James DeKoven.

A theological defence for the Rev. James De Koven to the Council held at Milwaukee, February 11th and 12th, 1874 online

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GHOST. Thou wast subject unto her, and didst commit her to Thy beloved disciple, saying,
"Behold thy mother." With Thy Angel, I would give her praise ; with Thyself love her ;
with Thine Apostle honour her. Howsoever Thy Saints have profited through her interces-
sions, may I in like manner profit; through Thee, Who with the FATHER and the HOLY
GHOST, hvest and reignest, One GOD, world without end. Amen,
OF A DOCTOR;

Antiphon. Light eternal shall shine on Thy Saints, O LORD, and length of days. Al-
leluia.

V Rejoice in the LORD, Oye Righteous.
R For it becometh well the just to be thankful. Alleluia.
LET US PRAY.

O GOD, Who willedst Thy blessed servant, Saint N., to be an illustrious Teacher for
the instruction and edification of Thy Holy Church ; grant, we beseech Thee, that as on
earth he taught us the way of life, so now he may plead and pray for us in Heaven ; through
JESUS CHRIST our LORD. Amen.

OF A VIRGIN AND MARTYR.

Antiphon. When the Bridegroom came, they that were ready went in with Him to the
marriage. Alleluia.

V The virgins that be her fellows.

R Shall bear her company.

LET US PRAY.

Almighty and Everlasting GOD, Who choosest the weak things of the world to confound
the wise : mercifully grant that we, who celebrate the Festival of Thy holy servant, Saint
M., Virgin (and Martyr), may also enjoy the advantage of her prayers in our behalf before
Thee ; through JESUS CHRIST our LORD. Amen.

The Roman doctrine of the Invocation of Saints involves two things,
first, that we may pray to the Saints, secondly, that they can directly help
us. Neither of these views are to be found in these prayers in the Treasury
of Devotion. 1'hey are every one of them Prayers to God, not prayers to the
Saints. They do not pray that the saints may help us, but only that we may
be profited by their prayers to God. In other words that He may help us be-
cause of their prayers. They are exactly in the line of the Collect for St.
Michael's Day in the Prayer Book, when we pray to God to give us the suc-
cour and defence of the Holy Angels ; with the difference of course, that all
Christians believe of the angels, that they are " ministering spirits sent forth
to minister unto them who shall be heirs of salvation," which may not be
true of the Saints.

Perhaps there is no greater instance of unfairness in controversy than the
assertion in the Church Journal of Feb. a6th, that the Prayers to the Saints
and angels in Mr. Orby Shipley's " Invocation of Saints and Angels" " are
no more than can be found in a book edited by Mr. Carter of Clewer



62

" The Treasury of Devotion" a book given by advanced clergymen very
commonly to those whom they spiritually "direct" &c."

Either the Editor had never examined Mr. Shipley's Book or else he has
ventured to rely on the supposed ignorance of his readers for an assertion he
cannot prove. The Treasury of Devotion only contains prayers to God for
the intercession of the Saints. Mr. Shipley's book is full of Litanies and
Prayers to the Saints themselves, and whatever may be thought of the latter,
to state that the former are like them, is to make a grave misstatement.

For myself I heartily subscribe to the language of Dr. Pusey (letter to
the Bishop of London p. 101.) though I am not sufficiently familiar with Mr.
Shipley's book, to know whether it has such expressions in it as are here con-
demned.

" It (the Invocation of Saints) however it may be explained by Roman
Catholic controversalists, to be no more than asking the prayers of members
of Christ, now in the flesh ; still, in use, it is plainly more ; for no one would
ask those in the flesh ' to protect us from the enemy' ' receive us in the hour
of death' ' lead us to the joy of heaven,' 'may thy (the blessed virgin)
abundant love cover the multitude of sins,' ' and to the mind which asketh thee
give the gift of graces,' or use any of the direct prayers for graces which God
alone can bestow, which are common in R. C. devotions to the Blessed
Virgin. No one can look uncontroversially at such occasional addresses, as
there are to martyrs in the 4th century (and these chiefly prayers at their
tombs through their intercession for miraculous aid from God,) and such books
as the 'glories of Mary, the 'Month of Mary,' and say, that the character of
the modern reliance on, and invocation of Saints, was that of the Ancient
Church." But such just criticisms do not apply in any sense to the Prayers in
the " Treasury of Devotion "

Of them the words of Bishop Andrewes, than whom no one has written
more earnestly against the Invocation of Saints, are evidently true.

" While the Fathers were fully persuaded that the Saints (no matter
where they were,) still were interested in our behalf, and in their way kindly
prayed for us ; so far at least as that they (the Fathers) could be aided by this
cooperation of theirs, and by their intercessions and services. Yet it was not
from the Saints themselves that this was solicited, but always from God.
But to ask God to be propitious to us at their request, this reqttest of them IS
NOT AN INVOCATION OF THEM, BUT OF GOD. (Responsio ad. Card. Bellar-
mine Lib. Angl. Cath. Theo. p. 60.)

Thus speaks this great Bishop who seems to have written almost as much
to the confusion of my accusers, as of Cardinal Bellarmine.

The "Anima C&rzj#"which is found in the Treasury of Devotion, was
also an especial point of attack of Dr. Adams. He omitted however to tell his
hearers that Bishop Andrewes himself whose works are spoken of in " Prin-
ciples not men" as one of the " text Books" of high churchmen as distinguish-
ed from the " advanced," made use of this prayer with the following altera-
tions.

PRAYER OF IGNATIUS LOYOLA. PRAYER OF BISHOP ANDREWES.

Anima Christ! Sanctifica me Anima Christi Sanctifica me

Corpus Christi Salva me Corpus Christi conforta me

Sanguis Christi inebria me Sanguis Christi redime me

Aqua Latetis Christi lava me Aqua Christi ablue me

Passio Christi conforta me Livor Christi sava me

O bono Jesu exandi me Sudor Christi refrigera me

Jntra tua vulnera absconde me, &c. Vulnus Christi absconde me
[Devotions of Bishop Andrewes (p. 163 Lib. of Ang. Cath. Theo.)]

TRANSLATION.

IGNATIUS. BISHOP ANDREWES.

Soul of Chnst sanctify me Soul of Christ sanctify me

Body of Christ save me Body of Christ strengthen me



63-

Blood of Christ inebriate me Blood of Christ ransom me

Water from the side of Christ cleanse me Water (from the side of) Christ cleanse me

Passion of Christ comfort me Bruises of Christ heal me

O good Jesu hear me Sweat of Christ refresh me

Hide me within Thy wounds &c- Wound of Christ hide me

The use of the Anima Christi by Bishop Andrewes is the more remarka-
ble, because having been born but a few years after the death of Ignatius, he
must have gone out of his way to get it. It is he who introduced it into the
English Church.* It did not come to him as it has to us after long centuries
of use. Bishop Andrewes has indeed altered the one word which Dr.
Adams dwelt upon, the word "inebriate". Preferring myself the word
" ransom" it must be remembered that there is very high authority for the
use of " inebriate." The language is to be found as being employed in Holy
Scripture, in St. Cyprian, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, Eusebius, Origen, St.
Cyril of Jerusalem, St. Gregory Nyssen, St. Athanasius, and Theodoret.
Should any one wish to look up the passages, the references can all be found
in Dr. Pusey's letter to the Bishop of London p. 145.

The word "inebriate" in the figurative language which the fathers used
simply means that by the Blood of Christ, spiritually given us in the Holy
Communion, we are born out of and above ourselves. The soul " was athirst
for God," it "hungered and thirsted after righteousness," it was "to drink of
the river of Thy pleasures." "And thus words as "inebriating" or those of
the like meaning which sound strangely in our ears, who have it is to be feared
so little of the joy of the ancient church, do declare the highest mystery of
Christian joy. For man may be out of himself either by being above or below
himself; and in their highest degree the outward semblance may in either
case be the same." (See Dr. Pusey's letter, p. 154 and 155.)

It must also be noted that the verse of the 23d Psalm, "Thy cup shall
be full" is in the Latin version of the English Prayer Book authorized in the
time of Queen Elizabeth, 1560, " calix meus INEBRIANS quam praclarus est"
and in the latest Latin version of the Book of Common Prayer that of Messrs.
Bright & Medd the same phrase following the Vulgate is used.

No one of course is compelled to use a Prayer like the "Anima
Christi." If the word "inebriate" does not please him he can surely alter it,
but to condemn a book of Devotions on that account, much more one who
happens to give it away, seems to be the height of absurdity.



* May it not have been brought from Spain at the time of the visit of Prince Charles
(1623) who was accompanied by Dr. Wren, when Bishop Andrewes was Bishop of Winches-
ter.






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ERRATA.

Page 25. To the second paragraph of the quotation from
Thorndike, the following should be added:

"Grant that there may be question, whether it be a just occasion or not ;
certainly supposing it came to a custom in the Church presently to do that
which is always due to be done, you suppose the question determined. This
is that which I stand upon ; the matter being such as it is, supposing the cus-
tom of the Church to have determined it, it shall be so far from an act of
idolatry, that it shall be the duty of a good Christian. Therefore, not suppos-
ing the Church to have determined it, though for some occasions, (whereof
more are possible than it is possible for one to imagine) it may become offen-
sive and not presently due, yet can it never become an act of idolatry ; so
long as Christianity is that which it is, and he that does it professes himself a
Christian,"



Page 44. The quotation from the Collect for St. Michael
and all Angels should read :

"Grant that as Thy Holy Angels always do Thee service in Heaven, so
by Thy appointment they may succour and defend us on earth."




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Online LibraryJames DeKovenA theological defence for the Rev. James De Koven to the Council held at Milwaukee, February 11th and 12th, 1874 → online text (page 8 of 8)