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cf. B. Strassburger, Gesch. der Erziehung bei den
Israeliten, 1885, p. 7). The result of instruction
from the earliest years in the home, and of teaching
received on the Sabbath, and on the frequent oc-
casions of national festivals, is, according to the
Jewish historian, ' that if anybody do bub ask any
one of our people about our laws, he could more
easily tell them all than he could tell his own
name. For because of our having learned them as
soon as ever we became sensible of anything, we
have them as it were engraven on our souls ' (c. Ap.
ii. 19).

Education began, as Josephus says, 'with the
earliest infancy.' Philo speaks of Jewish youth
' being taught, so to speak, from their very swad-
dling clothes by parents and teachers and inspectors,
even before they receive instruction in the holy laws
and unwritten customs of their religion, to believe
in God the one Father and Creator of the world '
(Legat. ad Gaium, 16). ' From a babe thou hast
known the sacred writings,' writes St. Paul to
Timothy (2 Ti 3 15 ), recalling his disciple's early ac-
quaintance with the OT Scriptures. At the age of
six the Jewish boy would go to the elementary
school (Beth ha-Sepher), but before this he would
have received lessons in Scripture from his parents
and have learned the Sh e md and the Hallel. From
the sixth to the tenth year he would make a study
of the Law, along with writing and arithmetic. At
the age of ten he would be admitted to the higher
VOL. I. 21



school (Beth ha-Midrash), where he would make the
acquaintance of the oral Law, beginning with the
Mishna, ' repetition,' the oral traditions of the Law.
At the age of thirteen he would be acknowledged
by a sort of rite of confirmation as a ' Son of the
Commandment' (Bar-misvah), and from this point
his further studies would depend upon the career
he was to follow in life. If he was to become a
Rabbi, he would continue his studies in the Law,
and, as Saul of Tarsus did, betake himself to some
famous teacher and sit at his feet as a disciple.

Although schools were thus in existence in con-
nexion with.the synagogues, it was not till compara-
tively late that schools, in the modern sense, for
the education of children by themselves, seem to
have been instituted (see art. ' Education ' in HDB).
They are said to have been first established by
Simon l>3u-Shetach in the 1st cent. B.C., but this
is disputed. However this may be, schools were

E laced upon a satisfactory and permanent footing
y Joshua bfin-Gamaliel, who is said to have been
high priest from A.D. 63 to 65, and who ordained
that teachers of youth should be placed in every
town and every village, and that children on arriv-
ing at school age should be sent to them for in-
struction. Of him it is said that if he had not lived,
the Law would have perished from Israel. The love
of sacred learning and the study of the Law in
synagogue and school saved the Jewish people from
extinction. When Jerusalem had been destroyed
and the Jewish population had been scattered after
the disastrous events of A.D. 70, the school accom-
panied the people into the lands of their dispersion.
Jamnia, between Joppa and Ashdod, then became
the headquarters of Jewish learning, and retained
the position till the unhappy close of Bar Cochba's
rebellion. The learned circle then moved north-
wards to Galilee, and Tiberias and Sepphoris
became seats of Rabbinical training. Wherever
the Jews were settled, the family gathering of the
Passover, the household instruction as to its origin
and history, and the training in the knowledge of
the Law, served to knit them together and to in-
tensify their national feeling even in the midst of
heathen surroundings.

While the great subject of school instruction was
the Law, the work of the elementary school em-
braced reading, writing, and arithmetic. To make
the Jewish boy familiar with the Hebrew charac-
ters in every jot and tittle, and to make him able
to produce them himself, was the business of the
Beth ha-Sepher, ' the House of the Book.' Reading
thus came to be a universal accomplishment among
the Jewish people, and it was a necessary qualifi-
cation where the sacred books were not the exclu-
sive concern of a priestly caste, but were meant to
be read and studied in the home as well as read
aloud and expounded in the synagogue. The case
of Timothy already referred to is evidence of this ;
and the Scriptures which the Jewish converts of
Berosa ' examined daily ' were no doubt the OT in
Greek which they were trained to study for them-
selves. Writing may not have been so general an
accomplishment, but it must also have been in con-
siderable demand. This can be inferred from the
numerous copies of the Scripture books which had
to be produced ; and from the prevalence of t e phillin
('phylacteries') and m e z4z6th, little metal cases
containing the Sh e ma, the name of God, and texts
of Scripture, fastened to the ' doorposts ' of Jewish
houses, which were in use before the Apostolic Age.
The simple rules of arithmetic would be wanted to
calculate the weeks, months, and festivals of the
Jewish year.

In the higher school, B3th ha-Midrash, 'the
House of Study,' the contents of the Law and the
Books of Scripture as a whole were expounded by
the authorities. It is said to have been a rule of



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the Jewish schools not to allow all and sundry,
without regard to age, to read all the books of
Holy Scripture, but to give to the young all those
portions of Scripture whose literal sense com-
manded universal acceptance, and only after they
had attained the age of twenty-five to allow them
to read the whole. Origen tells of the scruples of
the Jewish teachers in regard to the reading of
the Song of Solomon by the young (Harnack, Bible
Reading in the Early Church, 1912, p. 30 f . ). But
there was no lack of materials for reading and ex-
position. In course of time there grew up the
great and varied literature now contained in the
Talmud the Mishna, the Gemara, and the Mid-
rdshic literature of all sorts narrative, illustra-
tive, proverbial, parabolic, and allegorical (see I.
Abrahams, Short History of Jeivish Literature,
1906, ch. iv. ; Oesterley and Box, Religion and
Worship of the Synagogue*, 1911, ch. v.).

In the school the children sat on the floor in a
circle round the teacher, who occupied a chair or
bench (Lk 2^ 10 39 , Ac 22 3 ). The method of instruc-
tion was oral and catechetical. In the schools at-
tached to the synagogues of Eastern Judaism to
this day, committing to memory and learning by
rote are the chief methods of instruction, and the
clamour of infant and youthful voices is heard re-
peating verses and passages of Scripture the whole
school day. This kind of oral repetition and com-
mitting to memory undoubtedly occupied a large
place in the earliest Christian teaching, and had
an important influence in the composition of the
gospel narratives. The purpose of St. Luke in
writing his Gospel was that Theophilus might
know more fully the certainty of the things con-
cerning Jesus wherein he had been instructed
(Kartjxri9r)s) (Lk I 4 ). Apollos having been thus in-
structed in the way of the Lord (Ac 18 25 ) taught
with accuracy the facts concerning Jesus. But
whilst the method had great advantages, it had
also great dangers, tending to crush out all origin-
ality and life, and to result in barren formalism.

In the education of the Jewish boy, punishment,
we may be sure, was not withheld. The directions
of the Book of Proverbs, which is itself a treasury
of sound educational principles, were carried out
not only in the home but in the school (Pr 12 24
19 18 23 13 ). St. Paul, addressing a self-righteous
Jew, exposes the inconsistency of the man who
professes to be a guide of the blind (6577761' r^XtDv),
a corrector of the foolish (iraiSevr^v a<j>p6vuv), and
a teacher of infants (did&cncaXov vyirluv), and yet does
not know the inwardness of the Law (Ro 2 19f> ).

Games had some part in the life of Jewish
schoolboys. One game consisted in imitating
their elders at marriages and funerals (Mt II 16 '-).
Riddles and guesses seem to have been common,
and story-telling, music, and song were not want-
ing. But when, under the influence of Antiochus
Epiphanes, a gymnasion for the athletic perform-
ances of the Greeks was set up in Jerusalem and
the youth of the city were required to strip them-
selves of their clothing, it became a grievous cause of
offence to the pious among the people (1 Mac l lur -).
See art ' Games ' in HDB.

Whilst the education of Jewish youth on the
theoretical side centred in the Law and was calcu-
lated to instil piety towards God, no instruction
was complete without the knoAvledge of some
trade or handicraft. To circumcise him, to teach
him the Law, to give him a trade, were the
primary obligations of a father towards his son.
' He that teacheth not his son a trade doeth the
same as if he taught him to be a thief,' is a Jewish
saying. Jesus Himself was the carpenter (Mk 6 3 ),
and Saul of Tarsus, the scholar of Gamaliel, was a
tent-maker (Ac 18 s ). We hear of Rabbis who were
needle-makers, tanners, and followed other cccnna-



tions, and who, like St. Paul, made it their boast
that their own hands ministered to their necessities
and to them that accompanied them (Ac 20 34 ).

The education of the Jewish youth began at
home, and the parents were the first instructors.
Of a noted teacher of the 2nd cent. A.D. it was
said that he never broke his fast until he had first
given a lesson to his son. But in due course the
children were sent to school, in Rabbinic times
apparently under the protection of a pcedagogue,
better known, however, in Greek family life
(Gal S 24 ). The teacher was required to be a man
of unblemished character, of gentle and patient
disposition, with aptness to teach. Only married
men could be employed as teachers. Women and
unmarried men were excluded from the office.
The office itself was full of honour : ' A city which
neglects to appoint teachers ought to be destroyed,'
runs the saying. One teacher was to be employed
where there were 25 scholars (with an assistant
where the number exceeded 25), and two where they
exceeded 40. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the
Christian era teachers received salaries, but the
remuneration was in respect of the more technical
part of the instruction. Nothing was to be charged
for the Midrdsh, the exposition of Scripture.

The girls in Jewish families were not by any
means left without instruction. The women of the
household, like Eunice, the mother, and Lois, the

grandmother, of Timothy (2 Ti I 8 ), who at least in-
uenced the boys, would have a more active part
in the instruction of the girls. This means that
they were not themselves left without education.
The example of Priscilla, the wife of Aquila,
shows that a Jewess (who did not owe all her train-
ing to Christianity) might be possessed of high
gifts and attainments (Ac 18 26 ). In the Talmud
similar instances of gifted and accomplished women
are to be found. One of the most notable features
in what is known as the Reform movement in
modern Judaism is the earnestness with which its
adherents insist upon the more general and the
higher education of women.

LITERATURE. Relevant articles in J. Hamburger, Real-En-
cyclopadie fur Bibel und Talmud?, 1884 ff. ; S. S. Laurie,
Hist. Survey of Pre-Christian Education, 1895 : 'The Semitic
Races ' ; A. Buchler, The Economic Conditions of Judcea after
the Destruction of the Second Temple, 1912 ; art. ' Education
(Jewish)' by Morris Joseph in ERE v. [1912] 194, and Litera-
ture there cited.

2. Greek. Among the Greeks education was
the affair of the St;lte. Its purpose was to prepare
the sons of free citizens for the duties awaiting
them, first in the family and then in the State.
Whilst among the Jews education was meant for
all, without respect of rank or class, among the
Greeks it was intended for the few the wealthy
and the well-born. Plutarch in his treatise on the
education of children says : ' Some one may object
that I in undertaking to give prescriptions in the
training of children of free citizens apparently
neglect the training of the poor townsmen, and
only think of instructing the rich to which the
obvious answer is that I should desire the training
I prescribe to be attainable alike by all ; but if any
through want of private means cannot attain it,
let them blame their fortune and not their adviser.
Every effort, however, must be made even by the
poor to train their children in the best possible way,
and if this is beyond them to do it according to
their means' (de Lib. Educ. ii.). Down to the
Roman period at least, this educational exclusive-
ness was maintained, and only the sons of those
who were full citizens were the subjects of educa-
tion, although there were cases in which daughters
rose to distinction in letters, and even examples
of slaves, like the philosopher Epictetus, who
burst the restraints of their position and showed
themselves capable of rising to eminence in learn-



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323



ing and virtue. We even read of bequests being
made to provide free education to children of both
sexes, but the rule was that women needed no
more instruction than they were likely to receive
at home. Being an affair of the State, education
was under the control of officials appointed to
superintend it. Gymnastic, for the training of the
body, and music in the larger sense, including
letters, for the training of the mind, were the sub-
jects of instruction. These athletics, literature,
music were regulated by a body of guardians of
public instruction (iraiSoi>6fjLoi). We hear of an
Ephebarch at the head of a college of tyrjpot, or
youths who have entered the higher school, and of
a Gymnasiarch who superintends the exercises of
the vaXalffrpa. and pays the training-masters.

The stages of education were practically the
same in all the different branches of the wide-spread
Grecian people. First, there was the stage of home
education, extending from birth to the end of the
seventh year, when the children were under paren-
tal supervision ; second, the stage of school educa-
tion, beginning with the eighth year and lasting to
the sixteenth or eighteenth year ; thirdly, there
was the stage from the sixteenth or eighteenth to
the twenty-first year, when the youths were tyrjpoi,
and were subjected to strict discipline and training.
Before a youth was enrolled among the ((prj^oi he
had to undergo an examination (SoKifJuxrla) to make
sure that he was the son of an Athenian citizen
and that he had the physique for the duties now
devolving upon him. This was really the univer-
sity stage of his career, for he then attended the
class of the rhetors and sophists who lectured in
such institutions as the Lyceum and the Academy,
and devoted himself to the study of rhetoric and
philosophy (cf. Ac 19 9 ). On the completion of this
course lie was ready to enter upon the exercise of
his duties towards trie State.

When the boy, at the age of seven, went to
school the grammar school and the gymnastic
school he was accompanied by a servant called
a -iraidaywyos who carried his opoks and writing
materials, his lyre and other instruments, and
saw him to school and back (see SCHOOLMASTER,
TUTOR). The school-rooms of ancient Athens seem
to have been simple enough, containing little or
no furniture they were often nothing but porches
open to wind and sun, where the children sat on
the ground, or on low benches, and the teacher on
a high chair. At first the child would be exer-
cised in the rudiments,' r& orotxa (cf. Col 2 s and
Xen. Mem. II. i. 1). Great stress was laid upon
reading, recitation, and singing. In particular, the
memory was exercised upon the best literature,
and cultivated to an extraordinary degree of re-
tentiveness. The works of ^Esop and Theognis
were much in use in the class-rooms. Homer was
valued not merely as a poet but as an inspired
moral teacher, and the Iliad and Odyssey were the
Bible of the Greeks. Great pains were also taken
with the art of writing. Tablets covered with
wax formed the material to receive the writing,
and the stylus was employed to trace the letters.
By apostolic times papyrus or parchment was in
use, written upon with pen (*cdXo/*os) and ink
(AtAaiO (2 Jn 12 , 3 Jn 13 ; cf. 2 Co 3 3 and 2 Ti 4 18 ).
Sherds (5<rrpa/ca) were a common writing material
that used by the very poor in ancient Egypt.
Exercises in writing and in grammar have been
preserved to us in the soil of Egypt written on
ostraca, on wooden tablets, on tablets smeared over
with wax, and have now been recovered to let us
see the performances of the school children of
twenty centuries ago. Among them are school
copies giving the letters of the alphabet, syllables,
common words and proper names, conjugation of
verbs, pithy or proverbial sayings as headlines,



and there are even exercises having the appearance
of being school punishments (E. Ziebarth, Aus der
antiken Schule, 1910, in Lietzmann's JKleine Texte).

The mention of school punishments leads to the
subject of school discipline. At home, at school,
and in the palaestra, the rod and the lash were
freely used. It is from school life, both Jewish and
Greek, that St. Paul, as noted already, derives the
imagery of a well-known passage in his Epistles
(Ho 2 17-21 ). In the Psalms of Solomon, a Jewish
book written under Greek influence, there is* refer-
ence both to the rod (/5d/35os, vii. 8) and to the lash
(/id<n-i, xviii. 8) as instruments of punishment ;
and ' chastening,' 'correction ' (iraidfia), occurs again
and again in this sense (Eph 6 4 , 2 Ti 3 16 , Me 12 11 ;
cf. Didache, 4).

'We are given over to grammar,' says Sextus
Empiricus (adv. Math. L 41), 'from childhood, and
almost from our baby-clothes.' Grammar was
succeeded by rhetoric, which had accomplished its
purpose when the student had acquired the power
of speaking offhand on any subject under discus-
sion. In addition to these subjects, philosophy
was also taught, its technical terms being mastered
and its various schools discriminated. Arithmetic,
geometiy, astronomy belonged to the programme
of secondary education, and from Plato and Aris-
totle there have come down to us the seven liberal
arts the trivium and the quadrivium of the Middle
Ages. All the while gymnastic training went
hand in hand with the training of the intellect.
The gymnasion, where the youths of Greece exer-
cised themselves naked, was enclosed by walls and
fitted up with dressing-rooms, bath-rooms, and
requisites for running, leaping, wrestling, boxing,
and other athletic exercises, and there were seats
round about the course for spectators, and porticoes
where philosophers gathered.

By the Apostolic Age it had become the practice
for promising students to supplement their school
education by seeking out and attending the lectures
of eminent teachers in what we should call the
great universities. Roman Emperors like Claudius
and Nero had done much to encourage Greek
culture and to introduce it into Rome itself, where
the Athenaeum was a great centre of learning.
At this epoch Athens and Rome had famous
schools, but even they had to yield to Rhodes,
Alexandria, and Tarsus ; and Marseilles, which
had been from the very early days of Greek history
a centre of Greek influence, was in the time of
Strabo more frequented than Athens. The idea
that Barnabas of Cyprus and Saul of Tarsus had
met in early life at the university of Tarsus is by
no means fanciful, and it was to his education at
Tarsus that St. Paul owed the power to ' move in
Hellenic Society at his ease' (W. M. Ramsay,
Pictures of the Apostolic Church, 1910, p. 346).
That St. Luke had received a medical education
and was familiar with the great medical writers of
the Greek world is now almost universally ad-
mitted ; his literary style and the frequent echoes
of Greek authors, at least in the Acts of the
Apostles, prove him to have been a well-educated
and cultured Hellenist. Of the various philosophic
schools then exercising an influence upon thought
in the Greek world two are expressly mentioned
in the Acts (17 W ) the Stoics and the Epicureans.
St. Paul must have received Stoic teaching at
Tarsus, where the school flourished, and he knew
and quoted at least one Stoic poet (Ac 11 s8 ). A
century later Marcus Aurelius endowed the four

freat philosophical schools of Athens the Aca-
emic, the Peripatetic, the Epicurean, and the
Stoic. Justin Martyr, a little earlier, .in the ac-
count he gives of his conversion to Christianity
(Dial, cum Tryph. 2 ff.), shows how the representa-
tives of the Stoic, the Peripatetic, the Pythagorean,



324



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and the Academic (Platonic) Schools in turn failed
to satisfy his yearning after truth, and satisfaction
came to him when he found Christianity to be the
only philosophy sure and suited to the needs of
man. Christianity, brought into contact with
the society in which this philosophical habit of
mind had established itself, modified, stimulated,
and elevated it, and in turn was modified by the
habit of mind of those who accepted it. ' It was
impossible for Greeks, educated as they were with
an education which penetrated their whole nature,
to receive or to retain Christianity in its primitive
simplicity. Their own life had become complex
and artificial : it had its fixed ideas and its perma-
nent categories : it necessarily gave to Christianity
something of its own form' (E. Hatch, Influence
of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian
Church [Hibbert Lectures, 1888], 1890, ch, ii.
p. 48 f.).

LITERATURE. T. Davidson, Aristotle (in Great Educators),
1892 ; S. S. Laurie, Hist. Survey of Pre-Christian Education,
1895: 'The Hellenic Kace'; J. P. Ma.ha.ffy, The Greek World
under Roman Sway, 1890; art. 'Education (Greek)' by W.
Murison in ERE v. 185 and Literature there cited.

3. Christian. The sentiment which caused
education to be so prized among the Jews must in
course of time have caused it to be greatly desired
among the followers of Christ. To the first Chris-
tians, as to the Lord and His apostles, the OT
Scriptures were the Bible, and, outside the Holy
Land at least, the Bible in the LXX translation.
No doubt it was a roll of this translation
which the Ethiopian eunuch was carrying back
with him to his home far up the Nile, when Philip
the Evangelist joined him in his chariot on the
Gaza road (Ac S 27 *'). It was the same Scriptures
wherein the youthful Timothy was instructed from
infancy in the home of his Greek father, under the
guidance of Eunice and Lois (2 Ti 3 15 ). St. Paul,
in the many quotations he makes from the OT,
quotes from the LXX rather than from the Hebrew
original. ' The LXX was to him as much " the
Bible " as our English version is to us ; and, as is
the case with many Christian writers, he knew it
so well that his sentences are constantly moulded
by its rhythm, and his thoughts incessantly
coloured by its expressions' (Farrar, St. Paul,
1879, i. 47). It was not till the second half of the
2nd cent, that most of the NT books were recog-
nized in the Church as the Oracles of God, and on
the same level of authority as the books of the OT.
'Among the Jewish Christians,' as Harnack points
out, ' the private use of the Holy Scriptures simply
continued ; for the fact that they had become
believers in the Messiahship of Jesus had absolutely
no other effect than to increase this use, in so far
as it was now necessary to study not only the Law
but also the Prophets and the Kethubim, seeing
that these afforded prophetic proofs of the Messiah-
ship of Jesus, and in so far as the religious inde-
pendence of the individual Christian was still
greater than that of the ordinary Jew' (Bible
Heading in the Early Church, p. 32).

That the private study which had been devoted
to the OT came in due course to be given to the
books of the NT may be seen from the use of them
in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers. The OT,
the Gospels, and the Epistles of St. Paul had a
wide circulation at an early period, in all the
provinces of the early Church, and were perused
and applied to their spiritual needs by multitudes
of Christians, not clerical only, but lay ; not men
only, but women. ' Ye know the Holy Scriptures,'
writes Clement of Rome to the Corinthian Chris-
tians (1 Clem. liii. 1), 'Yea, your knowledge is
laudable, and ye have deep insight into the Oracles



Online LibraryJames HastingsDictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) → online text (page 104 of 234)