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persuasively urged, but it may be spoken of as
meliorism, for it has the faith which claims a
present salvation for every believer, and the hope




of a final fulfilment of God's purpose of grace, and
both are linked with a love that sees in human
need and pain an opportunity for service and sacri-
fice, in which man can regard himself as a fellow-
worker with God in the solution of the problem
of evil. To revert to the distinctions made in
the beginning of this article, the apostolic view
recognizes no metaphysical evil, for to be the
creature, subject, and child of God, is for man only
good ; it links physical with moral evil, and makes
deliverance from pain dependent on salvation from
sin ; and it throws all the emphasis on moral evil ;
for it is concerned not with the speculative intellect,
but only with the moral conscience and religious
consciousness of man.

. W. Beyschlae, NT Theology, Eng. tr., 1895,
L 228, ii. 107 ; G. B. Stevens, Theology of the NT, 1899, pp. 187,
375; T. v. Haering, The Christian Faith, Eng. tr., 1913, ii.
562-677 ; J. Martineau, A Study of Religion?, 1889, ii. 49-132 ;
A. B. Bruce, Apologetics, 1892, p. 63 ; A. M. Fairbairn, The
Philosophy of the Christian Religion, 1902, pp. 94-168 ; G. W.
Leibniz, Essais de ThiodMe sur la Bontt de Dieu, la Liberte d*
r/iomme et V Origins du mal, 1710.


EYIL-SPEAKING. In Greek, as in English,
there is a rich vocabulary expressive of different
shades of this prevalent sin.

(1) jcaTaXaXet is 'to speak down,' 'to detract.'

is translated 'backbiters' (Ro I 30 }, and
' backbiting* ' (2 Co 12 20 ), but evil-speak-
ing does not necessarily take place behind the back,
or in the absence of the person nated. /cardXaXot form
one of the many types which are the outcome of the
reprobate mind (Ro I 80 ), and Christian converts, as
new-born babes, must put away all Kara\d\lai (1 P
2 1 - * ; cf. Ja 4 11 ). The best people in the world cannot
escape the breath of detraction, and in the Apos-
tolic Age the Christians were regarded as ' genus
hominum superstitionis novae et maleficae ' (Suet.
Nero, 16), accused of ' odium generis humani ' (Tac.
Ann. xv. 44), and suspected of committing the most
infamous crimes in their secret assemblies. In such
an atmosphere of calumny they made it their en-
deavour to live in such a manner that their detrac-
tors should not only be put to shame (1 P 3 16 ), but
even constrained by their good works to glorify
God (2 12 ; cf . Mt 5 16 ).

(2) p\aff<fntfieiv (pXdfffapos, /3\aff<pi)fda) is a stronger
term, including all kinds of evil-speaking against
men as well as against God. In a number of pas-
sages it is difficult to decide whether ' blaspheme '
or ' rail ' is the precise meaning of the word (Ac
13 48 18 s 26 11 etc.). St. Paul has a full share of
p\a<r<t>rj/jita ; he is 'evil spoken of ' (1 Co 10 s0 ) and
'slanderously reported' (Ro 3 8 ). While the Gen-
tiles speak evil of the followers of Christ (1 P 4 4 ),
the latter must calumniate no man (Tit 3 s ) ; railing
(8\aa-<pri/j.ia) is one of the sins of temper and tongue
which they are repeatedly enjoined to put away
(Eph 4 a , Col 3 8 ). At the same time they must
strive to prevent their ' good,' or ' the word of God,'
or ' the way of truth,' or ' the name of God and
the doctrine,' from being blasphemed, or evil spoken
of (Ro 14 16 , Tit 2, 2 P 2 s , 1 Ti 6 1 ). St. Paul affirms
that the name of God is blasphemed among the
Gentiles because of the Jews (Ro 2 s4 ). The false
teachers and libertines of the sub-Apostolic Age
spoke evil of the powers of the unseen world (2 P
2 10 , Jude 10 ) ; and their empty logomachies gave
rise to mutual railings (/SXcur^Ucu, 1 Ti 6 4 ). See,
further, art. BLASPHEMY.

(3) &d/3oXos (from SioSdXXw, Lk 16 1 ), which de-
notes, KO.T to\-fiv, the ' chief slanderer,' or ' devil,' is
applied also to any ordinary calumniator. Women
who are called to the office of the diaconate must
not be slanderers (1 Ti 3 U ), and the same applies to
aged women who are to influence the younger by
their words and example (Tit 2 3 ). In grievous post-
apostolic times, which seemed the last, many bad

types of character became prominent, including
didpo\oi (2 Ti 3 s ).

(4) \oidopelv (a word of uncertain derivation) is
invariably translated ' revile ' in the RV, whereas
the AV has 'rail' and 'speak reproachfully' as
variations. St. Paul says of the apostles that
being reviled they bless (1 Co 4 12 ) ; that the so-
called brother who is a reviler (XolSopos) is to be
shunned (5 11 ) ; and that revilers shall not inherit
the Kingdom of God (6 10 ). For seeming to revile
the high priest Ananias in a moment of just anger,
St. Paul was quick to make apology (Ac 24*). In
a time of persecution St. Peter turns the minds of
his readers to the perfect example of Christ, who,
being reviled, reviled not again ( 1 P 2 28 ), and bids
them render, as He did, ' contrariwise blessing '

(5) Analagous terms are Ka.Ko\oyeir, 'to speak
evil of (Ac 19 9 ), dvnXtyeu', 'to speak against*
(2S 22 ), and dvo-<f>i], ' evil report,' which the servant
of Christ learns to accept, equally with e6<frtifjda, as
part of his lot (2 Co 6 8 ). ' Being defamed ($wr-
<prifM>iJtJ.evoi) ) we bless' (1 Co 4 13 ).


EXCOMMUNICATION. Excommunication is a
form of ecclesiastical censure involving exclusion
from the membership of the Church. Such ex-
clusion may be temporary or permanent. It may
cut off the offender from all communion and every
privilege, or it may be less severe, allowing some
intercourse and certain benefits.

1. The term. The word ' excommunication ' is
not found in AV or RV, nor are the obsolete forms
' excommunion ' (Milton), 'excommenge' (Holin-
shed), ' excommuned ' (Gayton). There are general
references to the subject, and one or two cases are
mentioned with some detail. The Greek verb
6.<popifa signifies ' mark off from (air6) by a boundary
(8pos).' It is used sometimes in a good sense (e.g.
Ac 13 2 , Ro I 1 , Gal I 15 ), and sometimes in a bad one
(e.g. Lk G 22 ; note the three degrees of evil treat-
ment d^opiffuffiv, 6veidiffuffiv t iK^aXuffiv rb 6vo/j.a).
See also Mt 13 49 25 s2 , 2 Co 6 17 , Gal 2' 2 . It is em-
ployed by various Greek writers Sophocles,
Euripides, Plato, and others and is found fre-
quently in the LXX. Excommunicatio is a Latin
word of later origin. It is used in the Vulgate.

2. Warrant for the practice in the Apostolic
Church. Excommunication in apostolic times
rested upon a threefold warrant.

(1) Natural and inherent right. Every properly
constituted society has the right and power to ex-
clude members not conforming to its rules. The
Church has authority to exercise a right which
every society claims. An analogy is sometimes
drawn between the Church and the State. The
State has power to send into exile, to deprive of
civil rights, and even claims and exercises the
power to inflict a death-sentence. So, in spiritual
matters, the Church may pass sentences of separa-
tion more or less complete, and though the
supreme judge alone can pronounce the sentence of
death in an absolute sense, yet the Church can
pass such a sentence in a relative sense the
offender being regarded as dead from the stand-
point of the ecclesiastical court. Upon this point
whether in excommunication and in ' binding
and loosing ' the power of the Church is final and
absolute two divergent views have been held.
As typical of these two schools of thought, see
Dante, de Mon. III. viii. 36 ff., and Tarquini,
Juris ecci. Inst.*, Rome, 1875, p. 98. The former
declares it is not absolute, ' sed respective ad
aliquid. . . . Posset [enim] solvere me non poeni-
tentem, quod etiam facere ipse Deus non posset ' ;
the latter states that St. Peter (Mt 16 19 ) is invested




with 'potestas clavium, quae est absoluta et

(2) The example of the Jeioish nation and
Church. In the Pentateuch it is stated that certain
heinous sins cannot be forgiven. By some form of
excommunication or by death itself the sinner is
to be 'cut off.' Thus the sanctity of the nation
is restored and preserved. In the later days of
Judaism the penalties became somewhat milder as
a general rule. The foundations of Jewish excom-
munication are Lv 13 46 , Nu 5 2 - 3 12 U - 15 16, Jg S 23 ,
Ezr 7 26 , Neh 13 25 . The effects are described in
Ezr 7 26 10 s . The Talmud mentions three kinds of
excommunication, the first two disciplinary, the
third complete and final expulsion. There was
separation, separation with a curse, and final
separation with a terrible anathema. For Gospel
references see Lk 6 22 , Jn O 22 - 12 42 16 2 . The
sentence might be pronounced on twenty-four
different grounds.

(3) The authority of Jesus Christ. The main
basis of authority for the Christian Church is the
teaching of its Founder. The passages of most
importance on the subject under consideration are
Mt 16 19 18 18 , Jn 20 23 . Excommunication must be
preceded by private and public exhortation, con-
ducted in the spirit of love, with caution, wisdom,
and patience. Only as a last resort, and when all
else has failed, must the sentence of banishment be

g-onounced (see Mt IS 24 ' 30 - S6 ' 43 - 47 - BO ). From Christ
imself the Church received authority, not only to
' bind ' the impenitent and unbelieving and to
' loose ' the penitent believer, but also, in its
properly constituted courts, to condemn and expel
gross offenders and to forgive and re-instate them
if truly penitent.

3. Legislation in the Apostolic Church.
The general methods of procedure are made clear
by St. Paul's method of dealing with the case of
the incestuous person at Corinth (1 Co 5, 2 Co 2 6 ' 11 ).
The excommunication of the offender was a solemn,
deliberate, judicial act of the members of the Church
specially gathered together ' in the name of the Lord
Jesus Christ' for the purpose, and equipped with
the authority and ' power of our Lord Jesus Christ.'
The act of exclusion was that of the Church itself
and not of the Apostle Paul. The power was not
in the hands of an official, or body of officials.
Wherever it has become the prerogative of a
priesthood it has led to great abuse and the results
have been disastrous both to priests and people.

The object of this act of discipline was to reform
the sinner (1 Co 5 s ), and to preserve the purity of
the Church. Where a difference of opinion existed
as to the course to be pursued, the verdict was
decided by the majority (2 Co 2 s ). The sentence
might be modified or rescinded according to sub-
sequent events (2 s ' 8 ). ' To deliver such a one unto
Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the
spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus '
(1 Co 5 5 ), is an obscure passage. Perhaps St. Paul
thought that a sin of the flesh was more likely to
be cured by bodily suffering than in any other
way. In his opinion certain afflictions of the body
were due to the operations of Satan (2 Co 2 11 12*,

1 Ti I 20 ). Probably he thought that, in accordance
with the sentence of the Church, God would allow
Satan to inflict some physical malady that would
lead the offender to repentance. If we may take

2 Co 2 6 ' 11 to refer to the same case, the desired
result was reached.

'It cannot have been unknown to Paul that he was here
using a form of words similar to the curses by which the
Corinthians had formerly been accustomed to consign their
personal enemies to destruction by the powers of the world of
death. It seems not open to doubt that the Corinthians would
understand by this phrase that the offender was to suffer
disease and even death as a punishment for sin ; and Paul goes
on to add that this punishment of the flesh is intended to bring
salvation ultimately to his soul (ii/a TO nvev/xa rco0j?) : by

physical suffering he is to atone for his sin. . . . The whole
thought stands in the closest relation to the theory of the
confession-inscriptions, in which those who have been punished
by the god thank and bless him for the chastisement ' (Ramsay
in ExpT x. [1898-99] 59).

For cases in which physical ill followed ecclesi-
astical censure see Ac 5 1 8 au 13 10 . Some hold that
the ' delivery to Satan ' was by virtue of the special
authority of St. Paul himself, while the Church
had power to expel only. There is nothing in the
text to support such a view. This punishment
must not be confounded with the anatnema of Ko
9 s , I Co 16 22 , Gal I 8 - 9 . ' The attempt to explain
the word (dvd0e/j.a) to mean "excommunication"
from the society a later use of the Hebrew in
Rabbinical writers and the Greek in ecclesiastical
arose from a desire to take away the apparent
profanity of the wish' (Sanday-Headlam, Romans 6
[ICC, 1902], p. 228). Calvin and some other re-
formers thought the expression dvadefia. Map&v
ddd (1 Co 16 22 ) was a formula of excommunication.
Buxtorf (Lex. Chald., Basel, 1639, pp. 827, 2466)
says it was part of a Jewish cursing formula from
the Prophecy of Enoch (Jude 14 ). There is no reason
for such an opinion. It was not held until the
meaning of the words was lost or partially so.
They are neither connected nor synonymous as
some have supposed, and are rightly separated in
RV ' If any man loveth not the Lord, let him be
anathema. Maran atha ' (cf. Ph 4 s ).

In addition to the specific case at Corinth and
general references in such passages as 1 Th 5 14 ,
2 Th 3 14 (cf. Ro 16", Ja 5 16 ), we find more precise
directions in later books the Pastoral Epistles
and General Epistles of St. John (see 1 Ti 5 19 - 20 6 3 ,
Tit 3 10 , 1 Jn I 8 '- 5 16 , 2 Jn 10 , 3 Jn 10 ). Heresy,
schism, insubordination, usurpation of the auth-
ority of the Church by a section, became grounds
of excommunication. The morals, doctrine, and
government of the Church were all imperilled at
times and could be preserved only by strict dis-
cipline and severe penalties upon wrong-doers. As
in the Jewish community, the sentence of excom-
munication might be lighter or heavier, the ex-
clusion being more or less complete. It might
mean only expulsion from the Lord's Table,
but not from the Lord's House ; or it might be
utter banishment from the Lord's House and an
interdict against all social intercourse with its

It is beyond the scope of this article to trace
the history of excommunication in the Christian
Church. Suffice it to say that the distinction be-
tween the minor (dc/>opto>i6j) and major (iravreXris
d^opiff/j-bs dvdOena) forms of it, which existed from
very early times, if not from the Apostolic Age it-
self, were continued for centuries with a wealth of
elaborate detail as to the exact penalties involved
in each, and as to the attitude of those within the
Church to those without its pale. Unfortunately,
excommunication often became an instrument of
oppression in the hands of unworthy men. In
mediaeval days it frequently entailed outlawry
and sometimes death.

'The censures of the Church, reserved in her early days for
the gravest moral and spiritual offences, soon lost their salutary
terrors when excommunications became incidents in territorial
squabbles, or were issued on the most trivial pretext ; and when
the unchristian penalty of the interdict sought to coerce the
guilty by robbing the innocent of the privilege of Christian
worship and even of burial itself ' (A. Robertson, Reynutn Dei
[Bampton Lectures, 1901], p. 267).



ll-, t/ J>, < J'l XJCklJU \IMH.;I111UI IC1 y Jtl A +*juf 9 t~f. V. l~r\jij-

schiitz. Christian Life in the Primitive Churching, tr., London,
1904; H. M. Gwatkin, Early Church History, do. 1909; E.
Schiirer, HJP, Edinburgh, 1885-1890; C. v. Weizsacker,




Das apostolische Zeitalter*, Tubingen, 1902 (Eng. tr. of 2nd ed.,
London, 1894-95) ; A. Edersheim, LT*, London, 1887 ; J.
Bingham, Origines Ecclesicustictx, do. 1708-1722 ; H. Hallam,
View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ayes 10 , do.


EXHORTATION. Exhortation (
played an important part in the apostolic ministry.
As a technical term for a specific kind of Christian
teaching, it first emerges in Acts and in the Epistles.
No mention of it (as such) appears in the Gospels.
They record the facts and teaching of Christ upon
which the later exhortations were founded. Ex-
hortation, or irapd.KX'rjffi.s, may be described as a
summons to the will, an appeal urgent, per-
suasive, and even authoritative which was based
sometimes on Scripture (Ac 13 15 ) or apostolic
teaching (1 Ti 6 2 , 2 Ti 4' J ), but more especially on
Christian prophecy (Ac 15 3 -', 1 Co 14 s - 31 ). It was
what we call in modern sermons the 'application.'
Prophesying and exhorting naturally went to-
gether in the proclamation of salvation. Cremer
holds that exhortation belongs ' to the domain of
prophecy, and is like this a special charisma (Ro
12 8 ), though it does not appear to have manifested
itself separately as such' (Bibl.-Theol. Lex. of NT
Greek 3 , p. 337). Generally, no doubt, it was given
by the Apostle or prophet himself, e.g. by St.
Peter (Ac 2 40 ), by Barnabas (Ac II 23 ), by St. Paul
(Ac 13 18ff< ), but at times, so it would appear from
Ro 12 8 , the one who did the ' exhorting' might be
a different speaker from the one who gave the
'prophecy' or 'teaching.' Frequently, indeed,
especially in times of persecution or unrest, it con-
sisted in a mutual exchange of encouragement or
warning among believers (1 Th 4 18 5 n , He 3 13 10 25 ).

As the word Trapd/cX^crts has many shades of
meaning, so the ' exhortations ' referred to in the
NT have many tones of emotional stimulus. In
fact, the character of the exhortation was deter-
mined by the circumstances which called it forth.
In times of threatened apostasy it was admonitory ;
amid persecution and danger it promoted comfort.
Often irapdK\ri<ris can only mean 'comfort' (q.v.),
and in all such instances it is so translated in both
AV and RV (Ac 9 31 , Ro 15 4 , 2 Co I 3ff -) ; but in all
cases where the AV renders it ' exhortation ' the
RV does the same (except in 1 Co 14 3 , where it
might with advantage be retained instead of
' comfort '). Similarly the verb irapa.Ka\tw is often
appropriately translated ' comfort ' in both versions,
but, again, wherever in AV the sense requires
' exhort ' it so appears in the text of RV (except
in Ac 18 27 ' encourage' and 2 Co 9 5 ' intreat'). To
grasp the meaning of 'exhort' and 'exhortation,'
as technical terms, it should be noticed that the
verb TrapatcaXtu is, in many cases, translated ' pray '
or ' desire ' in AV, and ' beseech ' or ' intreat ' in
RV when, however, the appeal so expressed springs
from some personal wish or judgment, whereas
the terms ' exhort ' and ' exhortation ' are retained
for instances where the basis of appeal is some
Divinely-given truth or revelation (cf. TrapeccaXow,
' besought,' Ac 13 42 , and irapaKaXovvres, ' exhorting,'
Ac 14 22 ). Exhortation proper (i.e. as part of the
apostolic ministry), while it contained elements of
personal entreaty ('we beseech and exhort' [1 Th
4 1 ]), partook more of the nature of a spiritually

couraging (1 Th 2"), commanding (2 Th 3 12 ),
strengthening (Ac 14 22 , 15 32 ), edifying (1 Th 5 11 ),
and, where successful, leading the hearers to a
proper state of mind or to right conduct (Tit 2 8ff -,
1 P 5"-).

It might be given to individuals, e.g. to Titus
(2 Co 8 i7 ), to Timothy (1 Ti I 3 ), to Euodia and
Syntyche (Ph 4 2 ) ; or it was a message addressed

to the congregations, generally in their meetings
for edification, either verbal (Ac 13 15 20 2 , 1 Co 14 3 )
or epistolary (Ac 15 31m -, He IS'- 2 , 1 P 5 1 -, Jude 3 ).

Naturally exhortation was prominent at a time
when a speedy Second Coming of Christ was ex-
pected ( ' exhorting ... so much the more as ye
see the day drawing nigh,' He 10 25 ; cf. 1 Th 4 18 ).
The power of exhortation was regarded as one of
the charismata, or ' gifts ' bestowed by the Holy
Spirit, for the edification of believers (Ro 12 8 , 1 Co
14 3 ). Barnabas, or ' son of exhortation,' was so
surnamed by the apostles (Ac 4 :J6 RVm) because
he was endowed with a large measure of this gift
(Ac II 23 ). But it was a gift that could be culti-
vated. Its intensity and power could be increased
by proper attention, and so St. Paul urged Timothy
to ' give heed to exhortation ' as well as to reading
and teaching (1 Ti 4 13 ).

LITERATURE. H. Cremer, Bibl.-Theol. Lex. of NT Greeks,
1880, s.v. rropdicAijo-is ; O. Pfleiderer, Paulinigm?, Eng. tr.,
1891, vol. i. ch. vi. p. 236 ; see also Literature under art. COM-


EXORCISM. 1. Origin and definition. It is

pointed out in the art. DIVINATION that man, at a
very early period, came to think of himself as sur-
rounded by innumerable spirits, many of whom
could enter into and influence him. He realized
that it was his duty, and for his advantage, to
cultivate friendly relations with these spirits, and
one of the forms which this effort took developed
into divination. The coming of a spirit into close
relations with a man brought on him either calami-
ties or blessings, and from these opposite results
the spirits came to be grouped into good and bad.
The entrance of a good spirit a spirit of purity or
truth caused health of body or clearness of mind.
Such indwelling in its highest form is inspiration
(Job 32 s ). The entrance of a bad spirit a dumb,
unclean, or evil spirit caused disease of body or
disorder of mind. In its most decided form this is
possession (q.v.). The spirits, and the divinities
into which some of them developed, were free to
enter into or leave a person, but their freedom was
limited. As ' the spirits of the prophets are sub-
ject to the prophets (1 Co 14 32 ), so certain persons
came to know how, by a proper use of special words
and acts, to make the spirits, within certain limits,
obedient to them. (1) Such experts were able to
bring a person into such close contact with a spirit,
or the thing in which a spirit or divinity dwelt,
that the spirit could deal effectively with the person.
Such bringing into contact developed, (a) where
the person was able or willing, into administering
to him an oath ; (b) where unable or unwilling, into
solemnly adjuring him. (2) An expert could call
up, call upon, or permit a spirit to enter another
person, to work his will in him ; or enter into him-
self to work with him or reveal secrets to him. (3)
He could compel a spirit to come out of a person
or thing into which it had entered ; with the result,
if the spirit was an evil one, that the baneful con-
sequences of possession immediately ceased. The
expert who could do this was an exorcist, and his
work was exorcism.

2. Derivation. The word opxos seems primarily
to have referred to a spirit, or an object made
sacred by the indwelling of a spirit, and so came
to mean the thing that brought a spirit into effec-
tive touch with a person, hence ' an oath.' 6pideii>,
in the same way, came to mean to bring these two
together, hence (a) ' to administer or cause to take
an oath ' (Gn 50 s , Nu 5 19 ) ; or (b) ' to adjure ' (Jos 6 26 ,
1 K 22 16 , 2 Ch 18 15 , Ac 19 13 ). When the high priest
said to Jesus opKLfa * <re Kara TOV Oeov TOV UVTOS
(Mt 26 63 ), he thereby brought the prisoner into

* This, not efop/ci'fco, is the reading of D L. The reading in
Gn 24^ is efopKiw.




such effective touch with Jahweh that the latter
could punish him if he did not speak the truth.
ttooKlfav, on the other hand, meant the separating
of the spirit from the person, and from it comes
tl-opKifffj.&s, the Latin exorcismus, and the English
4 exorcism.'

' The formula <O/>KI'(I> is of Oriental origin. It is absolutely
unknown in Greek and Italian tabelhe from the fifth century
B.C. to the second century A.D. ; and, when it does appear, it
appears only in tablets which make mention of Oriental deities '
(P. B. Jevons, ' Defixionuin Tabellie,' in Transactions of the
Third International Congress for the History of Religions, 1908,
vol. ii. p. 138). _ A heathen amulet has the inscription <= op/a'fa>
v/xas KO.TO. TOV ayiov ovo/uaros flepairevcrat TOV btovviriov ; and ' the
adjective is of constant occurrence in the magic papyri ' (Moulton
and Milligan, ' Lexical Notes from the Papyri ' in Expositor,

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