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tempt of Greek for barbarian was equally pro-
nounced. Christ came to end these and all similar
racial antipathies. By His Cross He ' abolished '
and ' slew ' the enmity (Eph 2 15 - 16 ), creating a new
manhood which is neither Jewish, Greek, nor
Roman, but comprehensive, cosmopolitan, catholic,
fulfilling the highest classical ideal of human




fellowship ' hnmani nihil a me alienum puto '
(Terence, Heaut. I. i. 25) all because it is Christian.

(3) The Christian, however, cannot help having
enemies. Just because he is not of the world, the
world hates him (Jn 15 18ff -). But the spirit of
Christ that is in him constrains him to feed his
enemy when hungry, give him drink when thirsty
(Ro 12 20 ), and so endeavour to change him into a

(4) Every preacher, because he is bound to be a
moralist and reformer, runs a special risk of being
mistaken for an enemy. Truth, though spoken in
love, may arouse hatred : &<rre tyBpfc {I/JMV ytyova.
d\7?0etfw' bfuv ; (Gal 4 18 ). Yet a moment's thought
would make it clear that the aim is not to hurt
but to heal, and the surgeon who skilfully uses the
knife is ever counted a benefactor.

(5) The courageous faith of the early Church
assumed that Christ would put all His enemies
under His feet (1 Co 15 2 *; cf. He I 18 10 13 ), i.e. that
every form of evil, moral and physical alike, would
finally be subdued. ' The last enemy that shall
be destroyed is death ' (1 Co 15 26 ).

(6) A single passage seems, prima facie, to imply
that men may sometimes be enemies of God sensu
passive. To the Romans St. Paul says of the
Jews, ' They are enemies for your sake (Ro II 28 ).
They are treated as enemies in order that salvation
may come to the Gentiles. But the enmity is far
from being absolute ; they are all the time ' beloved '
(fryatrifrol Sid, TOI)J irartpas, II 28 ).


ENOCH CEi^x)- Enoch (along with Elijah) was
regarded as having a unique destiny among the saints
of the OT, in that when his earthly life was ended he
was taken directly to heaven. Gn 5 s4 is referred to
(1) by the writer of Hebrews (II 8 ), who gives Enoch
the second place in his roll of the faithful. Instead
of the Hebrew text (' and Enoch walked with God,
and he was not, for God took him '), the writer had
before him the LXX version : Kal e&ripto-Ti)ffcv'Evu>x
T(j5 0ey- Kal o&x yvpiffKeTO, Si6ri pertOrjicev afrrbv 6 6e6s.
The phrase ' he pleased God ' which is used in
other places (Gn 17 1 24 40 48 15 , etc. ) where the original
has ' he walked with (or before) God ' is regarded
by the author of Hebrews as a testimony to
Enoch's faith. To the statement that ' God took
(or translated) him ' the writer adds the explanatory
words ' that lie should not (or did not) see death.'
The idea of immortality has rather to be imported
into the original words, which, as Calvin saw,
might imply no more than ' mors quaedam extra-
ordinaria. But the thought that Enoch escaped
death had already been suggested by Sirach (49 14 )
in his eulogy or famous men : ' No man was
created upon the earth such as was Enoch ; for he
was taken up (avc\i?ifj.<f>0i)) from the earth.' In 4
Ezr. vi. 26, Enoch and Elijah are spoken of as
men 'who have not tasted death from their birth.'
Josephus preserves the ambiguity of the original
in a characteristic phrase, ' he departed to the
deity' (avex&pyw "7>dj T i> Oelov), but instead of
venturing to infer that this implies actual death-
lessness, the historian merely adds : ' whence it is
that his death is not recorded' (Ant. I. iii. 4).
The 'two witnesses 'in Rev II 3 are generally re-
garded as Enoch and Elijah.

(2) In later Judaism the words 'and Enoch
walked with God' were interpreted as meaning
that he was made the recipient of special Divine
revelations. In the recovered Hebrew text of Sir
44 18 he is described as ' an example of knowledge '
(changed in the Greek into MSeiyfj.* fieravotas ratj
yweais), and the Book of Jubilees says, ' He was
the first among men . . . who learned writing and
knowledge and wisdom. . . . And he was with
the angels of God these six jubilees of years, and
they showed him everything which is on earth and

in the heavens ' (ch. iv. [Charles, Apoc. and Pseud-
epig., 1913, p. 18 f.]). Enoch the saint was thus
transformed into the patron of esoteric knowledge,
and became the author of apocalyptic books. In
Jude 14 he is designated ' the seventh from Adam,'
a phrase taken from the Book of Enoch (Ix. 8,
xciii. 3), and a passage is quoted in which he is re-
presented as threatening judgment upon the false
teachers of the early Christian Church.

'The extraordinary developments of the Enoch-legend in
later Judaism could never have grown out of this passage
[Gn 5 21 - 24 ] alone ; everything goes to show that the record has
a mythological basis, which must have continued to be a living
tradition in Jewish circles in the tune of the Apocalyptic writers.
A clue to the mystery that invests the figure of Enoch has been
discovered in Babylonian literature' (Skinner, Genesis [ICC,
1910], p. 132). He is there identified with Enmeduranki.who is
described in a ritual tablet from the library of Asshurbanipal
as a favourite of the gods, and is said to have been initiated into
the mysteries of heaven and earth, and instructed in certain
arts of divination which he handed down to his son.


E NOCH,BOOK OX. Introductory. The Ethiopic
Book of Enoch (or 1 Enoch, as it is now more con-
veniently denominated) is the largest, and, after
the canonical Book of Daniel, the most important
of the Jewish apocalyptic works which have so
recently come to be recognized as supplying most
important data for the critical study of NT ideas
and phraseology. The Book or rather the Books
of Enoch the reader will find to be a work of
curious complexity and unevenness. It is a wonder-
ful mass of heterogeneous elements ; in fact, it is
quite a cycle of works in itself geographical,
astronomical, prophetic, moral, and historical. In
this medley we find certain recurring notes. The
temporary success and triumph of the wicked,
idolaters, luxurious, rich, oppressors, rulers, kings,
and mighty ones, and the present sufferings of the
righteous, are continually contrasted with their
future destiny after death or after judgment,
according to tne views of the particular author as
to the moment at which moral discrimination will
begin. Another recurring note is the subservience
of natural phenomena to spiritual and quasi-per-
sonal forces, which in turn are responsible and as
a rule obedient to God. Repeatedly and with
dramatic force the unfailing order of Nature is
contrasted with the disobedience of man. Yet
another recurring feature, and one common to
this apocalyptic literature, is the reserving of the
visions and the books of Enoch for the last days,
for the elect to read and understand. On the
other hand, there is ever and anon a baffling change
in the presentation of ideas about the Kingdom,
the Messiah, the form of the future judgment and
life after death. The pictures of the Messianic
Kingdom take on a shifting, ever-changing form,
in accordance with the views of the author and
the particular tribulations under which each indi-
vidual writer was labouring. Judgment is medi-
ated now by angels of punishment, now by the
archangels, or the sword of the righteous or inter-
necine strife, or by the Son of Man, or exercised
immediately by God Himself. Darkness and
chains and burning fire, valleys and the abyss,
loom large in all descriptions of the place and mode
of punishment. There is a highly developed angel-
ology, in keeping with the general conception of
God s transcendence, and an equally developed
demonology, which is connected with the interest
of the various authors in the problem of the seat
and origin of evil. The power of prayer whether
that of the angels, the departed holy ones, or the
righteous on earth is recognized, especially in the
bringing in of judgment. The space devoted to
the calendar, however, and the movements of the
heavenly bodies, and the secrets of natural forces,
stands in sheer contrast to the NT silence on those




We cannot close without quoting Charles's words
in his introduction (Book of Enoch, 1912, p. x) :

' In the age to which the Enoch literature belongs there is
movement everywhere, and nowhere dogmatic fixity and final-
ity. And though at times the movement may be reactionary,
yet the general trend is onward and upward.' This work is the
most important historical memorial ' of the religious develop-
ment of Judaism from 200 B.C. to 100 A.D., and particularly of
the development of that side of Judaism, to which historically
Christendom in large measure owes its existence.'

We have only to take the single example of
the unique portrait of the ' Son of Man ' in the
Parables eternally pre-existent with God, recog-
nized now by the righteous, and hereafter to be
owned and adored by all, even His foes to be
assured of the truth of this verdict.

1. Contents. SECTION I. : chs. i.-xxxvi.

L-v. Enoch takes up his parable : God's com-
ing to judgment to help and bless the righteous
and destroy the ungodly (i. 1-9) ; Nature's un-
failing order (ii. 1-v. 3) contrasted with sinners'
disobedience ; a curse on them, but forgiveness,
peace, and joy for the elect (v. 4-9).

vi.-xi. (Noachic fragment). Fall of certain
angels, through union with women (vi. 1-vii. 1) ;
birth of giants who devour mankind and drink
blood (vii. 2-6). Knowledge of arts, magic, and
astronomy imparted by fallen angels (viii. 1-4).
Cry of souls of dead for vengeance (viii. 4, ix. 3,
10) heard by the four archangels, who bring their
cause before God (ix. 1-11). God sends Uriel to
Noah to warn him of approaching Deluge (x. 1-3).
Raphael is to bind Azazel in desert in Dudael till
judgment day, and heal the earth (x. 4-7) ; Gabriel
to destroy giants by internecine strife (x. 9-10, 15),
Michael to bind Semjaza and his associates for
seventy generations in valleys of the earth (x.
11-14). All evil is to cease, and the plant of
righteousness (i.e. Israel) to appear (x. 16). All
the righteous are to escape and live till they beget
thousands of children (x. 17), the earth is to yield
a thousandfold, all men are to become righteous
and adore God (x. 21). Sin and punishment will
cease for ever (x. 22). Store-chambers of blessing
in heaven will be opened (xi.).

xii.-xvi. A Dream Vision of Enoch. Enoch is
hidden from men (xii. 1) and is sent to the fallen
angels ('Watchers') with the message: 'no peace
nor forgiveness' (xii. 4-6), which he delivers to
Azazel (xiii. 1, 2) and the others (xiii. 3) ; they
beseech Enoch to write a petition for them (xiii.
4-6) ; as he reads it he falls asleep and sees visions
of chastisement, which he recounts to them (xiii.
7-10). The message of the vision is given in xiv.
1-7 ; the manner of it in xiv. 8-xvi. 4. He ascends
in the vision to heaven, past crystal walls into a
crystal house and a greater house beyond, to the
blazing throne of the Great Glory (xiv. 20), whom
no angel can behold. He entrusts Enoch with
the message to the Watchers ; they had sinned
in taking wives (xv. 3-^7) ; from the dead giants'
bodies proceed evil spirits which, remaining on
earth, do all harm with impunity till the Great
Judgment (xv. 8-xvi. 1); the Watchers' doom is
repeated (xvi. 2-4).

xvii.-xxxvi. Enoch's two journeys : through the
earth and to Sheol. (a) xvii.-xix. Enoch is
brought to the ends of the earth and views trea-
suries of stars, and the winds that uphold heaven
(xvii. 1-xviii. 3), and seven mountains of precious
stones (xviii. 6), and beyond, a deep abyss of fire
(xviii. 11), and further, an utter waste (xviii. 12)
with seven stars like burning mountains, bound for
ten thousand years for not observing their appointed
times (xviii. 13-16). Here stand the fallen angels,
whose spirits seduce men to idolatry (xix. 1)
and their wives, turned into sirens (xix. 2). (6)
xx.-xxxvi. The seven archangels Uriel, Raphael,
Raguel, Michael, Saraqael, Gabriel, Remiel and

their functions (xx. ). Enoch proceeds to chaos and
the seven stars and the abyss of xviii. 12-16 (xxi.
1-7), which is the final prison of the fallen angels
(xxi. 8-10). Elsewhere in the west he sees a
great mountain with three ('four' in text) hollow
places ( = Sheol), to contain men's souls till the
Great Judgment one for martyrs like Abel and
other righteous men, with a bright spring of water
(xxii. 5-9), one for unpunished sinners (xxii. 10, 11),
one for sinners (who suffered in life), who never
rise (xxii. 12-13). Thereafter, still in the west,
he sees the fire of the heavenly luminaries (xxiii.),
and elsewhere again, beyond a mountain range of
fire, seven mountains of precious stones, the central
one to be God's throne on earth, with the tree of
life (xxiv. 1-xxv. 3) to be transplanted after the
judgment to the holy place, where the righteous
shall eat of it and live a long life on earth (xxv. 4-6).
In the middle of the earth Enoch sees a holy moun-
tain (Zion) with its surrounding summits and
ravines (xxvi. ), and the accursed valley (of Hinnom)
which is to be the scene of the Last Judgment
(xxvii.). Thence he goes east (xxviii.-xxxiii.), past
fragrant trees and mountains, over the Erythraean
Sea and the angel Zotiel (xxxii. 2), to the garden of
the righteous, and the Tree of Wisdom, which is
fully described (xxxii. 3-6). Thence to the earth's
ends whereon heaven rests, with three portals for
the stars in east and west (xxxiii. 3, xxxvi. 2, 3)
and three in north and south for the winds (xxxiv.
1-3, xxxvi. 1).

SECTION u. : chs. xxxvii.-lxxi.-TAe Parables.
xxxvii. 1 commences ' the second vision ... of
wisdom ' ; till the present day such wisdom has
never been given as is embodied in these three
Parables recounted to those that dwell on the
earth (xxxvii. 4, 5).

xxxviii.-xliv. The First Parable. When the
Righteous One appears, where will the sinners'
dwelling be? Then shall the kings and mighty
perish and be given into the hands of the righteous
and holy (xxxviii.). [Descent of the Watchers
an interpolation (xxxix. 1, 2).] A whirlwind
carries off' Enoch to the end of the heavens; he
views the dwelling-places of the holy who pray for
mankind, and the Righteous One's abode under the
wings of the Lord of Spirits (xxxix. 3-14) ; an
innumerable multitude, and four presences ( = arch-
angels) Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, and Phanuel
and their functions (xl.); heaven's secrets and
weighing of men's actions (xii. 1, 2) ; secrets of
natural phenomena and sun and moon ; their
chambers and weighing of the stars (xii. 3-9, xliii.
1, 2, xliv.) ; the stars stand for the holy who dwell
on the earth (xliii. 4). A fragment. Wisdom goes
forth, and finds no dwelling-place among men,
so returns to heaven ; while unrighteousness is
welcomed and remains with men (xiii.).

xlv.-lvii. The Second Parable. The lot of the
apostates : the new heaven and earth. Those
who deny the name of Lord of Spirits are preserved
for judgment (xiv. 1, 2). 'Mine Elect One' on
throne of glory shall try men's works ; heaven and
earth transformed (xiv. 3-6). The Head of Days
and Son of Man (xlvi. 1-4) shall put down the kings
and the mighty ; they have no hope of rising from
their graves(xlvi. 5-8). ' In those days ' the prayer of
the righteous united with angelic intercession was
heard (xlvii. 1,2); the Head of Days on the throne
of His glory, books of the living opened, vengeance
of righteous at hand (xlvii. 3, 4). Enoch sees the
inexhaustible fountain of righteousness : ' at that
hour ' the Son of Man was ' named ' in the presence
of the Lord of Spirits ; he is a staff to the righteous,
the light of the Gentiles : in His name the righteous
are saved ; kings and mighty are to burn like straw
(xl viii. ); infinite wisdom and power of the Elect One
(xlix.). [1. An interpolation ? In those days the




holy become victorious; the others (i.e. Gentiles)
witness this and repent they have no honour, but
are saved in the name of the Lord of Spirits.] In
those days earth, Slieol, and Abaddon give up what
they hold. The Elect One arises, sits on God's
throne, and chooses out the righteous amid uni-
versal rejoicing (li.). Enoch sees seven metal
mountains (symbols of world-powers) : they will
serve the Anointed's dominion (lii. 4), and melt
before the Elect One (lii. 6). Next he sees a deep
valley with open mouths, and angels of punishment
preparing instruments of Satan to destroy the
kings and the mighty (liii. 1-5) ; after this the
Righteous and Elect One shall cause the house of
His congregation to appear (liii. 6). In another
part he sees a deep valley with burning fire ; here
the kings and the mighty are cast in (liv. 1, 2),
and iron chains made for Azazel's hosts, whom four
archangels will cast into the burning furnace on
that great day (liv. 3-6), after judgment by the
Elect One (Iv. 3, 4) ; angels of punishment with
scourges are seen proceeding to cast the Watchers'
children into the abyss (Ivi. 1-4). [Fragments. (a)
liv. 7-lv. 2 (Noachic). Punishment by waters im-
pending, promise of non-recurrence, (b) Ivi. 5-8.
The angels are to stir up the Parthians and Medes
to tread upon the land of God's elect, but ' the city
of my righteous' shall hinder their horses ; they shall
slay one another, and Sheol shall devour them in
presenfceof theelect. (c) Ivii. 1-3. Ahostof wagons
is seen, earth's pillars are shaken by the noise
(return of Dispersion).]

Iviii.-lxxi. The Third Parable. Endless light
and life for righteous (Iviii. ). [Secrets of lightnings,
an intrusion (lix. ).] [Noachic fragment (for ' Enoch '
read ' Noah' in Ix. 1). The Head of Days on the
throne of glory announces the judgment (Ix. 1-6, 25) ;
Leviathan a female monster, and Behemoth a male,
parted, one in the abysses of the ocean, the other
in the wilderness to the east of the garden (Eden)
where Enoch was taken up; they shall feed . . . (pre-
sumably till given as food to the elect as in 2 Bar.
xxix. 4 ; 4 Ezr. vi. 52) (Ix. 7-10, 24) ; chambers of
winds, secrets of thunder, spirits of the sea, hoar-
frost, snow, mist and rain (Ix. 11-23).]

Third Parable resumed. The angels are seen
with long cords ; they go to measure Paradise
(Ixx. 3) and recover all the righteous dead from sea
or desert (Ixi. 1-5) ; the Lord of Spirits places the
Elect One on the throne of glory to judge (Ixi. 6-9) ;
all the heavenly hosts, Cherubim, Seraphim, and
Ophannim, angels of power and of principalities,
the Elect One, the powers on earth and over water,
the elect who dwell in the garden of life, and all
flesh shall join in praising God (Ixi. 10-13). The
kings and the mighty are called upon to recognize
the Elect One, now seated on the throne ; pained
and terrified, they glorify God (Ixii. 1-6) and adore
the Son of Man ; but are delivered to the angels
for punishment (Ixii. 9-12) ; the righteous had
previously known the Son of Man, though hidden
from the beginning, and shall eat and lie down and
rise up for ever with Him, and be clothed with
garments of glory and of life (Ixii. 7, 8, 13-16) ;
unavailing repentance and confession of the kings
and the mighty (Ixiii.); vision of fallen angels in
prison (Ixiv.). [Noachic fragment (Ixv.-lxix. 25).
Noah calls on Enoch at the ends of the earth ; he
is told judgment is imminent because of sorcery and
idolatry, and the violence of the Satans ; Noah is
to be preserved : from him shall proceed a fountain
of righteous and holy ( = Israel) for ever (Ixv.) ; the
angels of punishment hold the Flood in check
(Ixvi. ) ; Noah is told that the angels are making
an ark for him (Ixvii. 1-3) ; God will imprison the
angels, who had taught men how to sin, in the
burning valley, which Enoch had shown Noah ;
thence proceed waters which now heal the bodies

of the kings and the mighty (Ixvii. 8), but it will
one day become a fire ever-burning (Ixvii. 13).
Enoch gives Noah these secrets in the book of
Parables (Ixviii. 1). Michael and Raphael are
astonished at the sternness of the judgment upon
the fallen angels (Ixviii. 2-5) ; the names of the
fallen angels and Satans who led them astray and
taught men knowledge and writing (Ixix. 1-13) ;
the hidden name and oath which preserve all things
in due order (Ixix. 14-25).]

Close of Third Parable. Universal joy at the
revealing of the Son of Man, who receives 'the
sum of judgment ' (Ixix. 26-29). [Two fragments
belonging to Parables: (a) Ixx. Enoch finally
translated on the chariots of the spirit, and set
between the north and the south (i.e. in Paradise).
(b) Ixxi. ' After this ' he is translated in spirit ; he
sees the sons of God, the secrets of heaven, the
crystal house, and countless angels and the four
archangels, the Head of Days, the Son of Man,
who brings in endless peace for the righteous.]

SECTION ill. : chs. lxxii.-lxxxii. The Book of
the Courses of the Heavenly Luminaries. The sun
(Ixxii.), the moon and its phases (Ixxiii.), the lunar
year (Ixxiv.), the stars, the twelve winds and their
portals (Ixxvi.), the four quarters of the world, the
seven great mountains, rivers, islands (IxxviL), the
moon's waxing and waning (Ixxviii.), recapitulation
(Ixxix., Ixxx. 1), perversion of Nature and the
heavenly bodies owing to man's sin (Ixxx. 2-8).
Enoch sees the heavenly tablets containing men's
deeds to all eternity, and is given one year to
teach them to Methuselah (IxxxL); his charge to
Methuselah to hand on the books to the genera-
tions of the world ; blessing on the observers of the
true system of reckoning year of 364 days (Ixxxii.
1-9) ; stars which lead the seasons and the months
(Ixxxii. 10-20).

SECTION IV. : chs. Ixxxiii. -xc. Two Dream
Visions-, (a) Ixxxiii., Ixxxiv. ; (b) Ixxxv.-xc. (a)
Vision of earth's destruction : Mahalalel bids
Enoch pray that a remnant may remain (Ixxxiii.
1-9) ; prayer of Enoch for survival of plant of
eternal seed ( = Israel) (Ixxxiii. 10-lxxxiv. 6). (b)
Second dream, in which Enoch sees Adam and other
patriarchs under symbolism of bulls, etc. (Ixxxv.) ;
stars ( = angels) fall from heaven, and unite with
cattle (Ixxxvi., Ixxxvii. ) ; the first star is cast into
the abyss ; evil beasts slay one another (Ixxxviii.).
In symbolism Enoch sees the history of Noah and
the Deluge ; Israel at the Exodus, crossing the
Jordan, under the Judges; the building of the
Temple ; the two kingdoms ; the Fall of Jerusa-
lem (Ixxxix. 1-67). Israel is entrusted to the
Seventy Shepherds ( = angelic rulers) from the Cap-
tivity to the Maccabeean revolt (Ixxxix. 68-xc. 12) ;
the enlightened lambs (=Chasids) and the great
horn (= Judas Maccabseus) (xc. 6-12). The final
assault of the heathen ; a great sword is given to the
sheep (=Jews) ; the Lord of the sheep intervenes
(xc. 13-19) ; a throne is erected in the pleasant
land for Him ; the sealed books are opened ; the
sinning stars are cast into the abyss of fire, also the
Seventy Shepherds ; the blinded sheep into the
abyss in the midst of the earth ( = Gehenna) (xc.
20-27) ; the old house (=Temple) is removed ; the
Lord of the sheep brings a new house, greater and
loftier ; the sword is sealed up ; all the sheep
'see' (i.e. are enlightened) ; a white bull ( = Messiah)
is born, and is adored by all ; the others are all
transformed into white bulls, and the Lord of the
sheep rejoices over them all alike ; Enoch awakes
and weeps (xc. 28-42).

SECTION v. : chs. xci.-civ. (a) Enoch's Book for
his Children (xcii. 1). God has appointed days for
all things ; the righteous are to arise from sleep
and walk in eternal light, and sin is to disappear
(xcii.). Methuselah and his family are summoned




and exhorted to love righteousness ; violence must
increase, but judgment will follow ; idols will fail,
and the heathen be judged in fa'i-e for ever ; the
righteous are to rise again (xci. 1-11).

(b) Apocalypse of Weeks. 1st week : Enoch born.
2nd : the first end ; Noah saved. 3rd : Abraham
elected as the plant of righteous judgment. 4th :
the law for all generations made. 5th : house of
glory . . . built. 6th : all Israel blinded ; Elijah
ascends to heaven ; the Dispersion. 7th : general
apostasy ; the elect righteous elected to receive
seven-fold instruction concerning all creation ( =
Enoch's revelations). 8th : week of righteousness
and of sword ; Temple rebuilt for ever ; all mankind
converted. 9th : righteous judgment revealed to

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