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Ambrosianae.' Yet even Omar Khayyam, after
all his praise of the Vine, is obliged to confess that
he has ' drowned his glory in a shallow cup ' ; and,
in the light of Christianity, drunkenness stands
condemned as a sin against the body which is a
1 member of Christ.'

Christianity is a religion of principles, not of
rules, and in Ro 14 21 St. Paul states a principle
which justifies any kind and thoughtful man, apart
from considerations of personal safety and happi-
ness, in becoming an abstainer. In doing this the
Apostle is far from imposing a new yoke of bondage.
He does not categorically say to the Christian,
' Thou shalt not drink wine,' but he reasons that
it is good (Ka\6i>) it is a beautiful morale in
certain conditions and from certain motives, to
abstain. There was evidently a tendency among
Christian liberals, who rightly gloried in their
free evangelical position, to say, ' If men will per-
vert and abuse our example, we cannot help it;
the fault is their own, and they must bear the
consequences.' St. Paul, the freest of all, sees a
more excellent way, and 'chooses to walk in it,
though he does not exercise his apostolic authority
to command others to follow him. What is his
own liberty to drink a little wine in comparison
with the temporal safety and eternal salvation of
thousands who are unable to use the same freedom
without stumbling ? He cannot no man can live
merely unto himself, and he would sooner be so far
a Nazirite or an Essene than do anything to hurt
a brother.

It is noticeable that there was never any organ-




ized movement in the Apostolic or post- Apostolic
Church against the use of strong drink. Many of
the Fathers, following the example of Philo who
wrote a book irepl fj^drjs on Gn 9 21 dealt with the
subject at length, Clement, Cyprian, Chrysostom,
Jerome, and Augustine all preached moderation to
every one and abstinence to some. But neither the
apostles nor the Fathers ever dreamed of seeking
legislation for the prohibition or even the restric-
tion of the sale and use of intoxicating liquors.
Since their time two things the discovery of dis-
tilled liquors in the 13th cent., and the trend of
civilization northward have greatly altered the
conditions of the problem.

1 Extremists now place all alcohol-containing drinks under
the same ban, hut fermented liquors are still generally held to
be comparatively innocuous ; nor can any one deny that there
is a difference. It is safe to say that if spirits had never been
discovered the history of the question would have been entirely
different ' (A. Shadwell, EBr^- xxvi. 578). ' The evils which it is
desired to check are much greater in some countries than in
others. . . . The inhabitants of south Europe are much less given
to alcoholic excess than those of central Europe, who again are
more temperate than those of the north ' (ib. xvi. 759).

Just where the temptations to drunkenness are
greatest, the Apostle's principle of self-denial for
the -sake of others is evidently the highest ethic.
No drunkard can ' inherit the Kingdom of God '
(1 Co 6 10 ), and the task of Christian churches and
governments is ' to make it easy for men to do
good and difficult for them to do evil.'

Since, however, it is notoriously impossible to
make men sober merely by legislation, the main
factors in the problem must always be moral and re-
ligious. The Apostolic Church found the true solu-
tion. The Christians who were filled with the Holy
Spirit on the day of Pentecost were mockingly said
to be filled with wine (7\eC/cos, Ac 2 13 , perhaps
' sweet wine ' ; not ' new wine,' as Pentecost took
place eight months after the vintage). St. Peter
tried to convince the multitude that it was not a
sensual but a spiritual intoxication, and St. Paul
gives to all Christians the remarkable counsel, ' Be
not drunken with wine, wherein is dissoluteness
(aauria ; cf. Aviarus in Lk 15 13 ), but be filled with
the Spirit' (Eph 5 18 ). It is presupposed that every
man naturally craves some form of exhilaration,
loving to have his feelings excited, his imagination
fired, his spirit thrilled. And drunkenness is the
perversion of a true instinct. It is the fool's way
of drowning care and rising victorious over the ills
of life. Intoxication is the tragic parody of in-
spiration. What every man needs is a spiritual
enthusiasm which completely diverts his thoughts
from the pursuit of sensuous excitement, on the
psychological principle that two conflicting passions
cannot dominate the mind at the same time. That
enthusiasm is the gift of the Divine Spirit.

The injunction to Timothy to be no longer a
water-drinker (/j.ijKdrt iSpoirdret) but to use a little
wine (1 Ti S 23 ) is now generally regarded as post-
Pauline. It is ' evidently, in the context in which

it stands, not merely a sanitary but quite as much
a moral precept, and thus implies that Timothy
had himself begun to abjure wine on grounds of
personal sanctity' (F. J. A. Hort, Judaistic Chris-
tianity, 1894, p. 144). The words were probably
written about the time of the first appearance of
the Encratites (EEE v. 301), who made abstinence
from flesh, wine, and marriage the chief part of
their religion, seeking salvation not by faith but
by asceticism. Water-drinking thus for a time
became associated with a deadly error. This was
a situation in which Christians felt it to be their
duty to assert their right to use what they re-
garded as the creature and gift of God (1 Ti 4 4>8 ).
See, further, art. ABSTINENCE.


DRUSILLA (Ac 24 24 ). The youngest of the
three daughters of Herod Agrippa I. She was but
six years old when her father died in A.D. 44
(Jos. Ant. XIX. ix. 1). He had betrothed her to
Epiphanes, son of the king of Commagene. This
marriage did not take place, as Epiphanes refused
to undergo the rite of circumcision (Ant. XX. vii.
1). Drusilla was given by her brother Agrippa n.
to Azizus, king of Emesa. The marriage took
place seemingly in A.D. 53. Very shortly afterwards
the procurator Felix, who had lately come to
Judaja, met the young queen and was captivated by
her charms (' She did indeed exceed all other women
in beauty' [Ant. XX. vii. 2]). Employing as his
emissary one Simon, a Cypriote, he persuaded her
to leave her husband and to join him as his third
wife and third (' trium reginarum maritum,'
writes Suetonius of Felix [Claud, xxviii.]). Of
this union there was issue a son, who was given
the name Agrippa, and of whom Josephus (Ant.
XX. vii. 2) records incidentally that he and his
wife perished in the eruption of Vesuvius in the
reign of the Emperor Titus, i.e. in A.D. 79. Of
Drusilla herself nothing is recorded later than the
statement in Acts, which permits us to assume
that she was present when St. Paul had audience
of Felix, and used the opportunity to reason ' of
righteousness, and temperance, and the judgment
to come.' G. P. GOULD.

DYSENTERY (AV 'bloody flux'; Gr.

, Ac 28 8 ). When St. Paul and his com-
panions, on their way to Rome, were shipwrecked
on the island of Malta, the father of Publius who
was governor of the island was Buttering from this
malady in an aggravated form. The symptoms of
the disease are inflammation of the mucous mem-
brane of the large intestine, mucous, bloody, diffi-
cult, and painful evacuations, accompanied, with
more or less fever. Owing to Publius' kindness
to the little group of delayed travellers, the Apostle
visited his father, ' prayed, and laid his hands on
him, and healed him.' This was evidently a case
of mental healing, made effective by prayer and per-
sonal contact. C. A. BECKWITH.


EAGLE (deros, Rev 4 7 8 18 12 14 ). There can be but
little doubt that the ' eagle ' of the EV ought in
most cases rather to be rendered ' vulture.' Both
the Hebrew word 15^ (in the OT) and the Greek
word der&s (in the NT) are used to designate
' vulture ' as well as ' eagle,' and it is a bird of this
species rather than an eagle that is generally re-
ferred to both in the OT and the NT, though in

the above-mentioned passages it is just possible
that dero'j may denote an eagle.

Four kinds of vultures are known in Palestine
(cf. Tristram, SWP : ' The Fauna and Flora of
Palestine,' 1884, p. 94), viz. (1) Gypcetus barbatus;
(2) Gypsfulvus, or ' griffon' ; (3) Neophronpercnop-
terus, the ' Egyptian vulture '; (4) Vultur monachus
(cf. Post in HDB i. 632). The Gyps fulvus or




' griffon ' is supposed to be referred to in most of the
passages in the OT and the NT.

There are said to be eight different kinds of eagle
in Palestine: (1) Aquila chryscetus, or 'Golden
Eagle.' This is seen in winter all over Palestine,
but in summer it is only to be found in the
mountain ranges of Lebanon and Hermon. (2)
Aquila heliaca, or ' Imperial Eagle,' which is more
common than the Golden Eagle, and does not leave
its winter haunts in summer time. The Imperial
Eagle prefers to make its nest in trees rather than
cliffs, and in this respect differs from the Golden
Eagle. (3) Aquila clanga, or 'Greater Spotted
Eagle.' (4) Aquila rapax, or 'Tawny Eagle,'
which is found fairly frequently in the wooded
districts of Palestine. This bird breeds in the
cliffs, and plunders other birds of their prey. (5)
Aquila pennata, or ' Booted Eagle,' which is found
chiefly in the wooded parts of Galilee, the Lebanon
and Phoenicia. (6) Aquila nipalensis, or ' Steppe
Eagle.' (7) Aquila bonelli, or 'Bonelli's Eagle,"
which is not uncommon in the wadis and rocky
districts of Central Palestine. This bird is more
like a falcon than an eagle. (8) Circcetus gallicus,
or ' Short-toed Eagle.' This is by far the common-
est of all Palestinian eagles. They remain from
early spring to the beginning of winter, when
most of them migrate, probably to Arabia. This
fearless and dignified bird is easily recognized by
its large flat head, huge yellow eyes, and brightly
spotted breast. Its short toes and tarsi are covered
with scales which afford it protection against the
serpents on which it preys. The abundance of this
species is doubtless accounted for by the large
number of lizards and serpents found in Palestine.
It is found throughout Central Europe, but only
rarely ; on the other hand, it is seen fairly often
in the countries bordering on the Mediterranean.
It breeds in trees and not on rocks.

In Rev 4 7 the eagle plays a part in the vision of
the throne in heaven : ' And the first creature was
like a lion, and the second creature like a calf, and
the third creature had a face as of a man, and the
fourth creature was like a flying eagle. ' These four
forms, which suggest all that is strongest, noblest,
wisest, and swiftest in animate nature, are the same
as those in Ezekiel's vision (Ezk I 10 ), but here the
order is different, and each ' living creatrre ' has
six wings, while in Ezekiel each has only four
wings. Nature, including man, is thus represented
before the Throne as consciously or unconsciously
taking its part in the fulfilment of the will of the

In Rev 8 18 : ' And I saw, and I heard an eagle,
flying in mid heaven, saying with a great voice,
Woe, woe, woe, for them that dwell on the earth,
by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the
three angels who are yet to sound,' the eagle ap-
pears as the herald or calamity. The first series
of four trumpet-blasts have gone forth, and the
forces of Nature have done their work ruthlessly,
but the worst is yet to come. The eagle which,
it will be noted, was heard as well as seen is
chosen on account of its swiftness as a fitting
emblem of the judgment about to fall upon the
pagan population of the world.

In Rev 12 14 the eagle is the means whereby the
woman i.e. the Christian Church is conveyed
away from the dragon and his fury to a place of
safety in the wilderness. The actual event alluded
to was no doubt the escape of the Church of Jeru-
salem to Pella (cf. Mk 13" ' then let them that are
in Judsea flee unto the mountains'), though the
life of the Church and her members must always
to some extent be a solitary life i.e. in the world
but not of it and her vocation will, from one
point of view, always be that of a 'voice crying
in the wilderness.' Again, in the early days of

Christianity persecution made secrecy necessary
for the very existence of the Church. The figure
in Rev 12 14 is paralleled in the OT. Thus in Ex
19 4 Jahweh is represented as saying, ' Ye have
seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how 1
bare you on eagles' wings, afld brought you unto
myself,' while in Dt 32 11 He is likened unto an
eagle : ' As an eagle that stirreth up her nest, that
fluttereth over her young, he spread abroad his
wings, he took them, he bare them on his pinions.'
Lastly, in Is 40 31 the promise to those who shall
' wait upon the Lord ' is that ' they shall renew
their strength,' and 'mount up with wings as
eagles.' In all the passages in Revelation, it is pro-
bable that der6s denotes ' vulture ' as elsewhere.

LITERATURE. For the eagle in Palestine see H. B. Tristram,
SWP, 'The Fauna and Flora of Palestine,' 1884, pp. 94-101,
Natural History of the Bible, 1911, p. 172 ff. ; W. M. Thom-
son, The Land and the Bnok, new ed., 1910, p. 150 f. ; E. W. G.
Masterman, in S>B, 200 ; G. E. Post, in HDB i. 632 ; A. E.
Shipley and S. A. Cook, in EBi ii. 1145. On the texts see
especially H. B. Swete, The Apocalypse of St. John"*, 1907,

ad foe. P. S. P. HANDCOCK.

EAR. The finer shades of biblical statement are
discerned only as we succeed in placing ourselves
at the contemporary point of view. This is par-
ticularly the case with references to personality
and its elements or manifestations, since primitive
or ancient psychology differs so greatly from the
psychology of the present time. For example,
primitive psychology, in its ignorance of the nervous
system, distributes psychical and ethical attributes
to the various physical organs. There are tribes
that give the ears of a dead enemy to their youths
to be eaten, because they regard the physical ear
as the seat of intelligence, which thus becomes an
attribute of the consumer ( J. G. Frazer, The Golden
Bough 2 , 1900, ii. 357 f. ). Though the Bible contains
nothing so crude as this, yet the same idea of local-
ized psychical function underlies its references to
the ear. The high priest's ear is consecrated by
the application of ram's blood, that he may the
better hear God (Lv S 23 ) ; the slave's ear, on his
renunciation of liberty, is pierced by his master,
as a guarantee of his permanent obedience (Ex 21 6 ,
Dt 15 17 ). Such practices help to give the true line
of approach to many biblical references to the ear,
the full force of which might otherwise be missed.
The 'peripheral consciousness' of the ear (cf. 1 S 3 11 ,
Job 12 11 , EC I 8 , etc.) must be remembered in regard
to phrases which have become to us simply conven-
tional, such as the repeated refrain of the Apoca-
lypse, ' He that hath an ear, let him hear ' (Rev 2 7 ,
etc. ; oCs). This greater intensity of local meaning
gives new point to the Pauline analogy between
the human oody and the Church. Since ' the body
is not one member, but many' (1 Co 12 14 ), in a
psychical and moral, as well as in a physical, sense,
it is more readily conceivable that the ear might
resent its inferiority to the eye (v. 16 ). Its actual
co-operation with the eye is therefore a more effec-
tive rebuke to the envy springing from Corinthian

Moral or spiritual qualities are assigned to the
ear in several passages, according to the frequent
OT usage (Pr 15 31 , Is 59 1 , etc.); one example is
quoted from the OT and applied by St. Paul to
the Jews of Rome : ' their ears are dull of hearing*
[Ac 2S 27 ; cf. Ro II 8 ). The same charge is brought
by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews against
those to whom he writes (5 11 ; aicoat, not o5s). This
attribution of quality to the organ does not, of
course, imply naturalistic determinism ; the ear is
part of the responsible personality. If men ' hav-
ing itching ears, will heap to themselves teachers
after their own lusts,' it is because ' they will turn
away their ears from the truth ' (2 Ti 4 s *- ; d*co??).
The OT reference to the ' uncircumcised ' ear ( Jer 6 10 )




is several times repeated (Ac 7 s1 ; Ep. Barn. ix. 4,
x. 12).

The only significant act named in this literature
in reference to the ear is that of those who hear
Stephen declare his vision of Jesus at the right hand
of God : they stop their ears, that the blasphemy
may not enter (Ac 7 87 ). Ignatius writes to the
Ephesians (ix. 1), with reference to false teachers,
' ye stopped your ears, so that ye might not receive
the seed sown by them.' Irenseus (ap. Eus. HE
v. 20) says of Polycarp that ' if that blessed and
apostolic presbyter had heard any such thing [as
the Gnosticism of Florinus], he would have cried
out, and stopped his ears.' The baptismal practice
of a later age protected the ear of the candidate by
the Effeta (Ephphatha), a rite based on the miracle
recorded in Mk 7 s3 . The priest touched the ear
with his finger moistened with saliva (Duchesne,
Origines du Quite Chretien*, 1908, p. 311). The posi-
tive side of the baptismal anointing of the ear seems
to be implied in the Odes of Solomon, ix. 1 : ' Open
your ears, and I will speak to you' (cf. J. H.
Bernard, TS viii. 3 [1912] ad loc.). For the
apostles, therefore, the ear forms the correlate to
' the word of faith which we preach ' (Ro 10 s ' 18 ),
which is conceived with equal pregnancy of mean-
ing as the vehicle of the Spirit (E. Sokolowski,
Die Begriffe Geist und Leben bei Paulus, 1903,
pp. 263-267). Through the response of the con-
scious ear to the spoken word, an experience is
begun which eventually passes into the realm of
those ' things which ear heard not ' ( 1 Co 2 s * ; cf. 1
Clem, xxxiv. 8, 2 Clem. xi. 7), and of those ' un-
speakable words which it is not lawful for a man
to utter ' (2 Co 12 4 ). H. WHEELER ROBINSON.

EARNEST (dppapAv). The word occurs three
times in the NT, viz. 2 Co I 22 5* ' the earnest of
the Spirit,' and Eph I 14 'the earnest of our inherit-
ance.' The word means ' pledge,' ' surety,' ' assur-
ance,' and is taken from an old Hebrew term used
in connexion with the transference of property.
The Hebrew equivalent fianj is found in Gn 38 17 - 18 - =
referring to the pledge of a staff and a signet-ring
given by Judah to Tamar as an assurance that she
would receive her hire. Probably the word came
into Greek through Phoenician traders, and we
find it in Latin in three forms : arrhabo, arrabo
(e.g. Plautus, True. III. ii. 20), and arrha (e.g.
Aulus Gellius, XVII. ii. 21). It is found in the
form arra or arrhes in the languages most directly
derived from the Latin. The Scotch word ' arles '
the coin given by a master to a servant on en-
gagement as a pledge that the fee will be duly
paid is derived from the same source, and corre-
sponds to the obsolete English word ' earlespenny.'
The word signifies, not merely a pledge, but also
a part of the possession. In the conveyance of
property in ancient times it was usual for the
seller to give the buyer a handful of earth or part
of the thatch of the house as a token that the bar-
gain would be binding, and that the whole pro-
perty, of which the buyer thus received a part,
would be delivered over in due course.

In Scripture the idea underlying this conception is
frequently referred to. Thus in Gn 24 22 - B3 the ear-
rings and the bracelets given by Eliezer to Rebecca
are tokens of the wealth of his master and evidence
of a comfortable home in Canaan. In the NT
passages the Holy Spirit which is given to believers
is regarded by the Apostle as both the pledge and
the first-fruits of the inheritance that awaits them.
In 2 Co I 23 5 s 'the earnest of the Spirit' is the
earnest which is the Spirit. The present posses-
sions of Christian believers imparted by the Spirit
are both pledge and foretaste of the future bliss
that awaits them. They are the ' earnest ' of the
' inheritance ' (Eph I 14 ). W. F. BOYD.


Earth (yrj) is used in a variety of meanings, which
may be distinguished as follows : (1) the dust or
matter of which the first man was made (1 Co 15 47 ) ;
(2) the fertile soil which yields grass and herbs
and fruit (He 6 7 , Ja 5 7 , Rev O 4 ) ; (3) the solid
ground upon which men stand or fall (Ac 9 4< 8 ) ; (4)
the land in contrast with the sea (2 P 3 s , Rev 10 5 ) ;
(5) the whole Avorld as the abode of men (Ac I 8 ,
etc. ; equivalent here to the more frequent okou-
u^v-n) or beasts (Ac 10 12 II 6 ) ; (6) the earth in space,
in contrast with the visible heavens skies and
stars (Ac 2 19 , Rev 6 1S ) ; (7) the earth in contrast
with the invisible heavens the dwelling-place of
God and Christ, of angels and perfected saints
(Ac 7**, 1 Co 15 47 , Eph 3 15 , He 8 4 ; cf. v. 1 ) ; (8) the
earth in contrast with the underworld (Ph 2 10 ,
Rev 5 s - 1S ) ; (9) the earth with a moral connota-
tion, as the sphere of a merely worldly life to
which is opposed the heavenly life with Christ in
God (Col 3 - *).

Earthen (6o-Tp&Ktvos, fr. 6<rrpa.Koi>=' burnt clay,' or
anything made therefrom). The Gr. word occurs
twice in the NT, but in EV is only once translated
' earthen.' In 2 Ti 2 20 the rendering is ' of earth,'
and the reference is simply to the material of the
earthen vessels in contrast with those of gold and
silver and wood. In 2 Co 4 7 , where ' earthen ' is
\ised, there appears to be a suggestion not only of
the meanness of the earthen vessels in contrast
with the preciousness of the treasure they con-
tain, but of their frailty in contrast with the ex-
ceeding greatness of the Divine power of God who
uses them as His instruments.

Earthy (xoiVds, ' made of earth,' fr. xovs = ' earth,'
' dust,' by which in the LXX isy is rendered in Gn
2 7 , etc. ; though in other passages 7?) is frequently
employed for the same purpose, just as it is by
St. Paul in 1 Co 15 47 ). The only occurrence of the
word is in 1 Co 15 47 - ^ 49 , where Adam is called
'earthy,' i.e. consisting of earth-material, in con-
trast with Christ, the ' heavenly,' i.e. of heavenly
origin. The meaning of ' earthy ' here is thus sug-
gested by (7) above as well as by (1).

Earthly (Myeios, 'upon the earth,' 'terrestrial,'
2 Co 5 1 , Ph 3 19 , Ja 3 15 ). Outside of the Fourth
Gospel ' earthly ' occurs only 3 times in the NT,
but tirlyeios is found also in 1 Co 15 40 , where EV
renders 'terrestrial,' and Ph 2', where EV gives
'things on earth.' In all these passages there is
a contrast of the earthly with the heavenly. In
1 Co 15 40 , 2 Co 5 1 the contrast is that suggested
under (7). In Ph 3 19 , Ja 3 18 it is that suggested
under (9). In Ph 2 10 , while 'things on earth ' are
contrasted with 'things in heaven,' the meaning of
iirtyeios itself is that suggested by (5), the ' things on
earth ' being the inhabitants of the whole world ;
and there is a further contrast with the 'things
under the earth,' the inhabitants of the under world
(cf. (8)). J. C. LAMBERT.

EARTHQUAKE (<rei<r/>s, from vela, ' to shake ').
In the ancient East all abnormal phenomena
were regarded as supernatural, and any attempt
to explain them by secondary causes was dis-
couraged as savouring of irreverent prying into
hidden things. Being at once so mysterious and
so terrible, earthquakes and volcanoes were traced
to the direct activity of One 'who looketh upon
the earth and it trembleth ; he toucheth the
mountains and they smoke ' (Ps 104 32 ). Minor
tremors were not, indeed, always interpreted as
signs of the Divine displeasure ; sometimes quite
the contrary. When a company of disciples were
praising God and praying after the release of St.
Peter and St. John from prison, the shaking of
the room was regarded as a token that the Lord
Himself was at hand to defend His cause. But




more severe shocks were always apt to cause a
panic fear, which was naturally greatest in the
breasts of those who were conscious of guilt.
When St. Paul and Silas were praying and singing
in a Philippian gaol, the place was shaken by an
earthquake violent enough to open the doors and
loose every man's bands (Ramsay's explanations
[St. Paul, 1895, p. 221] are interesting) ; but terror
prevented the prisoners from seizing the oppor-
tunity of escaping, and the chance was past before
they had recovered their wits.

Earthquakes play a great rdle in prophetic and

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