James Grey Jackson.

An account of Timbuctoo and Housa: territories in the interior of Africa online

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watchmg its moticm^ and the direction of its
head, when prq>aring to dart forward, they may
escape its attack.*

*♦ It is not correct to assert that Nascari is a ge-
neral term^ a{]^fdied to infidels in Mubamed ; it
is applied to Christians oidy. Kn^^ is the ge-^
neral term applied to dl who have not faitli in
the Arabian PnqplMt«'

^ That which you eall the Talk Tree^ is the
tree which produces the Barbary gumj the name
lEtalkJ

^ The £egMbiaA.-~TliisistheSudamciuune
for tbe tree which produces the Aigan nut, or
olivcy fhe kernel of which rewmUes a bitter
almond, and from it^ not fiom the shell, they
ettracl the oU, so cdehrated for frying fish, and
for burning } a pint of which will afibrd light as
long as two pints of oKve oil.

** The She jdant, or properly Sheh is not wild
tiiyme^ nor does it resamUe i(^ it ia the wom*
aeed plant, tbe seed of which is an artide of
exportatioii, firom the ports of Marocco. The

«" VidsLe9rien'aAffliea,p.306. ■Ibid,p.489.



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OH AFRICA. 511

^heh f eseqafales the absynthum. The wild thyme
is called. ;9ator» abo an article of exportation
from the porta of the Marocco empire. *

<< The Alsharra signifies the Book of Laws of
Muhamed. *

<< Gebel Mamlie should be written Jibbel Rum-
melie^ i. e. the Sandy Mountain. ^

<< The Elwah ^ Elgarbie is inhabited by the
Maggrebee Arabs. My late friend^ Muley Abd
Salam» dder brother to Muley Soliman» the reign-*
ing Emperor of Marocco, had a very large estate
in this Wah, called Santariah. In the 170^ year
of the Christian era, he sent his friend and servant
Alkaid Muhammed ben Abd Saddack^ late go-
vernor of Mogodor, to e£fect the sale of this
estate. He was absent on this embassy two years
and three months."*

<* Sheb is the Arabic for alum» the correct or-
th9griq[)hy is Shib. "^

'* Marjfbucks should be Marabet, i. e« Priests^
or Holy Muhamedans. '

*^ The primitive plough is used in all the Afri*
can countries mhabited by the Arabs, or their
descendants; the negroes, however, use the
hoe.^

' Vide LeydMi'a Africa, p. $12.
•Ibid,p.884. ^Ibid^p,9de. *

* Let the African trareller be careful to pronouBce these
g's guttural ^
^ Ibid,p.S99. « Ibid. ibid.

' Ibid. p. 225. • Ibid. p. 227.



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5 12 VARiOUft LETTERS

<< The Mouselmines ia a French c^prruption of
the term Musdman, i. e. Mohamedans.

<< MongeartSt L e. Moguert, the g guttural.

<< Ouaddim, i. e. Wooied Deleiin, or the sons
of De emy.

<< Labdessebah, i. e. Woled Abbusebah, ^ the
sons of Abbusebah/ ^

« Wed de Non, i. e. Wedinoon.

<<The herb) with a decoction of which they dye
their nails and hands, is called by the Arabs El
Henna : it imparts a coolness and softness to the
hands, and diminishes the excessive perspiration
incident to warm climates.^

<< Hooled ben Soliman oi^t to be Woled ben
SMiman, < the sons of the sons of Soliman }' and
Benioled, should be Ben £1 Waled^ < the scms of
Elwaled/ ^

^< The small beautiful species of deer, is the El
Horreh : it is an inhabitant of the confines of the
Saharah \ it is said never to lie down. It pro-
duces the anti-poison called bezoar stcme, (called
in the Arabic Bide ElHarrek, i. e. the testicle
of the Horreb» This is an article of commerce at
Santa Cruz, and Wedinoon. The back and sides
of the skins of these animals are of a red brown,
and of a vivid white underneath/' *

» Vide Leyden's Africa, p. 2S2. > Ibid. p. 291.

^ Ibid. p. 299. ■ Ibid, p. 808.



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ON AFRICA* 513



TO JAMES GREY JACKSON, ESQ.

Sir, Edinburgh,' May 3. 1818,

I HAVE lately been favoured with two com-
munications from you : -r- the one a letter to Mr.
Napier^ editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, *
on the subject of the article Africa^ of wjiich I
was the author, and which Mr. Napier, there-
fore, put into my hands ; the other a letter
direct to myself, on the subject of my edition
of " Leyden's Discoveries in Africa." I fully
intended to /have answered them before now,
but the pressure of other business, with the
wish to bestow upon them the leisurely consider-
ation which they merited, has hitherto prevented
me. I feel much gratified by tlie favourable
opinion which you express of what I have done
on tliis subject, and much obliged to you for
your communications,, and offers of further in-
formation. I experienced very much the dis-
advantage arising from a want of knowledge of
the languages of North Africa, with which you
appear to have a very extensive acquaintance.
Indeedy several of the etymologies which you
have given^ are very interesting. I was parti*'
cul^rly pleased to receive that of the term Ba
Sea Feenxtj though 1 cannot conceal that it tends
to strengthen the doubts which I have enter-
tained of its applying to the sea on the Gold
Coast. ' The distance, the direction southwards,
the Christians, the motion one way and another,
and even the ships, are all circumstances which

L L



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514 VARIOUS LETTERS

would agree. There are arguQients, however,
against it ; and it is certain that Park did not so
understand it Do you think there is any chance
that the Bahr Soudan could be the Gulf of
Guinea ?

If you are acquainted with any circumstances
which could tend to confirm or refute the narra-
tive of Sidi Hamety as given by Riley, or throw
light upon Riley's general credibility ; or if you
have ever heard any report of such a city as Was-
sanah^ I should feel particularly obliged to you
for communicating such information : and whai-
ever I find myself at a loss, I shall gladly avail
myself of the liberality with which you show
yourself disposed to impart the knowledge of
which you have become possessed.

I shaU communicate this letter to Mr. Ni^ier ;
and it is but fair to mention, that, from the dr-
cumstanoes already stated, I am solely respon-
sible for the too long delay which has taken
place in answering your letter to him, as well
as that to myself.

Hugh Murray.



On the Niger and the Nile.

« London, 7th April, 1890.

In the 25th number of the Quarterly Review,
(article Park's Travels,) the hypothesis there
laid down as almost indisputable, is the non-
continuity of the two Niles of Africa, or (ac-



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ON AFRICA. 516

cording to the European phraseology of the day)
of the Niger and the Nile.

This hypothesis founded on the opinion of
Major Rennel, carries with it no evidence
whatever^ but the speculative theory of that
learned geographer. The identity or connection
of the two NileSy and the consequent water com-*
munication between* Cairo and Timbuctoo
receives (supposing the Quarterly Review to be
correct), as our intelligence respecting Africa
increases, additional confirmation : and even the
Quarterly Reviewer, who denominated the opi«
nion recorded by me, the gossipping stories of
N^roes, (vide Quarterly Review, No. 25, p.l40«)
now fitvours this opinion !

The Quarterly Reviewer appreciates Burck-
hardt^s information on this subject, and depre-
ciates mine, although both are derived Jrom the
same sources of " intelligence, and confirm one
another : the reviewer says, Mr. ^urckhardt has
revived a question of older date ; viz. " that
the Niger of Sudan and the Nile of Egypt are
one and the same river : this general testimony
to a physical fact can be shaken only by direct
proof to the contrary.**

This is all very well : 1 do not object to the
Quarterly Reviewer giving up an opinion which
he finds no longer tenable ; but when I see in
the same review (No. 44, p. 481.) the following
words, — ** we give no credit whatever to the

^ Fk^ Jackson's enlarged Account of Marocco, p. SIO. .
" t. e. Intelligenee from natives of Africa.



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516 VARIOUS LETTSRS«

repcHl received by Mr. iaduoii» of a person
(severalNegroe8%it should be) having performed
a voyage by water from Tlmbuctoo to Cairo/'
I camiot but observe with astcmishment, that
the Reviewer believes Burckhardt's report, that
they are the same river, when, at the same time
he does not believe mine.

Is there not an inconsistency here, somewhat
incompatible with the impartiality which ought
to regulate the works of criticism? I will not
for a moment suppose it to have proceeded from
a spirit of animosity, which I feel myself uncon-
scious of deserving. But the reviewer further
says, the objection to the identity of the Niger
and the Nile, is grounded on the incongruity
of their . periodical inundations, or on the rise
and fall of the former river not corresponding
with that of the latter. I do not comprehend
whence the Quarterly Reviewer has derived
this information ; I have always understood the
direct contrary, which I have declared in the
enlarged editions of my account of Marocco,
page 304, which has been confirmed by a most
intelligent African traveller, Ali Bey, (for which
see his travels, page 220.)

I may be allowed to observe, that although
the Quarterly Reviewer has changed his opmion
on this matter, I have invariably maintained
mine, founded as it is on the concurrent testi-
mony of the best informed and most intelligent
native African travellers, and 1 still assert, on

^ Vide Jackson's enlarged Account of Marocco, p. S12.



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ON AFRICA. 517

the same foundation, the identity of the two Nites^
mid their continuity of waters.

I have further to remark what will most pro-
bably ere long prove correct j viz. that the
Bahar Aidad\ that is to say, the river that
passes through the country of Negroes, between
Senaar and Donga, is an erroneous appellation^
originating in the general ignorance among
European travellers of the African Arabic, and
that the proper name of this river is Bahar
Abeed, which is another term for the river
called the Nile-el- Abeed, which passes south
of Timbuctoo towards the east (called by Euro-
peans the Niger).

It therefore appears to me, and I really think
it must appear to every unbiassed investigator
of African geography, that every iota of African
discovery, made successively, by Hornemanh %
Burckhardt, and others, tends to confirm my
water communication between Timbuctoo andCairo,
and the theorists and speculators in African
geography, who have heaped hypothesis upon
hypothesis, error upon error, who have raised
splendid fabrics ^pon pillars of ice, will ere
long close their book, and be compelled, by the
force of truth and experience, to admit the
fact stated about twelve years ago by me in my
account of Marocco, &c. viz. that the Nile of

^ Bahar Abiad signifies White River ; Bahar Abeed sig-
nifies River of Nfgroes.

^ Vide my letter in Monthly Magazine on this subject for
March, 1817, p. 124.

L L 3



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51S VARIOUS LETTERS

Sudan and the Nile qf Egypt are identified hy a
continuity/ qf waters, and that a water communis
cation is provided hy these two great rivers Jrom
Tknbuctoo to Cairo ; and moreover, that the
general African opinion, that the Ned^UAbeed
(Niger) discharges itself into the (Bahar el M^eh)
Salt SeOf signifies neither more nor less than
that it discharges itself at the Delta in Egypt, into
the Mediterranean Sea /

James Grey Jackson.



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APPENDIX ;



BEING HISTORICAL FRAGMENTS IN ELUCIDATION OF
THE FOREGOING PAGES.



First Expedition on Record to Jimbuctoo, — Timbuctoo
and Guago captured by Mtdey Hamedy {son of Muley
AbdelmeUc^ commonly called Muley Melk% or Muley
Moluckj) in the 16th Century^ {about the Year 15S0.)

v/L\tley Abdelmelk, commonly called Mtilqr Moluck,
in 1577) A. C. fought the celebrated battle widi Dcm
Sebastian, King of Portugal, near Alkassar, which is at
a short distance firom L'Araich, wherein Don Sebastian
was killed ; and Abdelmelk being, before the battle, ex-
tremely ill, his son Muley Hamed went to his litter, to
communicate to the Emperor his fiither, that the Moors
had gained the victory, when he found his fiither dead
and cold, ^ulqr Hamed concealed this event till the
battle was over; and was then proclaimed Emperor, and
rdgned twenty-six years : he cultivated the arts and sci-
ences, mathematics and astronomy, which last was of es-
sential service to him in crossing the Sahara to Tunbuctoo
and Guago ; during which perilous journey the compass
is so indisp^isable, that there is no certain^ of travelling
without it He lost some thousands in this expedition ;

• See the Spectator, No. 549.
L L 4



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620 APPENDIX.

but if gold could recompense the waste of human Ufe^
he was rewarded for his journey of abstinence and priv-
ation across the Sahara, for he brought from Guago
seventy-five quintals, and from Timbuctoo sixty quintals,
of gold-dust, making tog^er one hundred and thirty-
five quintals, or 16,065lb. English avoirdupoise weight of
gold.



A Library of Arabic Manuscripts taken by the Spaniards.
— Contests among Christians reprimanded,

MuLET Sidan, son of Muley Hamed, disputed the
throne (^MaroCco> A. C. 1611, with three brothers, (»ie
of whom was supported by the Spaniards, whose suc-
cour was purchased by his delivering into their hands
the port of L'Araich, soon after which they gained a
naval victory over the forces of Sidan, which was very
disastrous to the Afiricaois ; for the Spaniards, besides
other plunder, got possession of 3000 Arabic books, on
theology, philo^c^hy, an4 medicine. Sidan, however,
notwithstanding this disaster, maintained his right to the
crown. He was of a liberal and charitable mind. He
protected and granted to the Christians various privi-
leges; but he ordered that Christians (^ aU sects and
denominations should live in peace one wfth another.

One day, some ( Userah) Christian slaves of Prov^ice,
in France^ who were Catholics, had a controversial
dispute with others from Rochelle, who were Calvinists.
Thisdifipute ended in a violent contest, accompanied with
blows on either side; this scene excited the curiosity of
the Muselmen, who were sui^msad to see Christians
thus fi^t among themselves on points of their own law I
The report of this battle was carried to Sidan, who or-
dered all these slaves to be brought before him. He con-
demned some to a bastinado, which was inflicted in his>



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APPENDIX. 5*1

pres^ce. He thea addressed them thus : — << I com-
mand you all, on pain of death, not to dispute in future
on die various dogmas of your law: every one has the
presus^ticm to think Atnue^right; and as I allow every
individual in my doimnions to follow the religion that
he chooses for himself; diojes ought to have among them'-
'Selves the same toleration.

Maley El Arsheedy (a second Expedition to Timbuctoo and
Sudan.)

This Sultan preceded the renowned Muley Ismael, on
the throne of Marocco : he united to great ability the
most ferocious disposition, and was continually inebri*
ated. — He crossed the Sahara to Timbuctoo, with a
numerous army, aboiit the year of Christ 1670 ; pro-
ceeding to Susey he laid siege to the Sanctuary of Seedi
My ben AidoTj near Ilirgh: Seedi. Aly, making his
escape in disguise, fled to Sudan, whither he was fol-
lowed by Muley El Arsheed, who, on his arrival on the
ccMifines of Sudan, between Timbuctoo and Jinnie, was
met by a numerous host of Negroes, commanded by a
black suhan : the Emperor demanded Aly ben Aidar ;
but the sultan of Bambarra replied, that, as he had
claimed his protection, it would be an infringement on
the laws of hospitality to deliver him up , adding, ^< that
he desired to know if the views of El Arsheed were hos-
tile or not ; to which the latter replied, after endeavour-
ing in vain to procure the person of Aly, that he was
.not come hostilely, but was about to return, which he
forthwith did: apd theBambareen sultan, having re*
ceived from Aly two beautiful ren^;ade virgins, was so
much flatteired with the preset, that he promised him
any thing that he should as^ ; whereupon, he requested
permission to go to Timbuctoo, and to settle there with
his numerous follower^ ; which being granted, he pro-



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5li2 APPENDIX.

ceeded thither^ and having establidied a MocMrish gar-
rison, resided there several montbs» and afterwards re-
turned to Barbary, bringing with him many thousand
Bambareen negroes: but, on his reaching Suse, he heard
of the death of Muley El Arsheed, and haying then no
fiuther occasion for these neg^coeSf he diraoissed them.
They went to various parts of the countiy, serving the
inhabitants in order to procure daily subsistence ; but the
arch-politidan Muley Ismael, who had then recently been
proclaimed as his successor, ordered them to be col-
lected together, and incorporated in lus negro army,
which was, however, before this, very numerous, consist-
ing for the most part of blacks, brought away fix»m
Sudan by Muley El Arsheed the preceding year. The
Sultan Ismael also seized this opportunity of establishing
his authoriQr at Timbuctoo^ and he met with little or no
opposition in putting that place under contribution. Hav'-
ing sentfiresh troops to occupy theMoorish garrison there,
the inhabitants were glad to make a contribution, in ex-
change for the protection and power which it afforded
them ; for previous to this, they had been subject to con-
tinual depredations, from the Arabs of the adjacent
country, to whom they had been compelled to pay tri-
bute, as a security for their caravans, which were con-
stantly passing the country of these Arabs, who are of the
race of Brabeesh. In the year 1727, A. C. when Ismael
died, it is rq>orted that he possessed an immense quan-
tity of gold, of the purity of which, his gold coins, to be
seen at this day at Timbuctoo, bear testimony ; it is also
said, that the massive bolts of his palaces were of pure
gold, as well as the utensils of his kitchens. After his
decease, however, the tribute was discontinued, and the
Moorish garrison at Timbuctoo, intermarrying with the
natives, and dispersing Uiemselves in the neighbouring
country, has given to Timbuctoo that tincture of Musel-
man manners, wliich they are known to possess ; their



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APPENDIX* 523

desc^dants formings at tl^s perilMil^ a considerable por-
tion of the population of Timbuctoo.



Third EapedUion to Timbuctoo and Sudan.

MuLET Ismael died of an abscess in 1727, and was
succeeded by his youngest son Muley Hbmed Dehebby,
a most ayaiicious prince, whose treasure, collected in his
gorermnent during the Ii& of his &ther, amounted to
ten millions ; to which was now added his father's trea-
sury, amounting to fifty millions, besides jewels and
dkmonds to a much larger amount.

Dehebby ^, sanguinary and cruel when sober, was mild,
a&ble, and humane when intosdcated : unlike Muselmen,
he believed not in predestination, but had always seve«
ral surgeons and doctors in his suite, and consulted them
with the most unlimited confidence when ill. He deco-
rated the palace of Marocco : in one of the apartments
of the seraglio, of which he had had painted, in a
superior style, the twelve signs of the zodiac ; for which
his ignorant and bigoted sutgects accused him of having
conspired against the Deity, in imitating, by gross and ill-
f(mned images, the works of the Almighty. This prince
was an intolerable drunkard ; so that the Marabets and
chie& of the empire called Abdelmelk to the throne,
whom theyenabled to take possession of Mequinas. This
prince, anticipating the revenge of Dehebby, proposed to
deprive him of his eye-sight ; but the Marabets and
chie& opposed this resolution and replied to him in the
following words: — " It is not for his crimes that we
have deposed thy brother, but for his continual intoxi-
cation, which prevented hira from watching over the
government and his officers : he has therefore only been

^ His proper name was MuIcy Hamed ben Ismael, the name De-
hebby is figurative of his riches in gold.



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524 APPENDIX.

guilty of weakness, wliich is not a punishable crime.''
Abdelmelk dared not pudi his point, but was cont^ited
to send his brother to the {Bled Skareef)^ country of
princes, L e. Tafilelt. Before Dehebby was d^hroned,
he marched with a numerous army across Sahara, to
Tunbiictoo, ofwhidi he took possessic m , andteoogfat
home immense quantities of gold.

1730.— Httley Hamed Dehebby dyin^ shodd have
been succeeded by his son Mulqr Bonfier ; but money
and intrigue gare power to Abdallah, a son of Muley
Ismael, who was proclaimed in spite of the efforts
of his nephew, whom he attacked at Terodant, the
capital of Suse. Bou£fer was taken, together with
a Marahet, his confidential fijend and counsellor.
Abdallah ordered them both to be brought before him.
— ><< Thou art young," said he to hisnqphew ; ^ thou hadst
imprudently, undertaken more than thou couldst accom-
plidi; and in consideration of thy youth and inexperience^
I pardon thee, but I will be revenged of thy counsellor."
Then turning himself to the Marabet, ** Thou art a re-
bel," said he. ^^ Didst thou imagine that thy sacred cha-
racter, which thou hast abused against thy (Seed) Lord
or King would prevent him from punishing thee? Let
us see if thy sanctity wiH turn the edge of my swwd." —
In uttering these words, he struck off the saint's head*. >



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INDEX.



JBDELMELKf the prince, moral reflection on his ex-
feimwe aoparel, 79. Is sent to Tafilelt, 80.

AhouHon of Slavery depends on the Africans themsel ve8» not
on our naval force or operations, 270.

Abstinence experienced in the Sahara, 353. Means used to
support it. Effects of, 354.

Abbusebah JVoled, Arabs of, 138.

Abdrahaman ben Nauavy bashaw of Abda, : ^terview
with, 136.

AbduUamy prince, departs for Tafilelt, through Draha and
Bledeljereed, 149.

Abeedy 481. Seedl Bukaree, emperor's body guard, 481.

Aboukir^ battle of, its consequence to muselmen, 101.

Ace^halif 198.

Africa^ plan for the discovery of, 201.

African Association, Institution, drc. recommended to unite
their energies and operations to cultivate a commercial
intercourse with Africa, 228. The same recommended
an a large scale, 249. African Company, a plan for, 251.
African Association, disastrous expeditions of, 258.
An union of the African interests beneficial, 271. Afri-
can duplicity exemplified, 293. African Association
might find the son of Ali Bey an acquisition in pro-
moting their views, 304.

African names, how pronounced, 491.

Agadeer, or Santa Cruz, port of, opened to Dutch com-
merce, 55. Apprehensions at Mogodor from the estab-
lishment of Santa Cruz, 56. Conveniently situated for
the markets of Sudan. Denominated the gate of Sudan, 56>
Port of, farmed by Muley Ismael, 57. Author's arrival
at, to ooen the port to European commerce. Wretched
state ot its inhabitants. Iionourable reception of the
author there, 59. Disgraceful custom abolished by the
author, 60. Propensity, to commerce among the people
of Suse. Sanctuary at the entrance of the town. Pnvilege
of riding in and out of the town established by the author,



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r„.



256 I N D E X«

for Chrbtians of all denominations, 61. ^ Commercial
road made by the author down the mountain to facilitate
the shipment of merchandise^ 62. The spirit of the
natives m working at it. Happy influence or commerce
and industry on the people. Portuguese tower in the
neighbourhood, 63. Description of the town, 64. Strength
of, and convenient situation for a depdt, 65. Mitferes, de-

Eositaries for water, 65. Attempt of the Danes to estab-
sh iEi colony in its vicinage, at Agadeer Arba. Battery
at, 66. Safe road for shipping. Lihabitants friendly to
the English, 67. Port of, shut by the Emperor, and the
sarrison and merchants ordered to go to MaroCco, and
from thence to quit the country or estoblish at Mogodor,
79. Negociation for the port of, from the emperor, 246.

Agricultural property, division of, 330. Agriculture, 339*

Atsawie, or cnarmers of serpents described, 430.

Ait Attar, or Attarites, an indq[>endent kabyl or clan, 311.

Akka, 7. Dep6t for camels, 248.

AkkaAof kaffilas, or caravans to Timbuctoo, where eligible
to be established, 263.

Akkaba, what, 345.

Akladf its signification, 411.

Alk.Sudafh what; 345.

Altitude of the Atlas mountains, 93, 94.

Ali Bei/f an account of, 297. Suspicions entertained re-
specting him. His magnificent mode of living. Exdtes
the suspicion of the governor of Marocco, Sx). He is



Online LibraryJames Grey JacksonAn account of Timbuctoo and Housa: territories in the interior of Africa → online text (page 32 of 34)