James Hastings.

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the whole world ; sin abolished. 10th : great eternal
judgment on angels ; new heaven ; thereafter
weeks without number for ever (xciii., xci. 12-17).

(c) Warnings and woes. Warnings against
paths of unrighteousness (xciv. 1-5) ; woes against
oppressors and rich (xciv. 6-11) and sinners (xcv.
2-7) ; hope for righteous (xcvi. 1-3) ; their prayer
heard (xcvii. 5) ; woes against the luxurious and
the rich (xcvi. 4-8, xcviL 1-10). Warnings against
indulgence ; sin is of man's own devising, and
every sin is every day recorded in heaven (xcviii.
lj-8) ; sinners are prepared for the day of destruc-
tion ; they will be given into hands of righteous
(xcviii. 9-16). Woes on godless and law-breakers
(xcix. ) ; the righteous are to raise prayers and
place them before the angels, who are to place the
sin of sinners for a memorial before the Most High
(xcix. 3). Sinners are to destroy one another
(c. 1-3) ; angels descend into secret places and
gather all who brought down sin (i.e. fallen angels) ;
the righteous and holy receive guardians till an end
is made of sin ; though the righteous sleep long,
they have nothing to fear ; angels, sun, moon, and
stars will witness to the sins of sinners (c. 4-13); God
is obeyed by all Nature, therefore His law should
be observed by men (ci. ). Terrors of the judgment-
day ; the righteous who died in misery are not to
grieve but await judgment (cii. 1-5). Taunts of
sinners after death we and the righteous are equal
(cii. 6-11). Enoch knows a mystery from the
heavenly tablets the spirits of the righteous dead
shall live and rejoice (ciii. 1-4) ; woes of sinners
who died in honour their spirits descend into
darkness, chains, and burning flame (ciii. 5-8) ;
woes of the righteous (ciii. 9-15) ; yet in heaven
the angels remember them for good, and their
names are written ; they shall shine as lights of
heaven (civ. 1, 2) ; 'cry for judgment, and it shall
appear ' (civ. 3). The writings of Enoch are to be
given to the righteous they give joy, uprightness,
and wisdom (civ. 9-13).

[Messianic fragment (cv.). God and the Messiah
to dwell with men.] [Noachic fragment (cvi.-
cvii.). Lamech has a wondrous son ; Methuselah
inquires of Enoch at the ends of the earth about
him ; Enoch replies that a Deluge is to come
because of sin introduced by the fallen angels ;
this son shall alone be saved sin will arise again
after him till the final annihilation of evil.]
An independent addition (cviii.). Another book
written by Enoch ' for his son and those who keep
the law in the last days ' ; the righteous are to wait
for the destruction of the ungodly, whose spirits
suffer in tire (cviii. 1-6) ; the spirits of the humble
who lived ascetic lives and belonged to the genera-
tion of light shall God bring forth in shining light
and seat each on the throne of his honour in never-
ending splendour (cviii. 7-15).

2. Title. The work is referred to under several
titles. Of these the oldest are (a) the Books of
Enoch (Test. Jud. xviii. 1, Test. Lev. x. 5 [A] ;
Origen, c. Celsum, v. 54, in Num. Horn, xxviii. 2
this title is implied in the division of the work into
VOL. I. 22

books ; 1 En. xiv. 1, Ixxii. 1, Ixxxii. 1, xcii. 1,
cviii. 1 ; Syncellus, Chronographia [ed. Dind., 1829,
i. 20, etc.]) ; (b) the Words of Enoch (Jub. xxi. 10 ;
Test. Benj. ix. 1 ; cf . 1 En. i. 1, xiv. 1). Other
titles are (c) the Book of Enoch (Test. Lev. x. 5 [a] ;
Origen, de Princ. I. iii. 3, etc.) ; (d) the Writing of
Enoch (Test. Lev. xiv. 1 ; Tertullian, de Cultu Fern.
i. 3) ; (e) Enoch (Jude 14 ; Ep. Barn. iv. 3 ; Clem.
A\ex.,Eclog. Proph. [ed. Dind., 1869, iii. 456, 474] ;
Origen, in loannem, vi. 25, c. Celsum, v. 54 ; Ter-
tullian, de Cultu Fern. ii. 10, de Idol, iv., xv.).

3. Canonicity. That the work was recognized
as inspired in certain Jewish circles appears from
the above references in Jubilees and the Test. XII.
Patriarchs. St. Jude quotes a passage from it as
an authentic prophecy of Enoch. The Epistle of
Barnabas (xvi. 5) refers to it in the words X^yei yap
rj ypa.<p-fi ; Athenagoras (Leg. pro Christianis, 24) as
ft TOLS irpotp-ffrais Kirf<f>(bvTfra.i Tert. (de Idol. XV. ),
' Spiritus . . . prececinit per . . . Enoch ' ; (de Cultu
Fern. i. 3), ' scio scripturam Enoch . . . non recipi a
quibusdam, quia nee in armarium Judaicum admit-
titur . . . cum Enoch eadem scriptura etiam de
Domino praedicarit, a nobis quidem nihil omnino
rejiciendum est, quod pertineat ad nos. ... A
Judaeis potest jam videri propterea reiecta, sicut
et cetera quae Christum sonant. ' Origen, however,
in c. Celsum, v. 54, says : iv rats KK\ijffiais 06 -n-dw
(ptperai wj 0a rd. iriyeypafj./jiva rov 'Ecwx /Si/SXia.
Chrysostom (Horn, in Gen. vi. 1), Jerome (Com. in
Ps. cxxxii. 3), and Augustine (de Civ. Dei, XV.
xxiii. 4) denounce the work as apocryphal, and this
opinion henceforward prevails.

4. Critical structure and dates. That the work
was composite might be inferred from the external
evidence of the titles, ' Books ' or ' Words of Enoch,'
under which the work is quoted in other writings.
But internal evidence is more decisive. The fre-
quent headings, such as ' the book written by Enoch '
(xcii. 1), ' another book which Enoch wrote ' (cviii.
1), and the divergence of historical outlook, of
method of treatment, of ideas and phrases, in the
various parts, point even more clearly to the fact
that the work in its present form is a redaction of
several of the more prominent writings belonging
to a diffuse and varied cycle of literature passing
tinder the name of Enoch. The work as we have
it falls naturally into five quite distinct main
sections as shown in above :

SECTION I. : Visions and journeys (for contents
see above). xii.-xxxvi. belong to the earliest
Enochic portion of this section ; they are pre-
Maccabsean, as, unlike lxxxiii.-xc., they make no
reference to Antiochus' persecution. They fall
into subsections : xiL-xvi. (out of their original
order), xvii.-xix., xx.-xxxvi. Chs. vi.-xi. belong
to the earlier Book of Noah (see below). Chs. i.-v.
appear to be an introduction written by the final
editor of the entire work. The problem in this
section is the origin of evil, which is traced to the
fall of the Watchers. There is no Messiah ; God
Himself is to abide with men (xxv. 3) ; all the
Gentiles will become righteous and worship God
(x. 21) ; the righteous are admitted to the tree of
life and live patriarchal lives with very material
joys and blessings.

SECTION II. : The Parables (formerly known as
'the Similitudes'). There are three Parables
(xxxviii.-xliv., xlv.-lvii., IviiL-lxix.), while xxxvii.
forms an introduction, and Ixx. a conclusion to
them. Ch. Ixxi. belongs to the Third Parable.
There are many interpolations. Some are from
the Book of Noah Ix., Ixv.-lxix. 25 confessedly,
and probably xxxix. 1-2, liv. 7-lv. 2 as wefi.
Behind the Parables proper lie two sources, as Beer
(Kautzsch's Apok. und Pseud, ii. 227) has shown :
one deals with the ' Son of Man ' xl. 3-7, xlvi.-
xlviii. 7, Iii. 3-4, Ixi. 3-4, Ixii. 2-lxiii., Ixix. 26-29,




Ixx.-lxxi., and has 'the angel who went with me'
as Enoch's interpreter ; the other deals with ' the
Elect One' xxxviiL-xxxix., xl. 1-2, 8-10, xli. 1-2,
9, xlv., xlviii. 8-10, l.-lii. 1-2, 5-9, liii.-liv. 6, Iv.
3-lvii., Ixi. 1-2, 6-13, Ixii. 1, and has the 'angel of
peace' as interpreter of the vision (so Charles,
Enoch, p. 65). Only the former source attributes
pre-existence to the Son of Man (xlviii. 2). This
section is full of peculiar features, e.g. ' Lord of
Spirits ' as a Divine title ; Phanuel replaces Uriel
as the fourth archangel. The angelology is more
developed : besides Cherubim, we have Seraphim,
Ophannim, angels of power and of principalities.
A.nd so is the demonology : the origin of evil is
traced back to the Satans and an original evil
spirit-world. The Messiah is eternally pre-existent,
and all judgment is committed to Him. The date
of this section appears to lie between 95 and 64
B.C. and probably between 95 and 79. 'The kings
and the mighty ' are evidently the later Maccabaean
princes and their Sadducsean supporters. The
mighty cannot refer to the Romans ; it must refer
to the Sadducsean nobles, who did not support the
Herods. The problem is the oppression of the
righteous by the kings and mighty, and the
solution consists in a vision of the coming liberator
and vindicator, the Messiah of supernatural power
and privilege.

SECTION in. : The Book of the Heavenly Lumin-
aries. Chs. Ixxii.-lxxviii., Ixxxii., Ixxix. are
original to this section ; Ixxx. and Ixxxi. are in-
terpolations. The conceptions at times approach
those of i.-xxxvi., but the points of divergence are
very numerous. The date is not ascertainable.
The object is to establish the solar year of 364 days
as a Divine law revealed as early as the time of
Enoch (Ixxiv. 12 as emended. Cf. Jub. vi. 32-36).

SECTION IV. : The Dream Visions. There is only
one interpolation xc. 14 b . xc. 13-15 and xc. 16-
18 are doublets. There is close agreement with
and evident knowledge of vi.-xi., but no depend-
ence on them. The conceptions are more spiritual
and developed. The date would be before 161 B.C.,
as Judas Maccabaeus is still warring (xc. 13) ; the
end is expected to be about 140 B.C., as the fourth
period of twelve shepherds would end then. The
problem is the continued depression of Israel after
the Return, which is attributed to the neglect of
its seventy angelic guardians.

SECTION v. This section really commences with
xcii. 1 (see heading), and the original order of the
first four chapters was xcii., xcL 1-10, 18-19, xciii.
1-10, xci. 12-17, xciv. ; of these xciii. 1-10, xci. 12-
17 form the short 'Apocalypse of Weeks.' There
is a close resemblance throughout xci. -civ. to i.-
xxxvi., in phrases, references, and ideas, but the
divergences are not less numerous (see Charles, p.
219ft'.). The righteous alone rise, and in spirit
only, not in body, to walk in eternal light in heaven.
Contrast the crude materialism of L-xxxvi. The
date is determined by the interpretation we put on
ciii. 14, 15 'the rulers . . . did not remove from
us the yoke of those that devoured us and dispersed
us and murdered us.' If the massacre of the
Pharisees by John Hyrcanus is meant, the date
must be later than that year 94 B.C. (cf. Parables).
Otherwise, 104-95 B.C. (so Charles). The problem
is ethical (the seeming impunity of the prosperous
wicked who, however, at death descend to Sheoland
the flame for ever), not national, as in lxxxiii.-xc.

cv. An independent Messianic fragment ; cvi.-
cvii. part of the earlier Book of Noah ; cviii.
presupposes i.-xxxvi. and xci.-civ., and is later in
date, and strongly ascetic, if not Essene, in tone.

Book oj ' Noah. Scattered through the work we
find a series of more or less fragmentary passages
vi-xL, liv. 7-lv. 2, lx., Ixv.-lxix. 25, cvi.-cvii.,
and probably xxix. 1, 2) which generally refer

to Noah and the Deluge. Their inclusion appears
to be due to the final editor, who forced into what
are often awkward contexts fragments of this
earlier work, or series of works, which we also
know from Jub. vii. 20-39, x. 1-15, xxi. 10.

5. The text. The text is not extant in the
original Semitic form, but we possess a Greek
translation of a part, and an Ethiopia version of
the whole.

(1) The Greek version exists in duplicate to some
extent, (a) The superior in point of text is to be
found in Syncellus (Chronographia, ed. Dind. i.
20-23, etc.), who quotes vi.-x. 14, xv. 8-xvi. 1, and
also gives viii. 4-ix. 4 in variant form. He also
gives a quotation ' from the first book of Enoch
concerning the watchers' (ed. Dind. i. 47) which
does not occur in our present text, (b) The longer
but less accurate text for i.-xxxii. (and xix. 3-xxi.
9 in duplicate) was discovered in 1886-7 at Akhmim,
and published by Bouriant in 1892. Another
fragment, in tachygraphic characters, exists in a
Vatican Greek MS no. 1809 (see at end of this art. ).

(2) The Ethiopic version, which is a translation
from the Greek, is known in 29 MSS, of which 15
are in England. The best are numbered gg^iqtu
in Charles's Ethiopic text (q.v.). This text is in-
ferior to that of the Syncellus Greek and is much
nearer to that of the Akhmim Fragment (known
generally as the ' Gizeh Greek ').

(3) The Latin version is a mere fragment, cvi.
1-18, discovered in 1893 by M. R. James in the
British Museum and published by him in that
year in TS ii. 3.

(4) The quotations, both Greek and Latin, except
for those in Syncellus, add little to the restoration
of the true text. See Lawlor, art. in Journal of
Philology, xxv. [1897] 164-225, and Charles's Intro-
ductions under ' Influence on Patristic Literature '
in his two recent editions.

6. Original language. The original language is
now admitted to be Semitic either Hebrew or
Aramaic. Chs. vi.-xxxvi. were almost certainly
in Aramaic. The transliterations <f>ovKd (xviii. 8),
fMvdo^apd (xx viii. 1), and pa.p5-r)pd (xxix. 1), all
show the Aramaic termination ; while in vi. 7 and
viii. 3 the proper names are only appropriate in
Aramaic. To the rest of the book (except Ixxxiii.-
xc., which was possibly in Aramaic) Charles un-
hesitatingly assigns a Hebrew original. In xxxvii.-
Ixxi. Schmidt (OT and Semitic Studies, 1908, ii. 336-
343) argues for Aramaic, but is answered by Charles.

7. Poetical element. This bulks largely in
1 Enoch, but was first recognized by Charles, who
prints it in verse form in his two recent editions.
Its recognition is of use in helping at times to
restore the true order, and at times to excise

8. Influence on NT. (1) DICTION AND IDEAS.
() The Epistle of St. Jude is remarkable for con-
taining, with the possible exception of 2 Ti 3 8 , the
only two direct citations from pseudepigraphs in
the NT. And of these two citations the only one
made by name is from the Book of Enoch, which
is quoted as though it possessed much the same
authority as a canonical book of prophecy. It may
be instructive to compare the words in Jude with
the text of Enoch as restored by Charles :

Jude M - ls 'ISov TJAOev Ki'ptos iv 1 En. i. 9 'ISov epxercu. crvr T<US

aytais fivpiaaiv avrov, /ivpiao'iv ayt'ais avrov,

iroiT)<rai Kpicnv Kara ird.vr<ai>, irotrjcrai Kpttriv Kara Trdvriav,

Kal eAe'yf at irdvras TOV? a<r- Kai dn-oAeVai iraWas TOVS <wr<-

irepl irdvriav rS>v epytav cure
/Sei'a? avrlav S>v ri<refiil<rav ^

Kal Trepl ndvr<av riav erA.i7p!r
&>v eAaAr)<rai' KO.T' avroO 044-
oi acre/5s .

Kal eAe'yf aj. irairav <rap*ca
vepl irdfriav fpywv TT^S curt*

0et'as avrStv S>v
cat cncArjpwv &v e

"yav KO.T' avrou


For the cr/cXijpol \6yot cf. 1 En. v. 4, xxvii. 2.
Further, St. Jude's description of Enoch as ' the




seventh from Adam ' is identical with that in the
Noachic interpolation in the Parables (Ix. 8).

The Epistle is full of reminiscences of Enoch.
Cf. Jude 4 , ' denying our only Master and Lord,
Jesus Christ,' with 1 En. xlviii. 10, 'they have
denied the Lord of Spirits and His Anointed ' ;
Jude 6 , ' angels which . . . left their proper habita-
tion,' with 1 En. xii. 4, ' the Watchers . . . who
have left the high heaven,' and xv. 7, ' as for the
spiritual ones of the heaven, in heaven is their
dwelling ' ; Jude 8 , ' kept in everlasting bonds under
darkness unto the judgment of the great day,' with
/ En. x. 4-6, 'Bind Azazel . . . and cast him into
the darkness . . . and cover him with darkness,
and let him abide there for ever . . . and on the
day of the great judgment he shall be cast into
the fire,' and x. 11, 12, 'Bind Semjaza . . . bind
them fast for seventy generations . . . till the
judgment that is for ever and ever is consum-
mated '; Jude 13 , ' wandering stars,' with 1 En. xviii.
15, xxi. 2, 3, 6.

(b) 2 Peter is closely related to Jude, and 2 P 2*
is more than an echo of Jude 6 . The fuller details,
indeed, may be due to 1 Enoch, while the juxta-
position of the first judgment on the angels in 2 P
2 4 with the Deluge in 2 P 2 5 is characteristic of 1
Enoch as it stands, especially in its Noachic interpo-
lations, e.g. x. 1-16, Ixv. 1-lxvii. 4. As Noah is called
' a preacher of righteousness ' in 2 P 2 5 , we might
venture to assume that this title implies that he,
and not Christ, was taken to be the preacher to
the spirits in prison in 1 P 3 19 by the author of 2
Peter. If this be admitted, 1 P 3 19 - w might pos-
sibly be claimed as witnessing to the original form
of the Noah Apocalypse in which it was not Enoch
but Noah who was sent to reprimand the Watchers
(see 1 En. xii. 1-4, ' Enoch was hidden . . . and
liis activities had to do with the Watchers. . . .
"Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go declare
to the Watchers'"). In support of this view we
may note (a) that the references to the sin of
the angels are all (except Ixxxvi. 1) in Noachic
passages ; (f)) that in defiance of chronology and
the context the name ' Noah ' has been altered to
' Enoch ' in Ix. 1 ; that ' the longsuffering of God
waited ' in 1 P 3 20 seems to echo 1 En. Ix. 5, ' until
this day lasted His mercy ; and He hath been
merciful and longsuffering. . . .' Cf. too Ixvi. 2
and Ixvii. 2, where angels hold the waters in
check and other angels are constructing the ark,
with 1 P 3 20 , ' while the ark was a-preparing.'
On the other hand, of course, there are great
exegetical difficulties in 1 P 3 19> m in the way of this
view, though ' the spirits . . . which aforetime
were disobedient ' suggests angelic and not human
offenders, and the prison of the angels is a common-
place in 1 En. (x. 4, 12, xix. 1, xxi. 10, Ixvii. 4,

(c) In St. John's First Epistle we have the fre-
quent contrast between light and darkness so
characteristic of 1 Enoch : e.g. 1 Jn I 7 ' walk in the
light ' || 1 En. xcii. 4 ; 1 Jn 2 s ' the darkness is pass-
ing away ' || 1 En. Iviii. 5. The warning in 1 Jn
2 1 *, 'love not the world, neither the things that
are in the world,' has a close parallel in 1 En.
cviii. 8, ' loved not any of the good things which
are in the world,' and in xlviii. 7.

(d) For St. James's woes, against the rich (5 1 - 8 ),
only paralleled in the NT by our Lord's words on
the danger of trusting to wealth, cf. 1 En. xlvi. 7,
Ixiii. 10, xciv. 8-11, xcvi. 4-8, xcvii. 8-10.

(e) The Book of Revelation is naturally full of
Jewish apocalyptic phraseology and imagery, and
parallels are abundant with 1 Enoch, (a) Angel-
ology. 'Seven (arch)angels ' (Rev8 2 and? I 4 4 s ) ||
1 En. xx. 1-8, xc. 21 ; 'four living creatures' (Kev
4 6 ) || 'four presences' (1 En. xl. 2-9); 'have no
rest day and night' (Rev4 8 ) || 1 En. xxxix. 13;

angels offer men's prayers to God (Rev 8 3 - 4 ; cf.
5 8 ) || 1 En. ix. 1-3, xlvii. 2, xcix. 3 ; angels of
winds (Rev 7 1 ) and of waters (16 5 ) || 1 En. Ixix. 22.
(j8) Demonology. 'A star from heaven fallen unto
the earth ' (Rev 9 1 ) for phrase cf. 1 En. Ixxxvi.
1 ; ' Satan . . . accuser of our brethren . . . be-
fore our God ' (Rev 12 9 - 10 ) || ' Satans . . . before
the Lord of Spirits ... to accuse them who dwell
on the earth' (1 En. xl. 7); the false prophet 'de-
ceiveth them that dwell on the earth (Rev 13 1J ) ||
the ' hosts of Azazel . . . leading astray those
who dwell on the earth ' (1 En. liv. 56) ; idolatry as
demon worship (Rev 9 20 ) || 1 En. xix. 1, xcix. 7.
(7) Boasting of rich. ' I am rich and have gotten
riches' (Rev 3 i7 ) || ' we have become rich with riches
and have possessions' (1 En. xcvii. 8). (5) Stages of
judgment. Prayer of saints for vengeance (Rev
6 10 ) || 1 En. xlvii. 2, etc. ; terror of the kings and
the great at the sight of ' him that sitteth on the
throne ' and at ' the wrath of the Lamb ' (Rev 6 16 )
|| ' when they see that Son of Man sitting on the
throne of His glory ' (1 En. Ixii. 5) ; the sinners'
blood rises to the horses' bridles (Rev 14 20 ) || to the
horses' breasts (1 En. c. 3) ; books opened (Rev
20 12 ) || 1 En. xc. 20 ; book of life (Rev 20 12 ) ||
books of the living (1 En. xlvii. 3) ; Satan bound
for a thousand years (Rev 20 2 ) and then cast into
lake of fire (20 10 ) || Semjaza and his associates
bound for seventy generations (1 En. x. 12) and
then led off to the abyss of fire (x. 13). (e) Resur-
rection. The sea, death, and Hades give up their
dead (Rev 20 13 ) || the earth, Sheol, and hell (1 En.
li. 1), the desert and the sea (Ixi. 5) restore their
dead, (f) The future rewards of the righteous.
' Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord ' (Rev
14 13 ) || ' Blessed is the man who dies in righteous-
ness ' (1 En. Ixxxi. 4) ; saints in white raiment
(Rev 3 5 ) || angels clothed in white (1 En. xc. 31)
and saints (clad) in shining light (cviii. 12) ; ' foun-
tains of waters of life ' (Rev 7 17 ) II a ' bright spring
of water ' (1 En. xxii. 9 ; cf. xlviii. 1) ; eat with
Christ (Rev 3 20 ) || ' with that Son of Man shall they
eat and lie down and rise up for ever' (1 En. Ixii.
14) ; sit on throne with Christ (Rev 3- 1 ; cf. 20 4 )
|| 'I will seat each on the throne of his honour'
(cviii. 12) ; Christ will spread His tabernacle over
them (Rev 7 18 ) II ' I will cause my Elect One to
dwell among them ' (1 En. xlv. 4) ; 'no curse
any more' (Rev 22 3 )|| 'no sorrow or plague,' etc.
(1 En. xxv. 6).

(/) In Acts we have a parallel with 1 Enoch : Ac
10 4 ' thy prayers . . . are gone up for a memorial
before God ' || 1 En. xcix. 3 ' raise your prayers as a
memorial. . . before the Most High.'

(g) Hebrews. With He 4 la cf. 1 En. ix. 5 'all
things are naked and open in thy sight, and thou
seest all things and nothing can hide itself from
thee' ; cf. also He II 10 12 22 (the heavenly Jerusalem
built by God Himself) with 1 En. xc. 29 ; II 5 refers
to the translation of Enoch and understands 'walked
with God ' in Gn 5 24 as ' pleased God.' Cf. 1 En.
xv. 1.

(h) St. Paul's Epistles. I Th 5 8 || 1 En. Ixii. 4
' then shall pain come upon them as on a woman in
travail ' ; Ro 8 s8 (cf. 2 Th ! 7 ,Eph 1, Col I 16 ) j| 1 En. Ixi.
10 'angels of power and . . . of principalities.' With
2 Co 4 6 cf. 1 En. xxxviii. 4 ' the Lord of Spirits has
caused his light to appear (so Charles) on the face
of the holy, righteous, and elect' ; 2 Co II 31 1| 1 En.
Ixxvii. 1 ' He who is blessed for ever ' ; Gal I 4 1| 1 En.
xlviii. 7 ' this world of unrighteousness ' ; Ph 2 10 ||
1 En. xlviii. 5 ' shall fall down and worship before
him ( = Son of Man)'; Col 2 3 \\ 1 En. xlvi. 3 'the
Son of Man . . . who revealeth all the treasures
of that which is hidden ' ; 1 Ti I 9 || 1 En. xciii. 4 ' a
law shall be made for the sinners ' ; 1 Ti I 18 || 1 En.
xciv. 1 ' worthy of acceptation ' ; 1 Ti 5 21 || 1 En.
xxxix. 1 ; 1 Ti 6 16 1| 1 En. xiv. 21 ' none of the angels




could enter and could behold his face by reason of
the magnificence and glory, and no flesh could be-
hold him.'

(1) NT in general. Phrases which recur in the
NT are ' Lord of lords and King of kings ' (1 En. ix. 4,
Rev 17 H ; cf. 1 Ti 6 15 ) ; ' holy angels ' (1 En. Ixxi. 1,
etc., Kev 14 10 , etc. ; cf. Ac 10 22 ) ; 'the generation
of light ' (1 En. cviii. 11): cf. Eph 5 8 'children
of light,' 1 Th 5 5 'sons of light' (so Lk 16 8 ,
Jn 12 M ).

(2) THEOLOGY. (a) The Messiah. The 'Son of
Man ' in the Parables is pre-existent : ' before the
sun and the signs were created, before the stars of
the heaven were made, his name was named before
the Lord of Spirits ' (xlviii. 3), ' for this reason hath
he been chosen and hidden before him, before the
creation of the world and for evermore' (xlviii. 6),
' for from the beginning the Son of Man was hidden,
and the Most High preserved him in the presence
of his might, and revealed him to the elect (Ixii. 7 ;
cf. xxxix. 6, 7, xlvi. 1-3). For ' before the creation '
cf. Col I 17 , and for ' from the beginning' cf. Jn I 1 ,
1 Jn I 1 , Rev I 17 21 6 22 13 , and for ' revealed ' cf . 1 Ti 3 16 ,
1 Jn 3 5 - 8 , and esp. 1 P I 20 . He is a supernatural
being. In Dn l i3 the ' one like unto a son of man '
is brought before God and dominion is bestowed on
him. In 1 En. xxxix. 6, 7, xlvi. 1, 2, Ixii. 7 the
' Son of Man ' is with God (cf. Jn I 1 ) and will
sit on His throne (li. 3). He is the ideally Right-
eous One (xxxviii. 2) 'the Righteous and Elect One
(liii. 6 ; cf. xlvi. 3) ; cf. Ac 3 14 7 52 22 14 1 Jn 2 1 . He is
the Elect (xl. 5, xlv. 3, 4, xlix. 2, 4, etc.) ; cf. Lk 9 s5
23 s5 ; the Anointed or Christ (xlviii. 10, lii. 4). He

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