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James G. (James George) Needham.

The life of inland waters; an elementary text book of fresh-water biology for students online

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females, parthenogenetic .... 266, 268

Ferguson, W. K 394

ferments 139

ferns 351

fernworts 145, 153

Fiber zibethicus 241

field stations 20

filaments, algal 102

filaments, spore-bearing 319

filter 20

filtering 113

fingerlings 384, 385

fins 250

" pectoral 234

fish's bill of fare 398

Fish Commission, United States 79
Fish and Game Commission,

New York State 344

fish culture 21, 384, 385, 387, 389,
390, 399, 400, 408

fish 290,379,383,403

fish eggs 384

fisher 241, 274

fishes 282, 362, 386, 387, 389, 390,

399, 404

fish-flies 213

fish food 183, 189, 190, 235, 294, 390,

391, 392, 393, 396, 397

fish forage 384, 386, 393, 403, 408

fish fry 384



Index



427



PAGE

fish fry, planting of 384, 385, 386

" raising 385

fish, fresh for the table 407

fishponds. . 387, 396, 404

fish population 398

fish raising 404, 408

Fissidens julianum 148

flagella 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 108,

246, 250, 310

flagellates 102, 103, 106, 107, 246,

248, 296, 302, 303, 305,

306, 309, 311, 316, 356

flagellates, chlorophyl-bearing . . 299

green 104

shell-bearing 108

spherical 108

winter 107

flatworms 170, 171, 172, 173, 250,
260, 263, 340, 370

floats 247, 266, 284

flocculence 295

flood 57,67,75,87

flood conditions 88

flood-decline 88

flood plain. 64, 77, 87, 356

flood plain of rivers 67

flood rise 88

flora 18, 53

Florida 59

Floscularia 178, 299

flotation 243, 245, 246, 247, 251, 272,
297

flotsam 153

foliage 45

food, abundance of 306

' available 304

1 dependencies 389

" dissolved 26

" examinations 398

food-fishes 387, 39

food preferences 305, 391

" relations 389

foodstuffs 395, 402

food supply 21, 25

Fontinalis 148

forage fishes 398, 399

foragers 367

foragers, shelter-building 370

foraging grounds 57

foraging habits 373

forage organisms 396, 398

Forbes, Stephen A. 70, 80, 389, 390,
394



PAGE

Forel, F. A 53, 76

forget-me-not 405

Fragillaria 115, 245, 297, 305, 308

Fredericella 166

freezing point 244

frog, bull 237

green 237

leopard 236, 237

pickerel 237

tree 237

wood 237

frogs 175, 236, 237, 343, 383, 387, 390

frost-line 83

fungi 139

fungi, parasitic 296

fungus 282, 400

fur-bearers 241

furs 379

Galingale, low 207

Galium palustre 344

Gammarus 190, 191, 360, 392

gas, marsh 96

gases 25, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 54, 55,
56, 244, 252, 265, 279, 309

gases, noxious 96

Gastropus 299

gars 291,333

geese 239, 240, 242

gelatin 127, 161, 169

gemmules 164, 247

gill arches 313

" cavity 292

" chambers 209, 252

" covers 253, 366

gill-plates 208, 251

gill-rakers 235, 313

gill-strainers 392

gills 182, 217, 233, 235, 236, 252, 273,
275, 279, 280, 288, 369, 370, 397

gills, anal 279

blood 279

filamentous 204, 224, 279

mussel 181

tracheal 278, 279, 368

tube 280, 368

glacial period 62

glaciation 64

glands 284

Glenodinium 103, 108

glochidia 181, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291

Gloiotrichia 297, 304

Glyceria 334



428



Index



PAGE

Goera 371

goldfish 384, 399

golden shiner 235, 387, 399

goldthread 351

Gomphines 209, 254, 357

Gonatozygon 117, 119

Goniobasis 370

gonidia 141

Gonium 104

Gordius 174

gorges, post-glacial 64

gradient of channel 85

gravel, deposits of 42

gravity, specific 243, 244, 246

grebes 342

grouping by levels 326

Grout, A. J 148

gulls 239

Gyrinidae , 221

Gyrinus 337

Gyrosigma 112

i

Habenaria 35

habitat 294

Haeckel, E 392

haemoglobin 253

Haemopsis 175, 176

hairs 248, 274

hairs, glandular 283, 285

Halesus guttifer 198, 361

Haliplidae 223, 275, 346

Haliplus 277

hand-net 20

Hankinson, T. L 231, 233

Harper, Francis 93

hatcheries 384, 385, 400

Hawkins, L. S 32 1

Headlee, T. J 324

Deaths 157,351,355, 357

Helicopsyche 370, 372, 373

hellgrammite 214, 313

Hellriegel 56

Hemerobiidae 212, 214

Hemilastena 291

Hemiptera 195, 210, 274

hemp- weed, climbing 345

Heptagenia 278, 368, 370

herbivores 18, 128, 153, 180, 186, 282,
318,373,389,390,392

herring 291,313

herons 239

Heterocope 311

Hexagenia 115, 255, 341, 398



PAGE

hibernacula 264, 265, 272

hibernating 269

Hibiscus 145, 405

Holopedium 52

hooks 247, 266

hornwort. 134, 154, 155, 271, 272, 334

horseflies 227, 254

horse-leeches 175, 250

host species 291

Howard, A. D 289, 291

huckleberries 351

humid regions 55, 56

humus 57

husbandry 385, 386, 412

Hyalella 191

Hy datina 299, 305

Hydra 163, 164, 282, 325, 327, 332,

341

Hydrachnidae 193

Hydrocampa 218, 257, 337

Hydrodictyon 122, 124

hydrogen sulphide 47, 96

Hydrohypnum 358

hydromechanics 107

Hydrophilidae 222, 276, 346

Hydrophilids 221, 222

Hydrophilus 275

Hydroporus 222, 333

Hydroptilidae 216

Hydroptila 258

Hydropsychidae 217

Hydropsyche . . 218, 363, 364, 365, 370

hydroxide of iron 142

Hydrurus 136

Hymenoptera 195

Hypericum virginicum 344

hypnums 148, 149

hypolimnion 37

Ice 35, 36, 80, 81, 120

ice, anchor 82, 83

ice, floes 61

ice in streams 81

ice rubble 81, 82

Ignis fatuus 96

Illinois State Laboratory of Na-
tural History 50, 79

infusoria 171, 179

inclusions 244

increase, rapidity of 306

incrustations of lime 251 *

Indianapolis News 384

Indians 13



Index



429



PAGE

insects 183, 251, 274, 357, 358, 367,
390, 399

insects, aquatic 338

gall 291

herbivorous 398

net-winged 195, 212

plancton-gathering .... 364

internodes 138

inundation 88

iris 404

iron 53

iron sulphate 95

Isoetes 151

Isopoda 190

Ischnura verticalis 207, 208

Ithytrichia. . ( 260, 262, 372

Jack-o-lantern 96

Jagerskiold 172

Johannsen, O. A 299

' ointweed 345

o-pye-weed 323

uday, C. 36, 37, 38, 43, 44, 46, 47,

51,53,72,263,308,312
Juncaceae 157

Kent 309

Kirchnerella 129, 131

Knight, H.H 75, 196,350

Kofoid C. A. 22, 48, 83, 85, 88, 103,

107, 113, 130, 131, 164,

171, 312, 356

Laccophilus 333

lace-wings 214

lagoons 334

Lake Alachua 69

1 Canandaigua 65

' Cayuga 28, 32, 36, 42, 60, 64,
65, 73, 114, 123, 151,
218, 232,240, 295, 296,
300, 308, 309

Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 60

44 Devil's, Wisconsin 51, 71

Erie 63

Evans' Michigan 62

11 Flag 312

Flathead 71

Pure, Denmark 28

44 Geneva 28, 76

1 Great Salt. 71

44 Green 63

" HaUstatter, Austria 33



PAGE

Lake Huron 63

44 Kegonsa 66

" Keuka 64, 65

" Knight's 44

" Louise,B.C 60

1 ' Mendota 37,38, 46, 47, 66, 304,
306,310

Miccosukee 69

Michigan . .28, 61, 63, 114, 312

1 Monona 66

44 Okoboji 71

" Ontario 63

1 Otisco 65,72

" Owasco 65

44 Pepin 67

Phelps 57

Pontchartrain 67

44 Quiver 49, 164

44 Seneca 65

1 Silver 71

44 Skaneateles 65, 72

1 St.Clair 28

1 Sumner, Isle Royal 54

44 Superior 63, 73

Tahoe.., 28,60

Thompson's 49

Turkey 312

Wabesa 66

Walnut 161, 233, 239

Winona 71, 324

44 Yellowstone 70

lakes .59, 60, 231, 232, 299, 307, 316,
333, 356, 406

' alkaline or salt 74

' crater 60

' currents in 73

44 depth of 71

Lakes, Finger 64, 65

lakes, floodplain 67

44 of Florida 69

44 Fulton Chain of 165

Lakes, The Great 61, 63, 91, 301

lakes, playa 75

polar 36

44 solution 67, 68

strand 75

44 Swiss 76

44 of Wisconsin 66

44 of Yahara Valley 66

44 stagnation periods of . ... 34, 46
Lakeside Biological Laboratories

70,71
Lampsilis 290, 291, 324, 325



430



Index



PAGE

larvae, of black flies 227, 364

of beetles 120, 250, 368

of caddis-flies 215

of craneflies 256

dipterous 224, 227, 288

of fish-flies 213

of horseflies. . . .227, 230, 340

of mayflies 120, 332

of midges 226, 227, 250, 258,

325, 338, 341, 356,

373, 387, 388, 389,

. 390, 393, 394, 397

of mosquitoes 227, 250

of orl flies 213

of punkies 120

" of spongilla flies 215

leaf -beetle 346

leaf-drift 360

leech, clepsine 176

leeches, 171, 175 176, 257, 325, 341,

. 364

Leersia 344

Leeuwenhoek 16

Lefevre, G 290

Leidy, Joseph 19

Lemanea 135, 136

Lemnaceae 135

Lemna 150, 173, 240, 321, 334

Lepidoptera 195, 218

Leptidae, aquatic 229

Leptoceridae 216

Leptocerus 216, 260, 372

Leptodora 301, 311, 312

Leptophlebia 360

Leptothrix 141, 142

Lestes 341, 345, 346

Leunis 173

Libellula 340

lichens 132, 282

life cycle 260,261,274,316,397

life, on the bottom 326

1 at the surface 327

1 in open water 243

light 306, 307, 308

light relations 29

Liljeborg 18

Lime 50

limestone 50

Limnsea 182

Limnacea 346

Limnephilus 197, 198, 199, 200

Limnobates 346

Limnocalanus. 301, 311



Limnochares

limnological phenomena . . .

Limnophilus

Limnophora

limpet

Lintner, A. J

liverworts 146,

lobsters

locomotion

locomotion, rolling

locn

Lorenz

lorica 106,

loricate forms

lotus

Lloyd, J. U

lubrication

Ludvigia palustris

lungs

Lyman, Helen Williamson.
Lyngbya



PAGE

. ... 194

. . . . 14

.... 345

- 359
. . . . 260
. . . . 214

153, 334
. ... 192
.273,281
. 104, 107
. ... 239

33
161, 178
. . . . 299

.380, 404

54

272

.... 156
.275,276
. ... 214
297, 305



Mackerel 250

Macrobiotus 164, 166

Magazine, Farmers' 384

maggot, rat-tailed 229, 277, 339

magnesia 50

Malacostraca 183, 189, 301

Mallomonas 299, 308, 309

Malpighi 16

mammals 231, 273, 274

Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. .. .51,84

manna grass. . . 334, 343

mantle 252

marl 50, 75, 352

marsh bedstraw 344

bellwort 344

fern 145,344

five-finger 344

gas 48

horsetails 151

mallow 145

Montezuma 65, 87, 91, 92

ponds 95

Renwick, Ithaca 347

skull-cap 344

St. John's wort 344

marsh-treader 346

marsh-wren 342

marshes 14, 48, 59, 64, 65, 66,
73, 89, 90, 95, 97, 263,
307, 3i6, 333, 345, 346, 402,
411



Index



431



PAGE

marshes, Canoga 318

cat-tail 91, 240, 241

fresh- water . 90

utilization of 408

Marsilea 134, H9, 321, 323, 334- W

marten '. 241

Mastigophora 102

Matheson, Robert. 222, 223, 277, 317

mating flights 206

matter, dissolved 26

matter, suspended 26, 42

mayflies 14, 115, 195, 205, 253, 255,
259, 260, 280, 281, 345, 356,
357, 36o, 361, 368, 370, 372,
373, 398

mayfly, burrowing 255

mayfly, howdy 364, 366

McDonald, E 62

McLean, New York 350, 352

Mediterranean Sea 28

Melicerta 178, 257, 299

Melosira in, 112,297,303

Menyanthes trifoliata 345

Meridion in, 113, 114, 297

Merismopaedia 134, 135, 299

Mesotasnium 119

metabolism 44, 272

metamorphosis 195, 197, 200, 201,
205, 220, 237, 287,
290

Metazoa 246

metazoans 163, 164, 165

methane 47,48,96

Micrasterias 52, 53, 119

microplancton 20

microscope 15, 101, 115,327

Microcystis. . . 132, 133, 297, 303, 308

midge, net- winged 228, 259, 267

midges 14, 225, 254, 257, 258, 358,

361, 371, 373

migrations 240, 316

Mikania scandens 345

milfoils 271, 405

mink 241, 274

minnow, red-bellied 294

minnows 232, 233, 287, 345, 366, 374,

394, 399

mites 192, 285

moccasin flower 351

mold parasites 144

molds 100

mollusca, lotic 373

molluscs 50, 52, 180, 216, 235, 288,
342, 345, 352, 382, 390



PAGE

molluscs, shell-bearing 340

Monostyla 299

Moore, Emmeline 150, 391

Morgan, Anna H 206, 253

mosquitoes 227, 280, 284, 318, 339,
346

moss, brook-inhabiting 148

moss patches 358

moss, xerophytic 351

mosses 146, 149

mossworts 145

moth-flies 230, 360

moth, tineid 346

moths 195, 218, 284, 341

Mougeotia 119

Mountains, Rocky no

mucilage 272

muck 95, 96, 154

mucus 129, 131, 181

mud banks 407

mud pond 352

mud puppy 291

muscles 256, 281

muskellunge 313

muskrat 241, 274, 341, 380

mtfesel, salamander 291

mussel shells 216

mussel, wash-board 289

mussel, warty-back 289

mussels 180, 181, 194, 240, 251, 252,
254, 257, 286, 287, 288, 289,
290, 291, 292, 324, 332, 341,
356, 357, 36o, 383

mussels, eggs of 287

mussels, fresh- water . . . . 180, 282, 286

Myriophyllum 154, 155

Mysidacea 189

Mysis 189, 190,301,311

Myxophyceae 132

Nachtrieb, H. F 176

Naidae 173

naiads 152, 173, 334

Nais 153, 173, 177,321

Najas 334

nauplius 188, 200

Navicula 109, no, 112, 299

navigation 403

necton2i3, 243, 294, 296, 313, 331,

34i

Necturus 236, 291

Needham, John T 83, 352

Nemoura 360

Nematodes 172, 173



432



Index



PAGE

Nepidae 212

Netrium 119

nets, of silk bolting-cloth 18, 20

Neuroptera 195, 202, 212

newt, vermilion-spotted 237

New York State Museum 165

nigger-heads 291

nightshade bittersweet 345

Nitella 137, 138, 139

nitrates 48, 49, 50, 141

nitrites 48, 49, 141

Nitrogen 43, 47, 48, 50, 139, 141, 348,

351

nodes 138

Nostoc 133, 282, 337

nostrils 273

Noteus 299

Notholca 246, 299, 300, 303

Notodromas 188, 328

Notommata parasita 282

Notonecta 276, 337

nucleus 117, 121

Nymphaea 334

nymph 201 , 204

nymph, damselfly 208

dragonfly. .250, 252, 340, 360

Hexagenia 398

mayfly 278, 340, 341, 369,

387, 388, 390, 396

stonefly 204, 279

Obovaria ellipsis 291

Odonata 195,207,345

(Edogomum 124, 125, 126

offsets 272

oils 273

Oligochaete 173, 250

Oocystis 129, 131

ooze 173, 251

opercula 253

operculum 182

Ophiocytium 129, 131

Ophrydium 161

orchids 158, 351

organs, locomotor 246

organisms, chlorophyl-bearing 71

l^toral 314,315,356

lotic 263

orl flies 213, 280

Oscillatoria 109, 133, 245, 297

osmotic pressure. 245, 272

osteole 164

Ostracods. 183, 1 88, 193, 325, 328, 345



PAGE

otter 241, 274

overflow 87

oxydation 44, 51

oxygen 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 72,

101, 120, 139, 183, 254, 263,

277, 309, 311, 326, 329, 332,

339, 345

oxygen, consumption of 44

" dissolved 80

" excess 44

" free 310

oxylophytes 348

oysters 379

Pacific Ocean 28

paddle-fish 333

Palaemonetes 192, 393

Palmer 48

Pandorina 103, 104

Paper making 381

Paramecium 160, 165

Paraponyx 219, 341

parasites 18, 120, 175, 282, 296

Parnidae 224

Parnids 370

Paulmier 392

peat 95, 96, 147, 348, 350, 352

Pectinatella 168, 169, 247

Pedalion 299, 300

Pediastrum 123, 245, 299, 303

Pedicia albivitta 256

peeper 236, 237

Peltandra 157, 334

Peltodytes 223, 224

Penium 119

peptones 48

perch 232, 233, 291, 306

perch, yellow 234

Peridinium 108, 296

Perla 203, 204

petioles 271

Phaeophyceae 135

Philotria 155, 156, 228, 319, 321

Philodina 299, 318

photomicrographs 117

photosny thesis . .26, 28, 29, 45, 46, 71

Phragmites 343

Phryganea 341

Physa 182,337

pickerel-weed. 156, 157, 321, 334, 405

Pike 231, 232, 233, 235, 387

pipewort 319

Pisidium 341, 345



Index



433



PAGE

pitcher-plant 283, 284, 350, 351

Pitot-tube current meter 86

Placobdella 176

Plagiola 289, 291

Plagues of Egypt 14

Planaria 263

planarians 170, 171

plancton 18, 20, 28, 45, 48, 49,
70, 72, 85, 123, 129, 130,
131, 134, 135, 161, 164, 166,
185, 189, 194, 235, 243, 294
295, 296, 299, 300, 301, 302,
303, 313, 322, 341, 356, 357,
387, 388, 389, 391, 394

plancton animals 299, 301, 325

Crustacea 391

entomostraca 393

feeders 235

gatherers 263, 270

local abundance 306

net 115, 160

of open waters 331

organisms 248, 296

pulses 305

shoreward range 307

of surface 327

plancton strainers 313

planctonts, summer 309

synthetic 308

Planorbis 155, 182, 337, 345

plant assimilation 26

plant infusions 160, 165

plants, chlorophyl-bearing . . . 44, 326

floating 150

insectivorous 282, 283

submerged 155, 334

transpiration of 56

vascular. . .270, 316, 322, 356

Platydorina 104

Platypeza 380

pleasure grounds 21

Plecoptera 195, 203

Pleurotaenium 119

pliancy 271

Ploesoma 299

plover 239

Plumatella 166, 167, 169

plumes 248

plunge basins 63

Podilymbus 240

Podophrya 162

pollen grains 296

pollen tubes 151



PAGE

Polyarthra 299, 300

Polycystis 297

Polycentropus 340

Polygonum 75, 344, 345

Polyphemus 301

Polytrichium 351

Polyzoans 166

pond culture 393

pond-dwellers 172

pond at Lake Forest, 111 410

pond, making of a 406

Pond, Old Forge 388

Pond, Parker's 91

pond-scums 101

pond-snails 327

pondweed, ruffled 152, 272

sago 326, 380, 387

pondweeds 152, 153, 240, 272, 319,
321, 334, 352, 391,

A A 4 5

pondweed zone 232, 233

ponds 59, 121, 155, 167, 299, 307, 316,

333, 345, 356, 397

ponds, hatching 163

" inclosed 408

Pontederiaceae 156

Pontederia 157, 321, 334

pools 14, 57, 64, 81, 133, 156, 163,
164, 184, 210, 307, 316, 319, 322,
35.6

pools, impermanent 157

" polluted 173

rainwater 184

stagnant 127, 139, 160

temporary 177, 227, 263

Potamogeton 152, 153, 220, 240, 321,
334, 336, 387

Potentilla 344

prawn, freshwater 393

prawns 183, 192

Precession of the Equinoxes .... 32

precipitation 55

Priocnemis 330

production, decline of 310

products, animal 382

gelatinous 244, 245

metabolic 244

mucilaginous 245

prolongations 245

propagation 385, 398

propagation, artificial 397

propulsion 249, 250

propulsion, caudal 279



434



Index



PAGE

Protection of breeding fishes .... 385

proteins 48, 139, 148

proteins, liquefaction of 48

protoplasm 30, 244

Protozoa 250, 390

Protozoa, parasitic 162

protozoans 158, 159, 160, 161, 257,
299

protozoans, dilate 171

sessile 162

Psephenus 224, 260, 267, 370, 373

pseudopodia 159, 162

Psorophora 284

Psychoda 359, 360

Psychodidae 230

Pteridophytes 149, 150, 151

Pterodina 299

pubescence 276

puddles 316

pulmonates 337

punkies 279

pupa of Limnophilus 199

pupae of blackfly 280

" dipterous 280

Pyralidae 218

Quadrula 289, 291

Radula 181

rail, Sora 239

" Virginia 239

rails 224, 342

rain 44

rainfall 55, 56, 57, 69, 74, 77, 88, 316

rainfall, excess of 56

surplus 403

variation m 70

rainspouts 166, 177

rainwater 41, 57, 68

Rana pipiens 236

Ranatra 276,278,339

Ranunculus 156, 321, 334

rapids 64

rate of streamflow 85

Rattulus 299

readaptations 270

Reaumur 16, 202

Redi !6

regions, arid 57, 75

limnetic 315,325,326

littoral 315, 325, 326, 341,

395
Reighard, J 28



PAGE

relations, cultural 399

spatial 326,331

Renwick, Ithaca 15

reptiles 231, 238

resemblance, protective 361

Reservation, Clark 63

reservations, public 411

reservoirs 403, 404

reservoirs site 403

respiration 252

Rhabdoccele 170, 172

Rhichteriella 129, 131

Rhizopoda 159

rhizopods 325

Rhizosolenia 297

Rhodophyceae 135

Rhynchostegium 148

Riccia 145, ^46, 334

Ricciocarpus 153

rice, wild 13, 379, 380, 382

riffles 64

rills 77

Rithrogena 369, 370

River, Chippewa 67

" Illinois 48, 49, 79, 80, 83,
85, 103, 107, 131, 171,
312, 356, 357

River, Mississippi 41, 67, 79

Missouri 41

Niagara 61

Seneca 65, 91

Spoon 28,49

St. Mary's 69

St. Mark's 69

Susquehanna 64

Suwannee 94

riverweeds 152

Rivularia 133, 134, 297, 337

rocks, archaean 52

rock ledges 363

rodents 241, 312

Roesel 16, 202

rotifers 106, 166, 177, 178, 179, 246,
248, 250, 257, 266, 269, 282,
298, 299, 300, 302, 305, 309,
312, 318, 325, 327, 328, 341,



390.
, lc



rotifers, loricate 248

resting eggs of 325

sessile 332

Rumex 345

runners 272

Ruppia maritima 71



Index



435



PAGE

rush, beaked 351

club 334

1 spike 354,359

rushes 89, 157, 381

Ryacophila 370

Rynchospora 351

Sagittaria 334

salamander, spotted 237

salamanders. .236, 237, 291, 337, 379

Salpina 299

salts, mineral 40

Salvinia 150, 334

sanitation 21

Saprolegnia 143, 144

Saranac Inn 163

Sarcodina 159

Sarracenia 284

Sars 18

saturation 44, 55

Scapholeberis 328

scavengers 18, 175, 282, 283, 296

Scenedesmus 129, 130

Sciomyzidae 230

Scirpus 87, 334

scuds 183, 189, 190, 332, 341, 345,
360, 390, 392, 393

Scutellaria 344

seals 244

Secchi'sdisc 27,28,65,71

secretions 257

sedges 89, 94, 157, 343, 344, 407

sedges, tussock 352, 354, 357

seed plants : 145

seed production 272

seeds 203

seepage 57,59

Selenastrum 129, 131

Sellards 69

serpents 390

sewage

sewage contamination

sewers

sheepshead 235, 291, 292

shelter-building 257,314,340

shelters. .258, 260, 294, 326, 372, 395

shell, butterfly 291

1 yellow sand 291

shells 244

shoals 30, 73, 90, 91, 145, 156,231,232,



140
357
159



307,331,333,343
sli



shore lines 404, 406, 407

shore vegetation 91, 131



PAGE

shovels 256

shrimps 183, 184, 192

Sialididae 212, 213, 221

Sialis 214

Sida 301

Silica 52, 53, 109, no

silt 26, 27, 29, 42, 67, 77, 84,
85, 191, 251, 252, 254

silt, adherent 340

' depositions of 90

' excess of 326

" inwash of 60

Simocephalus 185, 186, 387

Simuliidae 227

Simulium 81, 259, 280, 358, 363, 364

sinks 68, 69

Siphlonurus ( = Siphlurus) 205, 206,
259, 398

siphons 252

Sirenia 273

Sisyra 214, 215

sludge 173

sluiceways 169

Smith, Lucy Wright , 204

snails 180, 181, 216, 227, 254, 260,
337, 340, 345, 357, 37, 373
388, 398, 399

snails, limpet-shaped 182

" operculate 182, 356

pulmonate 182

" viviparous 182

snakes 250

snipes 239

societies, aquatic 294, 296

bog 348

lenitic. . .315, 316, 356, 360

limnetic 293, 294

littoral 294, 314, 322

10^0315,356,360,362,367,

372,373

soils, calcareous 41, 51, 137

" siliceous 41

Solanum dulcamara 245

soldier-flies 338, 359

solids, dissolved 41, 49

\ suspended 41,43,54

solidity 274

solutions 68, 84, 95

sow-bugs 193

Sparganium 157, 334

spatterdock. . . 154, 322, 334, 380, 405

spawning grounds 385

spawning time 234, 343



436



Index



PAGE

Spelerpes 237, 374

spermaries 138

sperm nuclei 151

Sphaerella 103, 104

Sphaeriidae 181

sphagnum 89, 94, 117, 146, 147, 149,
284, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352,

353, 355, 359

Sphenophorus 346

spicules 164, 266

spiders 183, 192, 346

spiracles 270, 275, 276

Spirillum 140

Spirodela 149, 334

Spirogyra 119, 120, 216, 223, 263, 322
336

Spirotaema 119

Spirulina 133

sponge fishers 30

sponges. 165, 266, 269, 332, 335, 341
sponges, fresh- water 164, 265, 266,

325

sponges, marine 266

spongilla flies 214, 280

sporangia 143

spore development 310

spores 140, 142, 296

springs 53, 57, 59, 64, 84, 152

springtails 195, 338

stagnation 35, 39

starches 244

statoblasts 164, 165, 169, 247, 265,
266, 269, 325

Staurastrum 51, 119, 299

Stauroneis in

Stenostomum 170

Stentor 160, 332

Stephanoceros 178, 299

Stephanodiscus . . . . in, 112, 114, 297

Steuer 27

Sticklebacks 234, 235

Stokes, Alfred C 19

stomates 151, 270, 271

stoneflies 195, 203, 259, 278, 280, 345,

36o, 368, 374

stoneworts 50, 52, 101, 137, 138, 139,
251,263,319,334

strainers 252, 253, 365

strata, soluble 68

stratification, horizontal 307

thermal 31, 34, 35, 39,

46, 54, 7i
Stratiomyia 338



PAGE

stream-line form 249, 250, 251, 259,
273, 274, 313, 366

streams 59, 77, 141, 231, 319, 406

streams, pollution of 80, 130

Streptothrix 142

Strodtmann 305

sturgeon, shovel-nosed 235

sturgeon 291,333,356

Stylaria 173

suckers 232, 233, 234, 259

sulfur 53

sundew 156, 283, 351

sunfish 232, 233, 234, 388

Surber 289

surface film 181, 327, 328, 337

swale-flies 230, 277, 329, 346

swales 56, 64

Swammerdam 16, 202

Swamp, Dismal 90

Okefenokee 93

swamps, coniferous 152

marine 90

sweet flag 157, 343

swimmerets 192

symbiosis 282

Symphynota 287

Synchaeta 178, 299, 300, 303

Synedra in, 112, 297

Synura 103, 107, 303

Syrphidae 229

syrphus flies 339, 380

Tabelaria in, 114, 115, 245, 297, 303,

305

Tabanidae 227

tadpoles 236

tailfin 251

Tanypus 225

Tanytarsus 257, 371, 372

tardigrade 164

tear-thumb 343, 344

teeth, raptorial 235, 313

temperature 25, 37, 244, 248, 304,

306, 307, 308
temperature, at different depths

32, 34, 35, 36, 38

changes of 40

conditions of. .32, 36, 46

fluctuations of 345

levels of 39

optimum 131

range of 33, 34

yearly cycle of 34



Index



437



PAGE

tentacles 176

terns 342

Tetmemorus 119

Tetrapedia 130, 299

Tetraspora 129, 131

thallus 153

thermocline 37, 39, 72, 309, 31 1

thoracic appendages . . . . 183, 188, 189

Thysanura 195

Tipulidae 297

Tipula 360

tides 73

toads 236, 237

Taeniopteryx 279

topography 74

trachea 275

tracheae 270, 278, 279

Trachelomonas 103, 108

tracheoles 278, 279

transpiration 348

Trembly 16

Triaenodes 215, 218, 280, 337

Triarthra 299, 300

Tribonema 124, 126

Trichobacteria 141, 142

Trichodesmium 101

Trichoptera 195, 214

trochophores 250

Trochosphaera 178

trout .... 163, 176, 313, 385, 393, 394

trumpets, respiratory 277, 280

tubercles 256

tube-dwellers 370

tubes 121, 226, 240, 278, 372

tubers 272, 380, 382

Tubifex 1 73, 174, 254, 340

turtles 175, 238, 343, 390

tusks, mandibular 255, 256

Typhaceae 156

Typha 91, 321, 334, 346

Ulothrix 124, 336


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Online LibraryJames G. (James George) NeedhamThe life of inland waters; an elementary text book of fresh-water biology for students → online text (page 25 of 26)