and
given for the purpose of enabling the retailer to overcome the grounds, or sediment,
in small-beer, and table-beer, it frequently happens, that the larger casks used for
strong ale and porter do not contain the quantity specified.

As the dimensions of Gallon casks used by the Glasgow Brewers are generally
larger than those who send their liquor here from other places, an equalization is
much to be desired.



72



DRY MEASURES.



In Dry Measures, four Forpets make one Peck, four
Pecks one Firlot, four Firlots one Boll, and Sixteen Bolls
one Chalder. In Meal, two Bolls make one Load.

TABLE FOR WHEAT.

Contents of a Wheat Firlot, its Aliquot Parts, and Weight of Water.
This Measure is to be streaked with a Roller.



Measures.


Contains


Contents in Cubic
Inches.


Weight of pure filtered river
water, at a temperature of 52 = .


PinU.


Gills.


Lib.


Ounces.


Dranu.


Firlot,
Half Firlot,
Peck,
Half Peck,
Forpet,
HalJf Forpet,


21
10

5
2

1


4.
10.

5.
10.5

5.25
10.62


2231.25

1115.625
557.8125
278.90625
139.453125
69-7265625


80
40
20
10
5
2


10
5

2

1

8


15

7.5
11.75

5.875
10.9375

5.46875



TABLE FOR OATS, &c.

Contents of the Firlot for Oats, Barley, Bear, and Malt, its Aliquot Parts,
and Weight of Water.

This Measure is to be streaked with a Roller.





Contains


Contents in Cubic
Inches.

3390.87


vVeiglit
water, at


)f pure tiltered river
a temperature of 52 o .




PinU.


Gills.


Lib.


Ounces.


Drams.


1

Firlot,


32


4.704


122


9


15.768


Half Firlot,


16


2.352


1695,435


Gl


4


14.884


Peck,


8


1.176


847.7175


30


10


7.442


Half Peck,


4


0,588


423.85875


15


5


3,721


Forpet,


2


0.294


211.929375


7


10


9.8605


1 Half Forpet,


1


0.147


105.9646875


3


13


4.93025



Great care must be taken in measuring grain, not to shake it, " it is unlawful,
in measuring grain, to shake the Measure so as to increase its virtual capacity; and
any buyer shaking the Measure is to forfeit the grain, and pay a penalty besidco."
Act 22 and '23, Charles II, 1660.

FROM ACTUAL EXPERIMENT

Grain varies in weight according to quality. A Firlot of sound Scotch Wheat,
one year old, weighed 61 pounds, 13 ounces, and 8 drams. Avoirdupois, Scotch
Wheat runs from 55 to 64 pounds in the Firlot, English and Foreign Wheat in
this market, and Scotch Wheat water borne, are sold by weight, GO pounds Avoir-
dupois being taken for a Firlot. English and Foreign Wheat weighs often as low as
57 pounds Avoirdupois, and seldom above C4 pounds in the Firlot. Farmers in
the neighboiiihood, l)rini;ing in their wheat to market, sell it by the above Firlot.



73



TABLE FOR PEASE AND BEANS.

Contents of the Firlot for Pease* and Beans, its Aliquot Parts, and Weight of Water,
This Measure is to be streaked with a Roller.



Measures.


Contains


Jontenti in Cubic
Inches.


Weight of pure tiltered river 1
water, at a temperature of 52 = . j


Pints.


Gills.


Lib.


Ounces.


Drams.


Firlot,
Half Firlot,
Peck,
Half Peck,
Forpet,
Half Forpet,


22
11

5
o

1


15.5
6.75

11.375

13.687
6.843

11.421


2398.59575

1199.296875

599.6484375

299.8242187

149.9121093

74.9560546


86
45
21
10
5

2


11
5

10

15
6

U


12.125

14.0625

15.03125

7.515625
11.7578125

5.87890625



TABLE FOR FLAX AND HEMP SEED.

Contents of the Linlithgow Barley Peck Measure, for the Sale of Flax anil Hemp
Seed, its Aliquot Parts, and Weight of Water.

This Measui'e is to be streaked with a Roller.



Measures.



Peck,
Half Peck,
Forpet,
Half Forpet,



Contains |


Pints.


GUIs.


7


15.


3


14.5


1


15.25





15.625



Contents in Cubic
Inches.



820.5125
410.15625
205.078125
102.5530625



Weight of pure tittered rivei
water, at a temperature of ,')2 o



Lib. Ounces



10

15

6

11



Drams.

9.75

4.87 5

10.4575

5.2 187. ■■



FROM ACTUAL EXPERIMENT

A Firlot of Scotch oats, one year old, weighed 64 pounds, 5 ounces, and 9
drams, Avoirdupois. Scotch oats run from 58 to 68 pounds in the Firlot. Oats
brought up the Clyde are sold by weight, 66 pounds being given for a Firlot. At
Port Dundas, and other places of the district, they are sold by the above Firlot.

A Firlot of Scotch barley, one year old, weighed 77 pounds, lO ounces. Avoirdu-
pois. Scotch barley runs from 74 to 84 pounds per firlot. Bear and Big from 6S
to 78 pounds per Firlot. Barley brought up the Clyde is sold by weight, 80 lbs.
being given for a Firlot. At Port Dundas, and other places of the district, barley


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Online LibraryJames ClelandStatistical tables relative to the city of Glasgow, with other matters therewith connected → online text (page 6 of 23)