James Gray.

Sutherland and Caithness in Saga-Time or, The Jarls and The Freskyns online

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Norsemen in Iceland.

Oykel;
boundary between Cat and Ross;
identified as the Norse Ekkjal;
family of Freskyn de Moravia settled north of the;
in Sweyn's track to burn Frakark;
crossed by king William.


Papa Stronsay.

Papa Westray.

Paplay;
location.

Paul Hakonson, the Silent, earl of Orkney and Caith.;
his mother, 52;
lived in Orkney, 58;
banished Frakark and Helga from Orkney, 59;
sole earl, 60;
not a speaker at things, 60;
refused to share earldom with St. Ragnvald, 61;
defeated earl Ragnvald, 62;
seized his fleet in Shetland, 62;
yule feast at Orphir, 62;
kidnapped by Sweyn, 62;
deported to Athole, his fate, 63.

Paul Thorfinnson, earl of Orkney and Caith.;
joint earl of O. with his brother Erlend;
at battle of Stamford Bridge;
banished to Norway, where he died;
his descendants;
his daughters;
Scottish policy regarding later succession in Caithness;
Skene's theory as to Johanna of Strathnaver;
the converse theory;
John the last male of Paul's line;
his share of earldom of C., descended to daughter and Angus line
of C. earls.

Pentland Firth.

Perth;
court held (1260);
treaty of.

Peter, St.

Peter's church, St., Duffus.

Peter's church, St., Thurso.

Peter's pence.

Petty, William Freskyn of.

Picts;
settlements of hermits and missionaries;
chronicles;
Pictish church replaced by Catholic church;
driven eastward and northward by Scots;
seven provinces;
P. and Northmen;
hunters and fishers;
brochs for defence, arms, etc.;
clans;
non-seafaring Celts;
never conquered by Romans;
did not have mastery of sea in Norse times;
Christian missions and Columban church;
viking invasion;
Pictish language superseded by Gaelic;
never dispossessed of upper parts of valleys throughout Norse
occupation;
conquered by Scots;
language, "P" Celtic;
Picts of Athole, Moray, Ross and Cat;
Pictish church and Pictish province of Ross and Moray resisted
Scottish civilisation;
Normans accepted as chiefs;
their Christianity;
Norse drove clergy from Orkney, N.E. Caithness, coasts of
Sutherland and sea-board of Ross and Moray;
Norse attacks on Picts, effect of;
their lands seized by Norse.

Pictish Nation and Church, The;
(Rev. A.B. Scott), Pictish navy.

Pictland;
St. Ninian's mission;
St. Kentigern's mission.

Picts and Scots, Chronicle of the;
origin of brochs;
(Tighernac);
the Pictish navy.

Place-names;
Norse p.n. preserved;
near brochs.

Plantula, dau. of Malcolm II, m. Sigurd, earl of Orkney.

Platagall, "flat of the stranger," old name of Golspie.

Pluscardensis, Liber.

Pope, Alexander, of Reay;
a tradition of Snaekoll's return;
transl. Torf.

Popes;
Innocent III, letter.

Powell, York.

Prehistoric races.

Primrose J.;
_Hist, and Antiq. of the Parish of Uphall_.


Rafn the Lawman;
chief of stewards of Caithness;
remained as lawman;
at bishop Adam's burning;
in derivation of Dunrobin - Drum-Rafn.

Ragnhild, dau. of Eric Bloody-axe.

Ragnhild, dau. of Eric Stagbrellir;
sister of earl Harald Ungi;
m. (2) Gunni;
by whom she had a son, Snaekoll;
her children the only heirs of Ragnvald and of Moddan;
at home near Loch Naver;
m. (1) Lifolf Baldpate;
Johanna of Strathnaver, her sole descendant after 1232;
held Moddan lands.

Ragnvald, jarl of Maeri;
made first Norse earl of Orkney;
slain in Norway.

Ragnvald Brusi's son, earl of Orkney;
personal appearance;
at Stiklastad;
in Russia;
Thorfinn's claims and their sea fight;
escaped to Norway;
returned and burned Thorfinn's hall;
his slaughter;
his grave;
Kali Kolson named after him.

Ragnvald, son of Eric Stagbrellir;
fared to Norway;
lived near Loch Naver;
sole male representative of Erlend Thorfinnson;
not known what became of him.

Ragnvald Gudrodson, the viking;
his descent;
his title to earldom;
invaded Caithness.

Ragnvald Kolson, St., earl of Orkney and Caith.;
sold odal lands back to bonder, to raise money for St. Magnus'
cathedral;
letter from David I;
re-named after Ragnvald Brusi's son;
estates in Caith. and Sutherland;
personal description;
accomplishments;
earldom grant confirmed by king Harald;
sought aid of Frakark to win earldom;
defeated by earl Paul in a sea fight;
earl Paul seized his fleet in Shetland;
escaped to Norway;
returned to Westray;
assisted Sweyn against Frakark;
welcomed Sweyn on his return from Frakark's burning;
reconciled Sweyn and Thorbiorn;
besieged Sweyn in Lambaborg;
reconciled to Sweyn;
visited king Ingi in Norway;
his eastern pilgrimage;
description of route, etc.;
visited queen Ermengerde at Bilbao;
visited Jordan, Jerusalem, Constantinople, etc.;
returned to Turfness;
in Shetland;
in Sutherland at his daughter's wedding;
reconciled to earl Harold at Thurso;
reconciled earl Harold and Sweyn;
annual deer-hunt in Caith.;
slain by Thorbiorn;
buried in St. Magnus' cathedral;
his only child;
had lands in Caith.,
and managed earldom;
never earl of Caith.;
succeeded through a female;
his mother and dau.;
his half of Caith. earldom conferred on his grandson,
Harald Ungi;
his lands in Orkney claimed by Snaekoll;
who was representative of his line;
his share of Caith. earldom inherited by Johanna;
his poetry.

Ragnvaldsvoe, South Ronaldsay.

Rautharbiorg or Rattar Brough;
sea fight.

Raven-banner of Sigurd, jarl.

Redcastle is Eddirdovyr.

Red deer and reindeer in C. and S.

Redesdale, lord of.

Reeves' _Life of St. Columba_.

Register House, Edinburgh;
list of Oliphant charters.

Reindeer, or elk;
horns found in Sutherland.

Ri-Crois, at Embo.

Rinansey, Rinarsey (Ninian's Island), now North Ronaldsay.

Rinar's Hill.

Robert, legendary second earl of Sutherland.

Rogart.

Roger, bishop of St. Andrews.

Roland of Galloway.

Roland's Geo, Papa Stronsay.

Romans in Britain;
Caledonians not conquered.

Ronaldsay, North;
Darratha-Liod recited.

Roseisle.

Ross;
northern part of Airergaithel;
Picts;
Pictish clergy;
subdued by Thorfinn;
bishopric founded;
claimed by Henry, son of earl Harold and Afreka;
Malcolm MacHeth cr. earl;
Pictish province;
bishopric refused by Andrew Freskyn;
marches;
earldom;
king William's expedition;
earl Harold Maddadson's expedition;
boundary;
king William's expedition against thanes of Ross;
Norse place-names;
Macbeth's property.

Ross, earl of;
Ferchar Mac-in-Tagart;
granted land to Walter de Moravia on his daughter's marriage;
career;
lay abbot of Applecross;
knighted for a victory in Galloway;
cr. earl of Ross in 1226;
second earl, William MacFerchar, harried Hebrides.

Ross, Euphemia of;
m. Walter de Moravia.

Rossal (Rossewal).


Sæmund, of Iceland\.

Saga-Book of the Viking Society.

Saga-time, Ruins of.

Saga;
writer's historical accuracy;
Norse crossed with Gaelic blood produced the Saga.

Sandvik, Deerness.

Saxon nobility and Scotland;
St. Margaret.

Scandinavian Britain, by (W.G. Collingwood).

Scapa Flow.

Scatt;
of Orkney.

Scilly Isles.

Scir-Illigh, old name of Kildonan parish.

Scon, Lib. Eccles. de.

Scone.

Scotichronicon.

Scotland.

Scotland, Annals of, (Lord Hailes).

Scotland, Annals of the Reigns of Malcolm and William, Kings of,
(Lawrie).

Scotland, Bain's Calendar of Documents relating to;
Freskin signatory of National Bond.

Scotland, Early Christian Monuments of, (J. Romilly Allen).

Scotland, Early Chronicles relating to, (Sir Herbert Maxwell).

Scotland, Early Kings of, (Robertson's);
on earls of Angus.

Scotland, History of, (Hume Brown).

Scotland in Early Christian Times, (Joseph Anderson).

Scotland in Pagan Times, (Joseph Anderson).

Scotland, Prehistoric, (Munro).

Scotland, Register of the Great Seal of.

Scotland, S.A., Proceedings.

Scots.

Scots Peerage, The, (Sir J.B. Paul);
MacWilliam, earl of C.

Scott, A.B.;
The Pictish Nation and Church.

Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers, (A.O. Anderson).

Scottish Charters, Early, (Lawrie).

Scottish Historical Review.

Scottish Kings, (Sir A.H. Dunbar).

Scrabster.

Scrope;
Days of Deerstalking.

Shakespeare.

Shenachu, or Carn Shuin.

Shaw's Moray.

Shetland.

Shetland, Antiquities of, (Gilbert Goudie).

Ships;
Viking, British, Pictish, Roman;
Pictish coracles.

Sidera;
Sigurd's Howe.

Sigrid.

Sigtrigg Silkbeard, king of Dublin.

Sigurd Eysteinson, earl, conquered C. and S.;
Odin;
buried.

Sigurd Hlodverson, jarl;
his conversion;
marriage;
in Darrath-Liod;
his wife, dau. of Malcolm II.

Sigurd Magnuson;
prince of Orkney.

Sigurd Marti.

Sigurd Slembi-diakn.

Sigurd's Howe, Cyderhall.

Skaill, Norse skali.

Skali, Norse farm-house.

Skardi, a "gap" in place-names.

Skelbo, (Skail-bo).

Skelpick, deriv.

Skene, W.F.;
_Chronicle of the Picts and Scots_, q.v. _Highlanders of_
_Scotland_, q.v. _Celtic Scotland_, q.v.

Skidamyre (Skitten in Watten) C.

Skotlands-fiorthr, or Minch.

Skuli, duke.

Skuli Thorfinnson, cr. earl.

Snaekolf, son of Moldan.

Snaekoll Gunni's son;
parentage;
sole male representative of Erlend and Moddan lines, claimed earl
Ragnvald's lands from earl John;
heir of Erlend lands in Caith.;
killed earl John;
return to Caith.;
father of Johanna of Strathnaver;
deriv. of name.

Somarled Sigurdson, earl of Orkney and Caith.

Somarled the Freeman;
slain in the Isles by Sweyn Asleifarson.

Somarled of Argyll, in rebellion.

Sorlinc, or Surclin, castle of;
in William the Wanderer, at Helmsdale, Scir-Illigh.

Southern Isles.

Spalding Club.

Spittal of St. Magnus.

Spynie, near Elgin;
cathedral.

Standing Stane, Duffus.

Stenhouse, Watten.

Stefansson, Jon.

Store Point.

Strabrock, now Uphall and Broxburn.

Stracathro.

Strathclyde.

Stratherne, earls of;
Fereteth, in rebellion;
Malise, m. Matilda dau. of Gibbon;
see also Malise II.

Strathmore, in Halkirk.

Strathnaver;
lady Johanna of;
grant of lands for Elgin cathedral;
Johanna's estate.

Strathnaver valley.

Strathnavern;
lady;
Moddan lands;
Freskin of Duffus, in.

Strathyla;
charter.

String, The;
Orkney.

Sturlunga Saga, Prolegomena by Vigfusson.

Sudreys (see also Hebrides and Southern Isles).

Sutherland (Sudrland);
part of ancient Pictish province of Cait, q.v.;
its boundaries;
outwardly much the same now as in Pictish times;
deer abounded;
Pictish clergy driven from coasts by Norse;
subdued by Thorfinn;
Norse earls;
seized by earl Hakon;
Liot Nidingr;
much owned by Moddan family;
Norse steadily lost hold of;
Celts kept their land;
Norse driven outwards and eastward;
family of Freskyn de Moravia;
Norse occupied fertile parts;
freed from Norse influence in 1266;
inventory of ancient monuments;
writing began in 12th cent.;
Orkneyinga Saga only record before 12th cent.;
earlier notices;
land and people at arrival of Norsemen, all owned by Hugo Freskyn;
earl Harald Slettmali seated in;
seldom visited by earl Paul;
Frakark burnt alive;
Strath Helmsdale;
Sweyn's raid;
earl Ragnvald at his daughter's wedding;
children of Eric Stagbrellir;
William de Sutherlandia;
Mackay settlement;
Innes family;
part of old earldom of Caithness;
granted to Hugo Freskyn;
excluded from grant of half of earldom of Caithness to Harald Ungi;
subdued by king William;
services of Freskyn family;
lordship of Sutherland;
erected into an earldom after 10th Oct. 1237;
escaped attack by king Hakon;
Norse adopted Gaelic language;
Norse place-names;
part settled by Mackays;
Freskyns introduced into;
inhabitants of Gael-Norse blend;
no thanes of Moravia line in;
horns of reindeer or elk found;
see also Orkney and Caithness.

Sutherland, earls of;
fictitious earls, Alane, Walter and Robert;
Freskyn de Moravia ancestor of;
William Freskyn, first earl;
William (1275), litigation with bishop;
case of Elizabeth, claimant of earldom.
See also Freskyn.

Sutherland, Genealogie of the Earles of, (Sir R. Gordon);
on Alane, thane of S.;
treated as fiction;
boundaries of Sutherland.

Sutherland Book;
William MacFrisgyn omitted;
on Johanna of Strathnaver;
references.

Sutherland and the Reay Country, (A. Gunn).

Sutherland, Inventory of the Monuments in.

Sutherland;
duke of.

Sverrir, king of Norway.

Sverri's Saga.

Swart Ironhead.

Swart Kell, or Cathal Dhu.

Swelchie (whirl-pool) near Stroma.

Sweyn;
ancestor of Gunn family;
his son, Andres;
his father, Olaf, burned at Ducansby, his mother, Asleif;
his character;
burned Frakark;
his brother, Gunni;
quarrels with earl Harold;
annual viking cruises and life described;
death at Dublin.

Sweyn Breast-rope.

Syre.


Tankerness.

Templar church of Orphir.

Thanes;
none of Moravia line in Sutherland.

Thing (parliament), in Caithness.

Thora, queen of Norway.

Thora, mother of earl St. Magnus.

Thorbiorn Klerk, grandson of Frakark;
tutor to earl Harold Maddadson;
m. Ingirid, sister of Sweyn;
his character;
burned Waltheof;
divorces Sweyn's sister;
instigated quarrel between earls in Thurso;
viking raid;
ambushed earl Ragnvald;
burnt alive;
no direct heirs.

Thorbjorn in Burrafirth, Shetland.

Thorfinn, son of Harold Maddadson;
in rebellion against Scotland;
promised as hostage to king William.

Thorfinn, a farmer, C.

Thorfinn Sigurdson, earl of Orkney and Caith.;
birth;
cr. earl of Caith. and Sutherland;
ancestor of all subsequent Norse earls;
established at Duncansby;
character;
claimed Orkney;
war with Duncan I;
at Deerness;
Turfness;
conquests in Fife;
Ragnvald Brusi-son co-earl;
raids on England;
his wife, Ingibjorg;
"king of Catanesse,";
claimed two-thirds of Orkney;
sole earl;
visited Rome;
death;
chronology;
his widow m. king Malcolm Canmore;
earl Erlend his grandson's grandson.

Thorfinn Torf-Einarson Hausa-kliufr (skull-cleaver), earl, m. Grelaud.

Thorgisl.

Thorgisl, Saga of.

Thorir Rognvaldson.

Thorir Treskegg.

Thorkel Amundson, or Fostri;
at Sandvik, Deerness, slew Einar;
and Moddan;
and Ragnvald Brusi-son.

Thorkel, son of Cathal Dhu of C.

Thorleif, Frakark's sister.

Thorolf, bishop of Orkney.

Thorsdale;
valley of Thurso river.

Thorstan the White.

Thorstein the Red, seized C. and S.;
father of Groa, who m. Duncan, maormor of Cat.

Thorstein, son of Hall O' Side.

Thurso;
the river;
earl Moddan killed at;
Ottar, jarl in;
earl Harold Maddadson seized;
earls Ragnvald and Harold reconciled;
St. Peter's church;
earls' residence.

Tighernac, The Annals of.

Torfaeus, _Orcades_, q.v., for transl. see Pope, Alex.

Torf-Einar Ragnvaldson, earl;
slew Halfdan Halegg.

Turfness (probably Burghead), Moray;
battle;
Ragnvald Kali went to;
held by Norse.

Tweed.


Ulbster.

Ulern.

Ulf the Bad.

Ulfreksfirth (Larne Bay).

Ulster.

Undal, Peter Clauson.

Unes, or Little Ferry.

Uphall, History and Antiquities of, (J. Primrose).


Valentia.

Valthiof, brother of Sweyn.

Varangian Guard.

Vallich, Loch, or Bealach.

Vikings;
origin;
settlers as well as raiders;
settlements place-names, including the;
intermarriage, influence;
held and named most of coasts and valleys of Cat and Ross;
survival of place and personal names;
Valhalla influence;
ships;
traders.

Viking Age, The, (Du Chaillu).

Viking expeditions.

Viking Society for Northern Research. Publications:
_Saga-Rook_ (Proceedings), The Round Church and Earl's Bu of Orphir;
_Year-Book_, 150 (ns. 24, 28);
_Old-Lore Miscell. of O.S.C. and S._, q.v.;
_Orkney and Shetland Records_, q.v.;
_Caithness and Sutherland Records_, q.v.;
_Ruins of Saga-Time_, q.v.


Wales.

Walter de Baltroddi, bishop.

Waltheof, earl.

Wardships, granted by Crown.

Wemund (monk).

Wergeld, for Halfdan;
Olaf Hrolfson.

Wick;
earl Harald Ungi defeated;
earls' residence.

Widow.

Will. Newburgh Chron.

William the Lion;
charter of Strabrock;
confirmed charter in Sutherland;
service of Wm. Freskyn;
grant to Gaufrid Blundus;
crowned;
first conquest of Caithness, Sutherland granted to Hugo Freskyn;
with army in Ross;
war against Donald Ban MacWilliam;
defeated Thorfinn, Harold's son;
subdued Sutherland and Caithness;
conferred half of earldom of C. on Harald Ungi;
conferred it on Ragnvald Gudrodson;
came to terms with Harald;
war with thanes of Ross;
the dau. of John as hostage;
treaty with John, Caithness;
death.

William, son of Gillebride, uncle of Magnus II.

William FitzDuncan, son of Duncan II.

William the Old, bishop of Orkney;
at Egilsay;
went to the east.

William the Wanderer, transl. W.G. Collingwood; Thorfinn, "king of
Catanesse,".

Wolves, in Cat.

Worsae;
_The Prehistory of the North_.

Wrath, Cape.

Wyntoun's Chronicle.

Wyre, Vigr, now called Veira;
Cobbie Row's Castle.


Yell Sound.

Yorkshire ridings, trithings.

Yuletide;
feasts.








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