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TH



OFTH&



/IP^ISURGS



UC-NRLF




GIFT OF
Dr. Robert T. Sutherland




THE CRADLE OF THE
H APSBURGS



THE CRADLE OF THE
HAPSBURGS



BY

J. W. GILBART-SMITH

M.A. CHRIST CHURCH, OXFORD
AUTHOR OF "THE LOG o* THE 'NORSEMAN,'" "THE LOVES OF VANDYCK,

"SERBELLONI," " THB ROADWAYS OF LONDON," ETC.



WITH THIRTY-TWO PAGES OF

ILLUSTRATIONS FROM OLD MEDIAEVAL PRINTS AND
PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE AUTHOR




LONDON

CHATTO & WINDUS
1907



The rights of translation and of reproduction are reserved



Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON 5r Co.
At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh



TO

{MY WIFE

WITHOUT WHOSE HELP

THESE RECORDS OF AN HISTORIC RACE
HAD NEVER BEEN WRITTEN



CONTENTS

CHAP. PAGE

I. CONCERNING THE CRADLE . . . 13

II. STRANDED UPON THY SOLITARY HEIGHT 20

III. THE ROMANCE OF THE COUNTESS RICH-

ENZA 26

IV. THE PENANCE OF COUNT OTTO OF HAPS-

BURG 42

-V. THE LOST HEIR OF THE HAPSBURGS . 52
VI. IN THE DEMESNE OF THE HAPSBURGS

SCHINZNACH 59

VII. THE ROMANCE OF A MIDNIGHT ASSIG-
NATION 68

VIII. RUDOLPH OF HAPSBURG AS COUNT . 77

IX. RUDOLPH OF HAPSBURG AS KING . . 90

X. THE ANNEXATION OF ANNA . . . 105

XL THE DISINHERITED HAPSBURG. . . 113

XII. How THE HAPSBURGS ARRIVED . . 122

XIII. THE HAPSBURGS AND THE HEIRESSES . 132

XIV, ENGLAND AND THE HAPSBURGS . . 141

vii



Vlll CONTENTS

CHAP. PAGB

XV. THE CANDID CRITIC . . . .151

XVI. THE HAPSBURGS AND LUCERNE . . . 167

XVII. THE SEETHAL VALLEY . . . .178

XVIII. THE LAST OF THE LENZBURGS . . 183

XIX. LENZBURG CASTLE AND ITS OWNERS . 193

INDEX OF DATES 204

GENERAL INDEX 213



ILLUSTRATIONS

HAPSBURG CASTLE AND THE VALLEY OF THE AARE
FROM THE NORTH. From an oil-painting of Kauw,
A.D. 1675, in the Historical Museum, Berne . . Facing p. 13

DIE HABICHSPURGER. From the old print of Silberisen,

A.D 1576 ,,14

THE ENVIRONS OF HAPSBURG AND THE CONFLUENCE
OF THE RIVERS AARE, REUSS, AND LIMMAT. From
the old print of Herrgott ...... ,,22

THE AARE IN THE HAPSBURG DEMESNE ... ,,25
"Wiser than we, the river seeks its rest."

THE LENZBURG OF THE TSCHACHTLANS' QUAINT
DRAWING, A.D. 1470. Reproduced from an early
Woodcut ,,47

THE RETURN OF THE LOST HAPSBURG 1 ... ,,58

IN THE DEMESNE OF THE HAPSBURGS. THE GARDENS

AT SCHINZNACH ..59

IN THE DEMESNE OF THE HAPSBURGS. THE OLD

FOUNTAIN, SCHINZNACH-LES-BAINS ... ,,62

THE RIVER AARE FROM THE GROUNDS OF BAD-

SCHINZNACH, IN THE HAPSBURG DEMESNE . ,,67

LENZBURG CASTLE FROM THE SOUTH-EAST. The
side occupied by the Emperors Frederick Barbarossa,
Frederick II., and Rudolph I ,,70

AN ANCIENT ENTRANCE, LENZBURG CASTLE . ,,76

HAPSBURG FROM THE EAST. After Herrgott . . ..77

ANCIENT SEAL OF THE EMPEROR RUDOLPH OF

HAPSBURG ,,92



1 A beautiful enlargement of this drawing, 12 by 10, printed in sepia
on fine art paper, can be obtained of the Publishers, price 25.

ix



X ILLUSTRATIONS

ANCIENT LUCERNE HER DEFENCES BY THE RIVER

REUSS, 1513 Facing p. 102

LENZBURG FROM THE SOUTH-WEST. The side occupied
by the celebrated Adrian von Bubenberg and other
governors during the castle's occupation by the city
of Berne ,,105

HAPSBURG CASTLE THE INTERIOR OF THE OLD
TOWER, 1 020. A difficult photograph on account of
the scarcity of light M H3

HAPSBURG AFTER MERIAN, A.D. 1642 . . . 116

AN OLD WOODCUT SHOWING THE TOWN OF BRUGG,
TWO-AND-A-HALF MILES FROM SCHINZNACH, THE
ABBEY OF KONIGSFELDEN AND BRUNEGG. HAPS-
BURG CASTLE IN THE DISTANCE. From Stumpfs'
" Chronicle," A.D. 1548 ,121

THE GARDENS, BAD-SCHINZNACH , 132

THE FOUNTAIN-GARDEN ,,151

GRAND-HOTEL HAPSBURG AND THE SOUTH GARDENS 161

LUCERNE CATHEDRAL FROM THE BACK, SHOWING

THE OLD GATEWAY INTO THE PRECINCTS . . 167

THE OLD WATCH-TOWER OF STANSSTAD, A.D. 1308 173

ROADWAY BY THE REUSS ,176

ARNOLD VON WINKELRIED. From his statue at Stans 180

THE EMPEROR FREDERICK BARBAROSSA'S ROOM AT
LENZBURG CASTLE. Photographed by the courtesy
of Mr. Jessup ,,183

THE INNER COURT OF LENZBURG CASTLE . . 193

THE OLD TOWER, HABSBURG CASTLE (1020).

A near view , 194

" For all thy years of glory as they sped
Could break thine heart but could not bow thine head."

THE DRAWING-ROOM, LENZBURG CASTLE 196

LENZBURG CASTLE FROM THE NORTH 199

THE HEART OF THE HAPSBURG COUNTRY AND HOW

TO GET THERE (map} , 212

HAPSBURG CASTLE. After Zurlauben, 1777 216



PEDIGREE OF THE EARLY HAPSBURGS

Omitting such descendants and collaterals as are not concerned with this work).

GUNTRAM THE RICH, opposed Otto the Great, and was attainted by
that monarch in 952, d. 973



I

LANCBLINUS OF ALTENBURG
I



RADBOT, Count of Altenburg, who with his brother, WERNHER I., Bishop of Strasburg,
built Schloss Habsburg on the summit of the Wiilpelsberg (p. 14)



WERNHER II., </. 1096 RICHENZA, ;. ULRICH, Count of

| Lenzburg (p. 26)

OTTO II., about A.D. mi
WERNHER III., d. 1167
ALBERT III. THE RICH, Landgrave of Alsace, d. 1199



RUDOLPH II., Landgrave of Alsace, m. AGNES VON STAUFEN, d, 1232

r~ i

ALBERT IV. THE WISE, RUDOLPH THE SILENT,

Landgrave of Alsace, founder of the junior or Hapsburg-Lauffenbur

m. HEILWIG VON KYBURG line: father of Count Eberhart, who married

(p. 68) Anna, heiress of Lenzburg and Lorraine

I (P- 107)

I

RUDOLPH IV.,

subsequently Rudolph I. of

Germany (pp. 77-90)



RUDOLPH, m. (1286) AGNES, ALBERT I., Emperor of Germany

dau. of King Ottocar of Bohemia, murdered at KOnigsfelden,

d. 1 296 (pp. 99-120) 1308(0. 120)

_ __ ___ __

DUKE JOHN OF AUSTRIA, FREDERICK, Emperor, ALBERT, AGNES,

Count of Hapsburg, d. 1330 Duke of Austria, Queen o:

who murdered his uncle, great-grandfather of Hungary



the Emperor Albert I.,
d. 1313 (p. 113)



(p. 121)



FREDERICK III., Emperor of Germany, 1439-1493, tn. dau. of Edward,
King of Portugal (p. 134)



EMPEROR MAXIMILIAN, m. MARY OF BURGUNDY (p. 135)
PHILIP, m. JOAN, Queen of Castile, dau. of King and Queen of Spain (p. 137)

EMPEROR CHARLES V., 1519 FERDINAND, 1558, m. heiress of Hungary

and Bohemia (p. 138)



(pp. 138-143)



PHILIP,
King-Consort of England (p. 143).



THE CRADLE OF THE
HAPSBURGS

CHAPTER I

CONCERNING THE CRADLE

AN exquisite morning in early August, and
I was looking my first on an old, time-
worn turret surmounting the summit of the
Wlilpelsberg.

A square, stubborn, assertive tower, grey
amid a background of green trees, and grimly
confronting a panorama of rare beauty a
tower stranded by the ebbing years, and dim
as stands a sentinel of night.

This was the cradle of the Hapsburgs.

From its ramparts the founders of a stalwart
race looked down upon a world their sons
would one day rule, dreaming incredulous
dreams of wealth and power.

Sing me the childhood of a race, and I will

B



14 THE CRADLE OF THE HAPSBURGS

tell their dreams ! This Hapsburg strong-
hold lent itself to large views of life. Of a
truth, the race which chose its homestead less
for its beauty than for its outlook would take
no narrow view of life. A race of onlookers
eager for enterprise. Around them acres and
acres all their own, and beyond them the
pinnacles of Alps stabbing the stars, as the
embankment of their ambitions!

It was on a day, ages since, that a man
wandered through these realms of pinewood.
The Count of Altenburg had lost his hawk,
and his long search brought him at last to
the summit of the Wulpelsberg ; there he
found his hawk and founded his house. 1
Delighted with the panorama spread before
his eyes, he determined to build a castle on
the spot ; and, in process of time, the Habicht,
or hawk, gave his master not only a home
but a name, for the new stronghold was
christened Habichtburg, which in time became
shortened to Habsburg. The older castle,
thus discarded, stood on that outlet of land
formed by the confluence of the rivers Aare
and Reuss, and its remains to this day are
dear to the archaeologist.

1 A.D. IO2O.



CONCERNING THE CRADLE 15

The same century which saw this migration
in the House of Hapsburg was witnessing an
exchange no less influential to England than
was that other to Austria. Forty-six years
later, William the Norman took i wider view
of life from the throne of the Saxons.

And so, from the first, the Hapsburgs
loved a good outlook, and seldom did they
miss the chance of extending it. Already
the family, as Counts of Altenburg, were
men of weight and wealth ; and the scene
on which they looked from their new abode
appealed to them not only for its beauty,
but as evidence of their position. And as
generation succeeded generation the outlook
included more and more of their own. No
phantom of a dream could have had keener
flight or broader sweep of pinion than had
the wakeful vision of the Hapsburg. As a
hawk that espies its object where to all else
the quarry is enshrouded in shadow, so the
impetus of the Hapsburgs ever hurled their
fortunes onward with a purpose which, if not
always scrupulous, was ever steadfast.

As the years rolled on, favouring fortune
made of their dreams an actuality. As far
as ever the eye could reach were the posses-



1 6 THE CRADLE OF THE HAPSBURGS

sions of the family. Right beneath them
flowed the passionate Aare, visible autotype
of the collective ambitions of the Hapsburgs,
whose impetuous waters augment the Rhine
with contributions gathered far and wide from
some of the loveliest scenes on earth : from
the lakes of Zurich, Zug, and Lucerne ; from
distant Thun and Brienze, from the lakes
also of Bienne and Neuchatel. Below is the
river Limmat, fresh from Zurich, and the
Reuss, which took Lucerne en route from
the St. Gotthard, and beyond the river one
can see the undulating Jura ; whilst, south-
ward, grim Pilatus is visible on a clear day,
Rigi and the virgin heights of the Alps
glistening back the dazzling light as if they
found a sufficiency in their own snow-world.
Northwards lie the swarthy outlines of the
Black Forest. And once upon a time all
of these lordships and lands, these outlying
heights and sequestered dales, beautiful as
only God knows beauty, were the heritage
of the Von Habsburgs, kings and kaisers of
Rome and Germany before ever they wore
the dual crown of the Austrian Empire.

To say that, wandering over the old castle,
I thought of all these things would be some-



CONCERNING THE CRADLE 17

what of an exaggeration. It might even be
termed an absolute untruth. To be honest
with you, my masters, I thought of none of
these things, for the simple reason that I did
not know them. This family of Hapsburg
opened wide a vast door on my ignorance,
and light struggled to get in. In my colossal
blank of mind I made a note of it to find
out at earliest why in the name of heaven the
Hapsburgs came from Vienna to Schinznach.
Was it to take the famous waters ? and, if
so, from what did they suffer, and wherefore
is history silent concerning the malady ? At
all costs I felt it incumbent on me to unearth
the reason of their exile from Austria to this
secluded portion of the Canton of Aargau.

Thereupon I cogitated with myself as to
how I might most deftly inquire of any of
the hundreds of visitors seeking health at
the baths below, so that, whilst concealing
my ignorance, I might acquire their wisdom.
Whereat I grew a burden to my acquaint-
ances, plying them with cunning questions.
But, to my amazement, I found that I was
not alone in my ignorance, and that nearly
every one I met was on the look-out for
information concerning the numerous ancient



1 8 THE CRADLE OF THE HAPSBURGS

strongholds which crown almost every hill in
the vicinity. For so picturesque is each in
its beauty, so pathetic in its decay, that we
who love the meandering Aare, and owe much
of renewed health to the generous sulphur
of its banks loving, too, to linger in one of
the most beautiful and at the same time one
of the most unspoilt portions of Switzerland
cannot but feel an interest in these stranded
sentinels of time, and a longing to share with
them their dreams of a troubled past.

Whereupon, finding no help round me, I
set to work to read the tomes of history,
collecting here and there all that is of interest
concerning this stupendous rise of an historic
family from such unwonted beginnings. For
if the entire world had to pass onward in single
file, marshalled in precedence, for centuries
and centuries the reigning chief of the Haps-
burgs would pass first, with all the world's
crowned heads to follow. 1

With so unique a precedence, retained by

1 The German sovereign, as Emperor of Rome, took pre-
cedence of all other crowned heads until the end of the Holy
Roman Empire in 1804. By the Congress of Vienna the
precedence of ambassadors was settled, the members of the
corps diplomatique taking rank according to the dates of their
several appointments. The sovereigns rank inter se in a similar
manner.



CONCERNING THE CRADLE 19

the steadfast acumen of ages, it is but natural
that, standing here by the cradle of their
race, one should find a busy pleasure in
unravelling the thread which binds the Haps-
burgs with the past.

Hence, my masters, this book in the
hope that those who visit the fair scenery
whereof it treats may reap a riper degree
of satisfaction in the natural beauties of the
country by a richer knowledge of scenes
which, secluded though they be, have yet
played their brave part in emblazoning the
chronicles of the past.



CHAPTER II

STRANDED UPON THY SOLITARY HEIGHT

Thy noble brow, exalted proudly yet,

Confronts the suns of ceaseless ages set ;

For all thy years of glory as they sped

Could break thine heart but could not bow thine head ;

And now, deserted by their fickle flight

Stranded upon thy solitary height

Like some lone queen, thy glooms possess this ray,

The love and reverence of yesterday,

When the low valleys echoed the last cheer

Of those that died to crown thee sovereign here.

I DO not know how it strikes you, but to me
this ancient stronghold of the Hapsburgs
seems a lone and desolate thing. Years since,
looking upon old Toledo, I wrote the line
which heads this chapter, and at first sight
of the Hapsburg homestead the words re-
curred to me as strangely appropriate. As
a bright and buoyant galley that, floating on
the bosom of full tide, is suddenly stranded
high, and left for all time an outcast from the
mirth and majesty of the deep, so is this old
chateau, and thus was it forsaken of those it
succoured and preserved.



STRANDED UPON THY SOLITARY HEIGHT 21

Of all its olden grandeur nothing but the
tower is left ! but to those who ponder there
is in that tower a poem! Talk of sermons
in stones ! here, of a truth, the very mortar
is a Miserere !

Impregnated with the spirit of the past,
tall and erect, unbendable to the brunt of
fate, it faces the onslaught of the years.
Like some lone watcher whose eyes are
dimmed with turning sunwards, this imperish-
able sentinel of Time is palpably elder than
its splendid past, but not too old to show
that indomitable front which has courage for
its record.

Oh that I could photograph in words the
fair scene whereon it looks ! The broad and
glittering river at its feet ; the distant im-
perishable snows ; the green rich vales bright
with impending harvest, and the exquisite
framings of nocturnal pine ! And the pathos
of it is that throughout the centuries it has
watched the flower-full year ripening to its
predestined fruition, itself alone of all things
in that fair bright land condemned to eternal
sterility. For it no more the laurel gleams ;
no more the pennons thrilled by love or war ;
pride of the passionate past, not evermore !



22 THE CRADLE OF THE HAPSBURGS

"No one," said Horace, "shall follow thee,
their short-lived lord, save the hateful cypress." 1
But to this old stronghold it is not even the
cypress, it is the lowly ivy which is faithful.
The Hapsburgs took elsewhere their laurels ;
none of their bays are for this buttress of
their fortunes. That which made them great
stands stranded upon its solitary height!

If Count Radbot, founder of the race, had
a partiality for a good outlook, he had also
a nice discrimination for position. Nothing
could well be more convenient for the mediaeval
as well as for the modern traveller than this
whole Hapsburg country. No more than thirty
miles from Lucerne, it is less from Zurich and
from Bale, which latter city in ancient days
even as now was the great junction of routes
from France, Germany, Geneva, Rome, Venice,
Milan, and Genoa ; whilst northward, but a
small way apart, are the Rhine and the Black
Forest. These advantages meant much to
the early Hapsburgs, and much, later on, to
the start of their empire, even as in a
humbler way they mean no little to the
health-seekers of to-day. Leaving the Calais-
Lucerne express at Bale, a short run without

1 Odes of Horace, Book II., XT!.



STRANDED UPON THY SOLITARY HEIGHT 23

change to Brugg brings you right into the
heart of the Hapsburg country, and within
a couple of miles of the castle on the Wiil-
pelsberg and the beautiful hotel at Schinznach,
for which there is also a special station right
at the end of the entrance-avenue. But the
drive from Brugg, and the entrance through
the northern approach, is infinitely more
picturesque. Of course if one is at Lucerne
or any other part of Switzerland, the romantic
Seethal route,, as described in chapter xvii.,
is the more advisable.

It is much that the beauty of this historic
portion of Switzerland is still so entirely
unspoilt. The ancient Romans knew and
loved it ; witness the old town of Vindoniss,a,
ancestress of the modern Windisch, between
Schinznach and the Limrnat, and the splendid
amphitheatre lately unearthed and being ex-
cellently restored between the Limmat and
the Reuss ; and it has been known and loved
by thousands since. The tourist knows it
not, for his speed and his humour find little
that is congenial in this easeful, antiquated
region ; but the rushing tourist is an object
wherewith any respectable landscape with a
pedigree can afford to dispense. Of others



24 THE CRADLE OF THE HAPSBURGS

there is no lack ; and annually more and
more are glad to welcome scenes still un-
sophisticated and unspoilt, where they may
recruit in quiet from the exhaustion of a
season or the brain-fag of a session. These
will scarcely bless the hand that tears the
veil from their seclusion. People that are
most liberal with their miseries are often
manger - dogs regarding their amusements.
The misfortune is that one cannot praise a
place, any more than a child, without danger
of spoiling it. Nevertheless the Hapsburg
land has been too long a closed book to that
wider public in England which loves beauty
and appreciates pedigree and the records of
an historic past. The scenery, it may be
admitted, has not the grandeur of Grindel-
wald, the majesty of Meran, or the altitudes
of the Engadine, but it has a pastoral charm
innately its own, brightened with the ruddi-
ness of broad orchard-lands set amid countless
hills turreted with antiquity.

It is an extraordinary thing that this little
Republic of Switzerland should have given
birth within its compressed area to so much
which has agitated history. Ancient Swabia,
with which the canton of Aargau was so




" Wiser than We, the River Seeks its Rest."
Ilrord Special Rapid plate. Goerzs telephoto lens.



STRANDED UPON THY SOLITARY HEIGHT 25

long identified, has played its important part,
and within but a stone's-throw of this portion
of Europe are the cradles of the present
rulers of no less than four out of the six
Great Powers. This volume deals with the
Hapsburgs. Future works may tell the story
of the Savoys, the Guelphs, the Hohenzollerns.
The present German Emperor is twenty-third
in descent from Conrad of Hohenzollern, first
Burgrave of Niirnberg in the days of the
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, springing from
a Swabian family whose ancient castle stands
on a plateau of the Rauhe Alp, near Hohen-
staufen (the cradle of Frederick himself), and
no great distance from Altorf, whence sprang
the great family of Guelph, anciently Counts
of Altorf, now represented by our own revered
sovereign, Edward of England.

And not one of these progenitors of kings
and kaisers but at some time or another has
viewed these self-same stones, this veritable
tower whereon to-day you and I look. And
all the while, the river, like the centuries,
rushes on with its boisterous unconcern of
man and the trivial trappings of his power.

Wiser than we, the river seeks its rest.



CHAPTER III

THE ROMANCE OF THE COUNTESS RICHENZA



OT, first of the Hapsburgs, finder
of a hawk and founder of a house, seems to
have done little else, and less may be said for
the life of his son. 1 It was reserved for his
daughter gLichenza~to accomplish more for
the fortunes of her family than was compassed
by any member of it for generations. Indeed,
but for her, it is difficult to imagine how the
Hapsburgs would ever have occupied the
position to which afterwards they rose ; and
the strange part of the matter is that, whereas
the various chieftains of the house forged
forward by acts premeditated as they were
sometimes questionable, this simple daughter
of the house threw ambition and schem-
ing to the winds, attaining success by the
dictates of her own open and disinterested
nature. The Countess Richenza's life is a
romance.

1 For the pedigree of the early Hapsburgs see p. n.
26



ROMANCE OF THE COUNTESS RICHENZA 27

After the death of her father and of his
brother Wernher, Bishop of Strasburg, who
indeed was one of the builders of Hapsburg
Castle, she and her sister Matilda, finding
the schloss an uncongenial residence under
the arbitrary ownership of their brother, lived
in a distant possession of the family, an old
fortress overlooking the Rhine. Chaperoned
by an elderly dame, a kinswoman of their
mother's of the noble family of Von Lothrin-
gen, they passed pleasant enough days, inas-
much as the castle was beautiful and situated
amid exquisite scenery. Moreover, they were
much spoilt, and had their own way not a
little, but otherwise their life was not exhila-
rating. Few suitors came their way, the
girls being of a new nobility, orphaned, and
not over well dowered, and more or less
neglected by the brothers, who were too much
occupied in warfare and the augmentation of
their house to consider the well-being of their
womenkind.

This unpromising state of affairs might
have continued for many a day, but for events
that were happening at Lenzburg Castle.
This latter ancient citadel, situated some
few miles from Hapsburg, may justly claim



28 THE CRADLE OF THE HAPSBURGS

notice second only to Hapsburg, as being the
cradle of the family fortunes, and the fortress,
which had never capitulated to man, was in
the long - run acquired by the Hapsburgs
through the acquiescence of a woman.

Ulrich, Count of Lenzburg, was unmarried,
and, left to himself, was like to have continued
in single blessedness. This gave rise to no
little apprehension, and in a family conclave it
was decided that he should be stirred up to
set out on his travels, and forthwith choose a
wife worthy to continue their illustrious line.
The Lenzburghers thought no little of them-
selves, and were altogether unwilling to face
the possibility of extinction.

Consequently the Count, much constrained,
set out upon his momentous journey, travelling
any way, as luck would have it, after the
manner of the true knight-errant. He was
accompanied by a numerous retinue, the
splendour of whose accoutrements slashed
back the lustre of the sun as if independent
of even heaven and its countenance. There
were, moreover, many men and goodly steeds
that bore the costly presents which Lenzburg
had prepared for its chosen chatelaine, should
the young lord happen to chance upon her.



ROMANCE OF THE COUNTESS RICHENZA 29

I can see that retinue now, headed by the
handsome Ulrich, gay and debonnaire, as
it wound downward from the schloss and
along the banks of the river which, like
it, hastened Rhinewards. Onward, with
many a laugh and jest, for hope and youth
never made so gay a pilgrimage ; since love,
dear love, the one thing desirable to man
however time and fashion alter, was the
quarry of its quest.

Several days Ulrich and his men journeyed,
until at last, much spent by the heat, they
came to the pleasant Rhine. Here the Count
began to think that he had had enough of
it, for the sun was hot, and oftentimes there
was scant shade. Espying a boat, he decided
that he and an attendant or two would pro-
ceed downward by river, to be joined later on


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