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Dictionary

of the

Apostolic Church



Dictionary



of the



Apostolic Church



"K'e.f
440

EDITED BY / f Jj

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JAMES HASTINGS, D.D.



WITH THE ASSISTANCE OP

JOHN A. SELBIE, D.D.

AND

JOHN C. LAMBERT, D.D.



VOLUME I
AARON-LYSTRA



/<?



NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
EDINBURGH: T. & T. CLARK

1916




an



BS440
-H4



COPTBIGHT, 1916, BY

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS






H



The above copyright notice is for the protection of articles copyrighted in the United States.



Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, have the sole right of publication of this
DICTIONARY OF THE APOSTOLIC CHURCH in the United States and Canada.



PREFACE



IT has often been said that the Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels is of more
practical value than a Dictionary of the Bible. From all parts of the world has
come the request that what that Dictionary has done for the Gospels another
should do for the rest of the New Testament. The DICTIONARY OF THE APOSTOLIC
CHURCH is the answer. It carries the history of the Church as far as the end of
the first century. Together with the Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels, it forms a
complete and independent Dictionary of the New Testament.

The Editor desires to take the opportunity of thanking the distinguished New
Testament scholars who have co-operated with him in this important work.



AUTHORS OF ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME



ALLEN (WILLOUGHBY CHARLES), M.A.

Archdeacon of Manchester ; Principal of
Egerton Hall, Manchester ; author of ' The
Gospel according to St. Matthew' in The
International Critical Commentary.
Anointing, Children of God, Gospels,
Kingdom of God.

ALLWORTHY (THOMAS BATESON), M.A. (Camb.),

B.D. (Dublin).

Perpetual Curate of Martin-by-Timberland,
Lincoln ; Founder and First Warden of S.
Anselm's Hostel, Manchester.
Ampliatus, Andronicus, Apelles, Aristo-
bulus, Asyncritus, Epaenetus, and other
proper names.

BANKS (JOHN S.), D.D.

Emeritus Professor of Theology in the
Wesleyan Methodist College, Headingley,
Leeds ; author of A Manual of Christian
Doctrine.
Christian, Contentment.

BATIFFOL (PIERRE), Litt.D.

PrStre catholique et prelat de la Maison du
Pape, Paris ; auteur de Tractatiis Origenis
de libris scripturarum (1900), Les Odes de
Salomon (1911), La Paix constantinienne et
le Catholicisme (1914).
Ignatius.

BECKWITH (CLARENCE AUGUSTINE), A.B., A.M.,
S.T.D.

Professor of Systematic Theology in Chicago
Theological Seminary ; author of Realities
of Christian Theology ; departmental editor
of the New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of
Religious Knowledge.

Beast, Blindness, Blood, Dysentery,
Fever, Gangrene, Lamb, Lion.

BERNARD (JOHN HENRY), D.D. (Dublin), Hon.

D.D. (Aberd.), Hon. D.C.L. (Durham).
Bishop of Ossory, Ferns, and Leighlin ; some-
time Archbishop King's Professor of
Divinity, Dublin, and Dean of St. Patrick's
Cathedral.
Descent into Hades.

BOYD (WILLIAM FALCONER), M.A., B.D. (Aberd.),

D.Phil. (Tubingen).

Minister of the United Free Church of Scot-
land at Methlick.

Alexander, Crown, Desert, Gog and
Magog, Israel, Jew, Jewess, and other
articles.



BROOKE (ALAN ENGLAND), D.D.

Fellow, Dean, and Lecturer in Divinity at
King's College, Cambridge ; Examining
Chaplain to the Bishop of S. Alban's;
author of A Critical ana Exegetical Com-
mentary on the Johannine Epistles.
James and John, the Sons of Zebedee,
John (Epistles of).

BULCOCK (HARRY), B.A., B.D.

Minister of the Congregational Church at
Droylsden, Manchester.
Anger, Care, Cheerfulness, Comfort,
Commendation, Fool, Grief, and other
articles.

BURKITT (FRANCIS CRAWFORD), M.A., F.B.A.,

Hon. D.D. (Edin., Dublin, St. And.), D.
Theol. h.c. (Breslau).

Norrisian Professor of Divinity in the Univer-
sity of Cambridge ; author of The Gospel
History and its Transmission.
Baruch (Apocalypse of).

BURN (ANDREW E.), D.D.

Vicar of Halifax and Prebendary of Lichfield ;
author of The Apostles' Creed (1906), The
Nicene Creed (1909), The Athanasian Creed
(1912).

Confession, Hallelujah, Hymns, Inter-
cession.

CARLYLE (ALEXANDER JAMES), M.A., D.Litt.,

F.R. Hist. Soc.

Lecturer in Economics and Politics at Univer-
sity College, Oxford.
Alms, Community of Goods.

CASE (SHIRLEY JACKSON), M.A., B.D., Ph.D.

Professor of New Testament Interpretation in
the University of Chicago ; author of The
Historicity of Jesus, The Evolution of Early
Christianity ; managing editor of The
American Journal of Theology.
Allegory, Interpretation.

CLARK (P. A. GORDON).

Minister of the United Free Church at Perth.
Divination, Exorcism, Lots.

CLAYTON (GEOFFREY HARE), M.A.
Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge.

Corinthians (Epistles to the), Eucharist,
Love-Feast.



Vlll



AUTHORS OF ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME



CLEMENS (JOHN SAMUEL), B.A., Hon. D.D. (St.

And.).

Governor of the United Methodist College at
Ranmoor, Sheffield.

Bondage, Constraint, Liberty, Lord's
Day.

COBB (WILLIAM FREDERICK), D.D.

Rector of the Church of St. Ethelburga the
Virgin, London ; author of Origines
Judaicce, The Book of Psalms, Mysticism
and the Creed.

Antipas, Balaam, Euphrates, Hymenseus,
Jannes and Jambres, Jezebel, and other
articles.

COOKE (ARTHUR WILLIAM), M.A.

Minister of the Wesleyan Methodist Church
at Wallasey, Cheshire ; author of Palestine
in Geography and in History.
Elamites, Galilee.

COWAN (HENRY), M.A. (Edin.), D.D. (Aberd.),

D.Th. (Gen.), D.C.L. (Dunelm).
Professor of Church History in the University
of Aberdeen ; Senior Preacher of the Uni-
versity Chapel ; author of The Influence of
the Scottish Church in Christendom, John
Knox, Landmarks of Church History.

Apphia, Archippus, Epaphras, Epaphro-
ditus.

CRUICKSHANK (WILLIAM), M.A., B.D.

Minister of the Church of Scotland at Kinneff,
Bervie ; author of The Bible in the Light of
Antiquity.

Arts, Clothes, Games, Jerusalem, Key,
Lamp, and other articles.

DA VIES (ARTHUR LLYWELYN), M.A.

Siracox Research Student, Queen's College,
Oxford.

Ascension of Isaiah, Assumption of
Moses, Enoch (Book of).

DEWICK (EDWARD CHISHOLM), M.A. (Camb.).

Tutor and Dean of St. Aidan's College,
Birkenhead ; Teacher of Ecclesiastical
History in the University of Liverpool ;
author of Primitive Christian Eschatology.
Eschatology.

DlMONT (CHARLES TUN NACLIFF), B.D. (Oxon.).

Principal of Salisbury Theological College ;
Prebendary of Salisbury; Chaplain to the
Bishop of Salisbury.

Business, Labour.

VON DOBSCHUTZ (ERNST), D.Theol.

Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the
University of Breslau.

Communion, Fellowship, Hellenism,
Josephus.

DONALD (JAMES), M.A., D.D. (Aberd.).

Minister of the Church of Scotland at Keith-
hall and Kinkell, Aberdeenshire.

Dispersion, Gentiles, Heathen, Libertines.

DUNCAN (JAMES WALKER), M.A.

Minister of the United Free Church at Lass-
odie, Dumfriesshire.
Canaan, Haran.

DUNDAS (WILLIAM HARLOE), B.D.

Rector of Magheragall, near Lisburn.
Authority, Dominion.



FAULKNER (JOHN ALFRED), B.A., B.D., M.A.,

D.D.

Professor of Historical Theology in Drew
Theological Seminary, Madison, N. J.
Benediction, Doxology.

FELTOE (CHARLES LETT), D.D.

Rector of Ripple, near Dover ; sometime
Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge ; author
of Sacramentarium Leonianum, The Letters
and other Remains of Dionysius of Alex-
andria.

Akeldama, Candace, Chamberlain,
Ethiopians, Ethiopian Eunuch, Judas
Iscariot.

FLETCHER (M. SCOTT), M.A., B.D., B.Litt.

Master of King's College, University of
Queensland, Brisbane, Australia ; author of
The Psychology of the New Testament.
Edification, Enlightenment, Exhortation.

FREW (DAVID), D.D.

Minister of the Church of Scotland at Urr.
Barnabas, Esdras (The Second Book of),
Herod.

GARVIE (ALFRED ERNEST), M.A. (Oxford), D.D.

(Glas.).

Principal of New College, London ; author of
The Ritschlian Theology, Studies in the
Inner Life of Jesus, Studies of Paul and his
Gospel.

Evil, Fall, Good.
GORDON (ALEXANDER REID), D.Litt., D.D.

Professor of Hebrew in M'Gill University, and

of Old Testament Literature and Exegesis

in the Presbyterian College, Montreal ;

author of The Poets of the Old Testament.

Judgment-Hall, Judgment-Seat, Justice,

Lawyer.
GOULD (GEORGE PEARCE), M.A., D.D.

Principal of Regent's Park College, London ;
Ex-President of the Baptist Union of Great
Britain and Ireland.

Berenice, Drusilla, Felix, Festus, Lysias.

GRANT (WILLIAM MILNE), M.A.

Minister of the United Free Church at
Drumoak, Aberdeenshire ; author of The
Religion and Life of the Patriarchal Age,
The Founders of Israel.
Assembly, Building, Day-Star, Founda-
tion, Genealogies, Gospel, and other
articles.

GRENSTED (LAURENCE WILLIAM), M.A., B.D.
Vice-Principal of Egerton Hall, Manchester ;
joint-author of Introduction to the Books of
the New Testament.

Colossians (Epistle to the), Ephesians
(Epistle to the).

GRIEVE (ALEXANDER JAMES), M.A., D.D.

Professor of New Testament Studies and
Christian Sociology in the Yorkshire United
Independent College, Bradford.
Form, Friendship, Fruit, Image.

GRIFFITH- JONES (EBENEZER), B.A. (Lond.), D.D.

(Edin.).

Principal, and Professor of Dogmatics, Homi-
letics, and Practical Theology, Yorkshire
United Independent College, Bradford ;
author of The Ascent through Christ, Types
of Christian Life, The Economics of Jesus,
The Master and His Method, Faith and
Verification.

Abiding, Abounding, Acceptance, Access,
Account, Answer.



HAMILTON (HAROLD FRANCIS), M.A., D.D.

Ottawa, Canada ; formerly Professor in the
University of Bishop's College, Lennoxville,
Quebec.
Barnabas (Epistle of).

HANDCOCK(P.S.P.), M.A.

Member of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at-
Law ; Lecturer of the Palestine Exploration
Fund ; formerly of the Department of
Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the
British Museum ; author of Mesopotamian
Archaeology, Latest Light on Bible Lands.
Dog, Eagle, Goat, Hospitality, Locust,
and other articles.

HOOKE (SAMUEL HENRY), M.A. (Oxon.), B.D.

(Lond.).

Professor of Oriental Languages and Litera-
ture in Victoria College, Toronto.
Heaven, Immortality, Lake of Fire.

JAMES (JOHN GEORGE), M.A., D.Lit.

Author of Problems of Personality, Problems
of Prayer, The Coming Age of Faith, The
Prayer-Life.

Cross, Crucifixion, Custom, Dream.

JORDAN (HERMANN), Ph.D.

Professor of Church History and Patristics in
the University of Erlangen.
Catholic Epistles, Epistle, Letter.

LAKE (KiRSOPP), M.A. (Oxford), D.D. (St. And.).
Professor of Early Christian Literature in
Harvard University ; author of The Earlier
Epistles of St. Paul.

Acts of the Apostles, Acts of the Apostles
(Apocryphal), Luke.

LAMBERT (JOHN C.), M.A., D.D.

Fenwick, Kilmarnock ; author of The Sacra-
ments in the New Testament.
Antichrist, Body, Conscience, Flesh, Life
and Death, Light and Darkness, and
other articles.

LAW (ROBERT), D.D. (Edin.).

Professor of New Testament Literature in
Knox College, Toronto ; author of The Tests
of Life : A Study of the First Epistle of St.
John.



Covetousness, Formalism,
Generation, Glory, Hour.



Fulness,



LlGHTLEY (JOHN WILLIAM), M.A., B.D.

Professor of Old Testament Language and
Literature and Philosophy in the Wesleyan
College, Headingley, Leeds.
Epicureans.

LOFTHOUSE (WILLIAM F.), M.A.

Professor of Philosophy and Old Testament
Language and Literature in the Wesleyan
College, Handsworth, Birmingham ; author
of Ethics and Atonement, Ethics and the
Family.

Conversion, Creation, Forgiveness, Free-
dom of the Will.

MACKENZIE (DONALD), M.A.

Minister of the United Free Church at Oban ;
Assistant Professor of Logic and Meta-
physics in the University of Aberdeen,
1906-1909.

Abstinence, Feasting, Fornication,
Harlot, Lust, and other articles.



MACLEAN (ARTHUR JOHN), D.D. (Camb.), Hon.

D.D. (Glas.).

Bishop of Moray, Ross, and Caithness ; author
of Dictionary of Vernacular Syriac ; editor
of East Syrian Liturgies.
Adoption, Angels, Ascension, Baptism,
Demon, Family, and other articles.

MAIN (ARCHIBALD), M.A. (Glas.), B.A. (Oxon.),

D.Litt. (Glas.).

Minister of the Church of Scotland at Old
Kilpatrick ; examiner in Modern and Ecclesi-
astical History and in Political Economy in
St. Andrews University ; member of the
Examining Board of the Church of Scot-
land.
Cymbal, First-Fruit, Harp.

MARSH (FRED. SHIPLEY), M.A.

Sub- Warden of King's College Theological
Hostel and Lecturer in Theology, King's
College, London ; formerly Tyrwhitt and
Crosse Scholar in the University of Cam-
bridge.

Clement of Rome (Epistle of), Galatians
(Epistle to the), Hebrews (Epistle to
the).

MARTIN (A. STUART), M.A., B.D.

Formerly Pitt Scholar and Examiner in
Divinity in Edinburgh University and
Minister of the Church of Scotland at
Aberdeen ; author of The Books of the New
Testament.
Grace, Justification.

MARTIN (G. CURRIE), M.A., B.D.

Lecturer in connexion with the National
Council of Adult School Unions ; formerly
Professor of New Testament at the York-
shire United College and Lancashire College.
Hell.

MATHEWS (SHAILER), A.M., D.D. (Colby,

Oberlin, Brown).

Dean of the Divinity School, and Professor of
Historical Theology, in the University of
Chicago ; President of the Federal Council
of the Churches of Christ in America ;
author of The Messianic Hope in the New
Testament.
Assassins, Judas the Galilsean.

MAUDE (JOSEPH HOOPER), M.A.

Rector of Hilgay, Downham Market ;
formerly Fellow and Dean of Hertford
College, Oxford; author of The History of
the Book of Common Prayer.
Ethics.

MITCHELL (ANTHONY), D.D.

Bishop of Aberdeen and Orkney ; formerly
Principal and Pantonian Professor of
Theology in the Theological College of the
Episcopal Church in Scotland.
Hermas (Shepherd of).

MOE (OLAF EDVARD), Dr. Theol.

Professor of Theology in the University of
Christiania.
Commandment, Law.

MOFFATT (JAMES), D.Litt., Hon. D.D. (St.

And.), Hon. M.A. (Oxford).
Professor of Church History in the United
Free Church, Glasgow ; author of Th
Historical New Testament, The New Testa*
ment : A New Translation.
Gospels (Uncanonical).



AUTHORS OF ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME



MONTGOMERY (WILLIAM), M.A. (Cantab.), B.D.

(London).

Lecturer in Divinity in the University of
Cambridge ; author of St. Augustine.
Book of Life, Book with the Seven Seals,
James the Lord's Brother, James
(Epistle of).

MONTGOMERY (W. S.), B.D.

Minister of the Presbyterian Church in
Ireland at Ballacolla, Queen's County.
Beating, Buffet, Chain, Fire, Jailor.

MORGAN (WILLIAM), M.A., D.D. (Aberd.).

Professor of Systematic Theology and Apolo-
getics in Queen's Theological College, King-
ston, Ontario ; Kerr Lecturer for 1914.
Judgment.

Moss (RICHARD WADDY), D.D.

Principal, and Tutor in Systematic Theology,
Didsbury College, Manchester ; author of
The Range of Christian Experience.
Aaron, Aaron's Rod, Anathema, Condem-
nation, Curse, Levite.

MOULTON (WILFRID J.), M.A. (Cantab.).

Professor of Systematic Theology in the
Wesleyan College, Headingley, Leeds;
author of The Witness of Israel.
Covenant.

MUIRHEAD (LEWIS A.), D.D.

Minister of the United Free Church at
Broughty - Ferry ; author of The Terms
Life and Death in the Old and New Testa-
ments, The Eschatology of Jesus.
Apocalypse.

NlCOL (THOMAS), D.D.

Professor of Biblical Criticism in the Univer-
sity of Aberdeen ; Moderator of the General
Assembly of the Church of Scotland, 1914.
Assurance, Education, Election, Fore-
knowledge, and other articles.

NIVEN (WILLIAM DICKIE), M.A.

Minister of the United Free Church at Blair-
gowrie ; co-examiner in Mental Philosophy
in the University of Aberdeen.
Cerinthus, Doctor, Ebionism, Emperor-
Worship, Essenes, Gnosticism.

PEAKE (ARTHUR SAMUEL), M.A., D.D.

Rylands Professor of Biblical Exegesis in the
University of Manchester and Tutor in the
Hartley Primitive Methodist College ; some-
time Fellow of Merton College and Lecturer
in Mansfield College, Oxford ; author of
The Problem of Suffering in the Old Testa-
ment, A Critical Introduction to the New
Testament, Christianity : its Nature and its
Truth.

Cainites, Jude the Lord's Brother, Jude
(Epistle of).

PLATT (FREDERIC), M.A., B.D.

Professor of Systematic and Pastoral Theology
in the Wesleyan College, Handsworth, Bir-
mingham ; author of Miracles: An Outline
of the Christian View.
Atonement.

PLUMMKR (ALFRED), M.A., D.D.

Late Master of University College, Durham ;
formerly Fellow and Senior Tutor of Trinity
College, Oxford ; author of ' The Gospel
according to S. Luke ' in The International
Critical Commentary, and other works.
Apostle, Bishop, Church, Deacon, Evan-
gelist, and other articles.



POPE (R. MARTIN), M.A. (Cantab, and Man-
chester).

Minister of the Wesleyan Methodist Church
at Keswick ; author of Expository Notes on
St. Paul's Epistles to Timothy and Titus,
and other works.

Abba, Christian Life, Conversation,
Gifts, Judging.

REID (JOHN), M.A.

Minister of the United Free Church at Inver-
ness ; author of Jesus and Nicodemus, The
First Things of Jesus, The Uplifting of Life ;
editor of Effectual Words.
JEon, Age, Aged, Honour.

ROBERTS (JOHN EDWARD), M.A. (London), B.D.

(St. Andrews).

Minister of the Baptist Church at Manchester;
author of Christian Baptism, Private
Prayers and Devotions.

Apollo s, Aquila and Priscilla, Bar-Jesus,
Gallic, and other articles.

ROBERTS (ROBERT), B.A. (Wales), Ph.D. (Leipzig).
Rhuallt, St. Asaph.
Expediency.

ROBERTSON (ARCHIBALD THOMAS), M.A., D.D.,

LL.D.

Professor of Interpretation of the New Testa-
ment in the Southern Baptist Theological
Seminary, Louisville, Ky. ; author of A
Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the
Light of Historical Research, and other
works.

Bond, Debt, Deliverer, Destruction.

ROBINSON (GEORGE L.), Ph.D., D.D., LL.D.

Professor of Biblical Literature and English
Bible in M'Cormick Theological Seminary,
Chicago.
Caesarea.

ROBINSON (HENRY WHEELER), M.A. (Oxon. and

Edin.).

Professor of Church History and of the
Philosophy of Religion in the Baptist
College, Rawdon ; sometime Senior Kenni-
cott Scholar in the University of Oxford ;
author of ' Hehrew Psychology in Relation
to Pauline Anthropology' in Mansfield
College Essays, The Christian Doctrine of
Man, The Religious Ideas of the Old Testa-
ment.

Adorning, Ear, Eye, Feet, Hair, Hand,
Head.

SANDAY (WILLIAM), D.D., LL.D., Litt.D., F.B.A.
Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, and
Canon of Christ Church, Oxford ; Chaplain
in Ordinary to H.M. the King.
Inspiration and Revelation.

VON SCHLATTER (ADOLF).

Professor of New Testament Introduction and
Exegesis in the University of Tubingen.
Holy Spirit.

SCOTT (CHARLES ANDERSON), M.A., D.D.

Professor of the Language, Literature, and
Theology of the New Testament in West-
minster College, Cambridge ; author of The
Making of a Christian, and other works.
Christ, Christology.

SlDNELL (HENRY CARISS JONES), B.A., B.D.

(London).

Minister of the Wesleyan Methodist Church
at Ilkley.

Admonition, Chastisement, Discipline,
Excommunication.



AUTHORS OF AETICLES IN THIS VOLUME



SMITH (SHERWIN), M.A., B.D.

Minister of the Wesleyan Methodist Church
at Burnley.
Abomination, Clean and Unclean.

SOUTER (ALEXANDER), M.A., D.Litt.

Regius Professor of Humanity and Lecturer
in Mediaeval Palaeography in the University
of Aberdeen ; formerly Professor of New
Testament Greek and Exegesis in Mansfield
College, Oxford ; author of A Study of
Ambrosiaster, The Text and Canon of the
New Testament.

Augustus, Caesar, Caligula, Citizenship,
Diana, Domitian, and other articles.

SPOONER (WILLIAM ARCHIBALD), D.D.

Warden of New College, Oxford ; Hon. Canon
of Christ Church, Oxford ; Examining
Chaplain to the Bishop of Peterborough.
Lucius.

STEVENSON (MORLEY), M.A.

Principal of Warrington Training College ;
Hon. Canon of Liverpool ; author of Hand-
book to the Gospel according to St. Luke, and
other works.

Author and Finisher, Circumcision,
Divisions, Forerunner, Heresy, Judaiz-
ing.

STEWART (GEORGE WAUCHOPE), M.A., B.D.

Minister of the Church of Scotland at Hadding-
ton (First Charge) ; author of Music in the
Church.

King, King of Kings and Lord of Lords,
Lord.

STEWART (ROBERT WILLIAM), M.A., B.Sc., B.D.
Minister of the United Free Church at Duthil
(Carr Bridge).
Apostolic Constitutions.

STRACHAN (ROBERT HARVEY), M.A. (Aberd.),

B.A. (Cantab.).

Minister of the Presbyterian Church of
England at Cambridge.
Consecration, Fast (The), Holiness, Holy
Day.

STRAHAN (JAMES), M.A., D.D.

Professor of Hebrew and Biblical Criticism in
the M'Crea Magee Presbyterian College,
Londonderry ; Cunningham Lecturer ; author
of Hebrew Ideals, The Book of Job, The
Captivity and Pastoral Epistles,
Abraham, Colours, Elements, Galatia,
Hypocrisy, and other articles.



THUMB (ALBERT).

Professor of Comparative Philology in the
University of Strassburg ; author of Hand-
book of the Modern Greek Vernacular.

Hellenistic and Biblical Greek.
TOD (DAVID MACRAE), M.A., B.D. (Edin.).

Minister of the Presbyterian Church of
England at Huddersfield ; formerly Hebrew
Tutor and Cunningham Fellow, New College,
Edinburgh.

Faith, Faithfulness, Ignorance, Know-
ledge.

VOS (GEERHARDUS), Ph.D., D.D.

Charles Haley Professor of Biblical Theology
in the Theological Seminary of the Presby-
terian Church at Princeton, N. J.

Brotherly Love, Goodness, Joy, Kind-
ness, Longsuffering, Love.

W ATKINS (CHARLES H.), D.Th.

Minister of the Baptist Church at Liverpool ;
Lecturer in the Midland Baptist College
and University College, Nottingham ; author
of St. Paul's Fight for Galatia.
Ambassador, Blessedness, Brethren,
Conspiracy.

WATT (HUGH), B.D.

Minister of the United Free Church of Scotland
at Bearsden ; Examiner for the Church
History Scholarships of the United Free
Church of Scotland.
Didache.

WELLS (LEONARD ST. ALBAN), M.A. (Oxon.).
Vicar of St. Aidan's, South Shields ; sub-
editor of the Oxford Apocrypha and Pseud-
epigrapha.
Alpha and Omega, Amen.

WILLIS (JOHN ROTHWELL), B.D.

Canon of St. Aidans, Ferns, and Rector of
Preban and Moyne.

Angels of the Seven Churches, Collec-
tion, Contribution.

WORSLEY (FREDERICK WILLIAM), M.A., B.D.

Subwarden of St. Michael's College, Llandaff ;
author of The Apocalypse of Jesus.
Areopagite, Baal, Babbler, Calf, Damaris,
Dioscuri, Idolatry, Jupiter.

ZENOS (ANDREW C.), D.D., LL.D.

Professor of Historical Theology in the
M'Cormick Theological Seminary, Chicago.
Dates.

ZWAAN (J. DE), D.D. (Leiden).

Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the
University of Groningen.
Acts of Thomas ' in Acts of the Apostles
(Apocryphal).



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS



I. GENERAL



App. = Appendix.

Arab. = Arabic.

art., artt. = article, articles.

A. S. = Anglo-Saxon.

Assyr. = Assyrian.

AT = Altes Testament.

AV = Authorized Version.

A Vm= Authorized Version margin.

Bab. = Babylonian.

c. = circa, about.

cf . = compare.

ct. = contrast.

ed. = edited, edition.

Eng. = English.

Eth.= Ethiopia

EV, EW = English Version, Versions.

f. =and following verse or page.

ff. = and following verses or pages.

fol. = folio.

fr. = fragment, from.

Fr. = French.

Germ. = German.

Gr.= Greek.

Heb. = Hebrew.

Lat. = Latin.



lit. = literally, literature.

LXX = Septuagint.

m., marg. = margin.

MS, MSS = manuscript, manuscripts.

n. =note.

NT = New Testament, Neues Testament.

N.S. =new series.

OT = Old Testament.

pi. = plural.

Sv., qq.v. =quod vide, quce vide, which see.
hem. =Rhemish New Testament,
rt. - root.

RV Revised Version.
RVm Revised Version margin.
Sem. = Semitic,
sing. = singular.
Skr. = Sanskrit.
Syr. = Syriac.
Targ. = Targum.
tr. = translated, translation.
TR = Textus Receptus, Received Text,
v. = verse.

v.l. varia lectio, variant reading.
VS, VSS = Version, Versions.
Vulg., Vg. = Vulgate.



II. BOOKS OF THE BIBLE



Old Testament.



Gn= Genesis.

Ex = Exodus.

Lv = Leviticus.

Nu = Numbers.

Dt = Deuteronomy.

Jos = Joshua.

Jg= Judges.

Ru = Ruth.

1 S, 2S = 1 and 2 Samuel.

1 K, 2K = 1 and 2 Kings.

1 Ch, 2 Ch = l and 2

Chronicles.
Ezr=Ezra.
Neh = Nehemiah.
Est = Esther.
Job.

Ps = Psalms.
Pr= Pro verbs.
Ec=Ecclesiastes.

Apocrypha.

1 Es, 2 Es=l and 2 To = Tobit.

Esdras. Jth= Judith.



Ca= Can tides.
Is = Isaiah.
Jer = Jeremiah.
La = Lamentations.
Ezk = Ezekiel.
Dn = Daniel.
Hos = Hosea.
Jl = Joel.
Am = Amos.
Ob = Obadiah.
Jon = Jonah.
Mic=Micah.
Nah = Nahum.
Hab = Habakkuk.
Zeph = Zephaniah.
Hag=Haggai.
Zee = Zechariah.
Mal = Malachi.



Ad. Est = Additions to Sus = Susanna.

Esther. Bel = Bel and the



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