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lessly crushed. What ruined Galba was on the
one hand his lack of the genius for rule, and on
the other his parsimony. One of Tacitus' immortal
phrases has reference to him : ' omnium consensu
capax imperil, nisi imperasset' (Hist. i. 49). He
used severity where it was uncalled for, and thus
alienated many who would have settled down
quietly under the new regime. He stirred up
against himself one of his supporters, M. Saluius
Otho (see OTHO), who expected to be adopted by
Galba as his successor in the Empire. The soldiers
declared him Imperator and put Galba to death.

LITKRATURE. The chief authorities are Tacitus, Histories
bk. i. ; Plutarch, Galba (ed. E. G. Hardy, London, 1890) ;
Suetonius, Galba ; Dio Cassius, Ixiii.-lxiv., etc., and inscrip-
tions. The facts are given most succinctly in P. de Rphden
and H. Dessau, Prosopographia Imperil Romani scec. i. ii. Hi.,
pars iii., Berlin, 1898, p. 284 ff. (no. 723). See also the relevant
parts of the modern Histories of the Roman Empire (V. Duruy
[Eng. tr., London, 1883-86], J. B. Bury (do. 1893], etc.) ; A. von
Domaszewski, Gesch. der romischen Kaiser, Leipzig, 1909, ii.
79-85 ; E. G. Hardy, Studies in Roman History, London, 1906,
pp. 295-;334 (a valuable comparison of the leading ancient
authorities), also 2nd series of the same work, do. 1909, pp.
130-157. A. SOUTER.

GALILEE. Galilee is seldom mentioned in the
NT outside the Gospels. The only references are
in the early chapters of Acts (I 11 5 37 9 S1 10 37 13 31 ).
Most of the apostles belonged to this northern
province (I 11 13 31 ). Judas, the leader of an agita-
tion in the days of the enrolment of Quirinius, is
described as ' of Galilee ' (5 37 ). After Saul's con-
version, peace descended upon the Christians in
Galilee, as well as in Judaea and Samaria (9 S1 ).
Walking in the fear of the Lord and the comfort of
the Holy Spirit, their numbers greatly increased.

1. The name. The name ' Galilee ' is derived
from the Heb. ty* (Galll), through the Gr. TaXiXcua
and the Lat. Galilcea. The Hebrew word, denot-
ing ' ring ' or ' circle,' was used geographically to
describe a 'circuit' of towns and villages. As
applied to this particular district in north-western
Palestine, the form used is either *?^3n, ' the district '
(Jos 20 7 2 1 32 , 1 K 9 n , 2 K 15 29 , 1 Ch 6 76 ), or oyiari V^f,
'district of the nations' (Is 9 1 ). Given originally
to the highlands on the extreme northern border,
this name gradually extended itself southwards
over the hill-country till it reached and eventually
included the Plain of Esdraelon (G. A. Smith,




HGffL*, pp. 379 and 415). For the most part,
however, Esdraelon seems to have been a frontier
or arena of battle, rather than an actual part of

2. The boundaries. The natural boundaries of
Galilee never agreed with its political frontiers.
The natural limits are Esdraelon, the Mediterranean
Sea, the Jordan valley, and the gorge of the river
Litany. But the actual borders have shifted from
time to time. At the period of widest extension,
they may be set down as the Kasimiyeh or Litany
gorge on the N., the southern edge of Esdraelon
on the S., Phrenicia (which always belonged to
Gentiles) on the W., and the Upper Jordan (with
its two lakes) on the E. These boundaries, exclud-
ing Carmel and the area of the lakes, enclosed a
province about 50 miles long by 25 to 35 miles broad
an area of about 1600 square miles. Within these
limits lay ' a region of mountain, hill, and plain,
the most diversified and attractive in Palestine'
(Masterman, Studies in Galilee, p. 4).

3. The divisions. Josephus (BJ ill. iii. 1) gives
the divisions, in his time, as two, called the Upper
Galilee and the Lower. The Mishna (Shebuth ix. 12)
states that the province contained ' the upper, the
lower, and the valley.' The latter are certainly
the natural divisions. The mountains separate
very clearly into a higher northern and a lower
southern group, and the ' valley ' is the valley of
the Upper Jordan.

(a) Upper Galilee is less easily characterized
physically than Lower. ' It appears to the casual
observer a confused mass of tumbled mountains,
to which not even the map can give an orderly
view ' (Masterman, p. 11). It is in reality ' a series
of plateaus, with a double water-parting, and sur-
rounded by hills from 2000 to 4000 feet' (G. A.
Smith, HGHL*, p. 416). The central point is Jebel
Jermak (3934ft.), the highest mountain in western
Palestine. The scantier water supply of Upper
Galilee is compensated for by the copiousness of
the dew-fall throughout the later summer months.

(b) Lower Galilee is easier to describe. It con-
sists of parallel ranges of hills, all below 2000ft.,
running from W. to E., with broad fertile valleys
between. The whole region is of great natural
fertility, owing to abundance of water, rich volcanic
soil, the gentleness of the slopes, and the openness
of the plains. The great roads of the province
cross this lower hill-country. The dividing-line
between Upper and Lower Galilee is the range of
mountains running right across the country along
the northern edge of the Plain of Rameh.

(c) The Valley consists of the Upper Jordan and
its two lakes, Huleh and Gennesaret. The river,
taking its rise from springs and streams in the
neighbourhood of Banias and Tel-el-Kadi, flows
south in a steadily deepening channel, through
Huleh, till it empties itself into the Sea of Genne-
saret, at a depth of 689 ft. below sea-level. It has
fallen to this depth in about 19 miles. Six miles
north of the lake, the river is crossed by the ' Bridge
of the daughters of Jacob,' on the famous Via Maris
of the Middle Ages, the principal thoroughfare be-
tween Damascus and the Mediterranean ports. The
Lake of Galilee could never be sufficiently praised
by the JeAvish Rabbis. They said that Jahweh
had created seven seas, and of these had chosen
the Sea of Gennesaret as His special delight. It
had rich alluvial plains on the north and south, a
belt of populous and flourishing cities round its
border, abundance of fish in its depths, and a climate
that attracted both workers and pleasure-seekers
to its shores. At the beginning of the Christian
era, it presented a reproduction in miniature of the
rich life and varied activities of the province as a

4. The physical characteristics. These are

principally two : (a) abundance of water, and (b)
fertility of soil. As to (a), the words of the ancient
promise, ' for the Lord thy God bringeth thee into a
good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains
and depths springing forth in valleys and hills'
(Dt 8 7 ), are literally true of Galilee, particularly in
its southern half. Large quantities of water are
collected during the rainy season among the higher
slopes and plateaus, and are thence dispersed by
the rivers and streams over the lower-lying tracts,
where they become stored in springs and wells.
There are the two lakes already mentioned Huleh,
3J miles long by 3 miles wide (the Samechonitis
of Josephus, but probably not the Waters of Merom
of Jos Il 5>7 [cf. Masterman, Studies in Galilee, p.
26 f., and EBi iii. 3038]); the Lake of Galilee
(Gennesaret), 13 miles long by 8 miles broad at its
widest point. Round its shores are the ruins of
at least nine ancient cities or towns. These are
Chorazin, Capernaum, Magdala, Tiberias, Tari-
chese, Hippos, Gamala, Gergesa, and Bethsaida.
The principal rivers of the province are the Jordan,
the Litany, the Kishon, and the Belus. In addi-
tion to these lakes and rivers, there are many
greater streams and innumerable springs and wells.
These waters, together with the copious dews of
the summer, give Galilee the advantage over
Samaria and set it in marked contrast to Judaea.

As to (b), all authorities unite in celebrating the
natural wealth of Galilee. The other half of the
promise made to the Hebrews was also true of this
highly favoured province. It was ' a land of wheat
and barley, and vines and fig trees and pomegran-
ates ; a land of oil olives and honey ; a land wherein
thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt
not lack any thing in it ' (Dt 8 8 - 9 ). Josephus bears
witness that the soil was universally rich and fruit-
ful, and that it invited even the most slothful to
take pains in its cultivation (Jos. BJ in. iii. 2).
Even to-day, when such large tracts lie unculti-
vated, no part of Palestine is more productive. The
chief products were oil, wine, wheat, and fish. ' In
Asher, oil flows like a river,' said the Rabbis, who
also held that it was 'easier to raise a legion of
olive trees in Galilee than to raise one child in
Judaea.' Gischala was the chief place of manufac-
ture. There were also large stores at Jotapata
during the Roman War. Considerable quantities
were sent to Tyre and to Egypt. Made from the
olive trees, the oil was used principally for exter-
nal application, for illumination, and in connexion
with religious ritual. Wine was made in many
quarters of the province, the best qualities coming
from Sigona ; while wheat and other grains were
plentifully raised all over Lower Galilee, especially
round about Sepphoris and in the fields of the Plain
of Gennesaret. The fish, for which the province was
always noted in ancient times, was caught in the
inland lakes, particularly in the Lake of Galilee. It
formed a large part of the food of the lake-side
dwellers, and a considerable trade was carried on
by the fish-catchers and fish-curers of the large
towns on the shore. The best fishing-grounds were,
and still are, at el-Bataiha in the north, and in the
bay of Tabigha, at the N.W. corner. Taricheee,
in the south, was another centre of the industry.
In addition to the above-mentioned commodities,
Galilee produced flax from which fine linen fabrics
were woven, pottery, and a rich dye made from the
indigo plant. The prosperity of the province was
enhanced by its proximity to the Phoenician ports,
and by the network of highways which crossed it
in all directions.

5. The inhabitants. To-day Galilee possesses a
remarkably mixed population, and its inhabitants
are physically finer than those of the southern pro-
vinces (cf. Masterman, pp. 17-20). In apostolic
times, the same was true. Along the western and




northern borders were the Syrophomicians (Mk7 26 ),
or Tyrians (as Josephus calls them), while from
the east nomadic Bedouins were continually press-
ing in upon the lower-lying tracts. But besides
these Semitic elements, Greeks and Grsecized
Syrians were distributed over parts of the land
(Masterman, p. 120), and Romans made their in-
fluence felt throughout a large area of the province.
Only in the more secluded towns among the hills
would Jewish life be preserved in its characteristic
purity. In spite, however, of the mingling of
nationalities, the Galilseans were thoroughly and
patriotically Jewish during the 1st cent, of the
Christian era. Wherever a true Jew settled abroad,
he kept himself distinct from his neighbours, cling-
ing tenaciously to his religion and to his racial
customs. And the same thing happened with the
Jew at home, when Gentile immigrants settled
within his borders. His contempt for foreigners
and foreign ways helped him to keep his own
character and traditions intact. The Galilaeans
were industrious workers the bulk of them being
cultivators of the soil or tenders of the fruit-
trees. They were brave soldiers too, as may be
learned from the chronicles of Josephus.

'The Galileans are inured to war from their infancy, and
have been always very numerous ; nor has their country ever
been destitute of men of courage ' (Jos. BJ m. iii. 2).

There does not seem to be any sufficient ground
for the dislike and contempt in which the Galilseans
were held by their religiously stricter brethren of
Judaea. Possibly they were less exact in their ob-
servance of tradition. But they were devoted to
the Law, and their country was well supplied with
synagogues, schools, and teachers. If they were
less orthodox, from the Pharisaic standpoint, the
Messianic hope burned brightly in their souls, and
they crowded to the ministry of Jesus. They were
certainly more tolerant and open-minded than the
Judseans, and it was from them that Jesus chose
most of the men who were to give His teaching to
the world.

The population of Galilee in apostolic times
was considerably greater than it is to-day. At the
present time, it is estimated to be somewhere about
250,000 (including children), spread over an area of
1341 square miles and inhabiting some 312 towns
and villages. This gives 186 to the square mile.
Josephus' figures mean that the population in his
day amounted to something like three millions.
He speaks of 204 cities and villages ( Vita, 45), the
smallest of which contained above 15,000 inhabit-
ants (BJ III. iii. 2). This estimate, in spite of
the arguments of Merrill (Galilee in the. Time of
Christ, pp. 62-67), can hardly be correct. Good
reasons have been given for believing that 400,000
is a much more likely figure, which means a popu-
lation of 440 to the square mile. A village of 1,500
inhabitants is reckoned to be a very large one to-
day, and the largest town's (with the exception
of Safed) contain fewer than 15,000 people. See
Masterman, pp. 131-134.

6. History and government. At the partition
of west Palestine among the twelve tribes, Galilee
fell to the lot of Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, and
Naphtali, who did not drive out the original in-
habitants. The population, therefore, continued
to be a mixed one, and the borders of the province
were constantly being pressed upon by foreigners.
In 734 B.C., Tiglath-Pileser III. carried, away most
of the inhabitants, and after this depopulation
very few Jews re-settled in the district till the ex-
tension of the Jewish State under John Hyrcanus
(135-104 B.C.). At this time, or a little later,
Galilee became thoroughly judaized. The settlers
were placed under the Law, and quickly developed
a warm patriotism, which made them ever after-
wards zealous and persistent champions of their

national rights and traditions. Later on, the pro-
vince was the principal scene of our Lord's life and
ministry. Later still, it succeeded Judaea as ' the
sanctuary of the race and the home of their theo-
logical schools' (G. A. Smith, HGHL*, p. 425).

From 4 B.C. to A.D. 39, Herod Antipas was
tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, by appointment of
the Roman Emperor. Antipas appears to have
been a capable ruler on the whole. Like his father,
he was fond of building and embellishing cities.
He re-built and fortified Sepphoris, his first capital,
and a little later erected a new capital city on the
west shore of the lake, calling it Tiberias, after
the Emperor whose favour he enjoyed. Having
secured the banishment of Antipas in A.D. 39,
Herod Agrippa I. received the tetrarchy of Galilee,
in addition to the territories of Philip and of
Lysanias which he had previously obtained. From
Claudius (in A.D. 41) he also obtained Judaea and
Samaria, thus establishing dominion over all the
land formerly ruled by Herod the Great. After
Agrippa's death, in A.D. 44, Claudius reverted to
the method of government by procurator a change
which greatly displeased the Jews as a whole and
especially stirred the animosity of the zealots.
Under the administration of the new procurators,
the people's patience became exhausted, and in the
time of Gessius Floras (A.D. 64-66) the revolt began
which ended in the destruction of the Jewish State.
In the spring of A.D. 67 Vespasian assembled his
army at Ptolemais and began the reduction of
Galilee. This was accomplished in the course of
the first campaign, despite the courage and per-
sistence of the inhabitants. But it was not till
after the lapse of another three years that
Jerusalem fell (A.D. 70) and the Jewish State was

Though the general administration of Galilsean
civil affairs lay (till. A.D. 44) with the tetrarchs,
the details of daily life were regulated by the Jews'
own religious laws (DCG.i. 633). The Sanhedrin
at Jerusalem exercised the chief authority, but
there were also local ' councils ' (Mt S 22 10 17 ) which
had limited jurisdiction. But, throughout the
whole period, over all and influencing all, was the
firm rule of Rome.

LITERATURE. Artt. in HDB ii. 98-102 (S. Merrill), DOG i.
632-634 (G. W. Thatcher), and PRP (Guthe) ; G. A. Smith,
HGHL\ 1897, chs. xx.-xxi. ; S. Merrill, Galilee in the Time o/
Christ, Boston, 1881, London, 1885 ; V. GueVin, Description
. . . de laPalestine,pt.m.: 'Galilee, 'Paris, 1880; F. Buhl, GAP,
Freiburg and Leipzig, 1896, 18-19, 68, 113-123 ; E. Schiirer,
UJP, 1885-91 (index); E. W. G. Masterman, Studies in
Galilee, Chicago, 1909; A. Neubauer, La Geog. du Talmud,
Paris, 1868, 188-240 ; SWP i. [1861]. A. W. COOKE.

GALLIO. Gallic governed Achaia as a proconsul
of praetorian rank. His name was Marcus Annaeus
Novatus ; but he was adopted by L. Junius Gallic,
a Roman orator, and took his name. He was the
elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, to whose
influence at court he may have owed his governor-
ship. There is no other direct evidence that Gallic
governed Achaia than St. Luke's statement (Ac
18 12 ). But Seneca's reference to Gallio's catching
fever in Achaia and taking a voyage for a change
of air so far corroborates St. Luke. Gallio came
to Corinth, the residence of the governor, during
the time of St. Paul's labours there (c. A.D. 50-53).*
Angered by the conversion of prominent members
of the synagogue, the Jews took advantage of the
new governor's arrival to lay a charge against St.
Paul which they tried to put in such a serious light
as to merit a severe penalty. But Gallio was not
so complaisant or inexperienced as they hoped.
He elicited the true nature of their complaint, and,
cutting short the trial, he abruptly dismissed the

* On the exact date of Gallio's proconsulship see 'art. DATES,
III. 3.




case as referring only to interpretations of Jewish
law, not to any civil wrong or any moral outrage
of which Roman law took cognizance.

Two effects of this decision are noted, (a) It
was a snub which gave the Greek bystanders
grounds for venting their animus against the Jews,
by seizing and beating Sosthenes, the ruler of the
synagogue. This seems the true interpretation of
a scene which has been supposed to describe Jews
beating a Christian or even their own leader in
revenge for their defeat. But such a savage and
illegal protest against Gallio's decision could not
have passed unnoticed by him ; on the other hand,
a public demonstration against the unpopular and
disputatious Jews whom he had just dismissed
might appear to him a rough sort of justice which
he could afford to overlook, especially as it put
the seal of popular approval on his action (see

(6) The decision seems to have influenced St.
Paul in another direction. Gallic being governor
of Achaia, his judgment would become a precedent
and would have far-reaching influence. It gave
St. Paul a new idea of the protection he could gain
from the Roman law. Although Judaism was a
religio licita, evidently the Imperial Government
did not consider Christian preaching illegal. This
amounted to a declaration of freedom in religion
of immense value to Christians. From this point
of view Gallio's treatment of the Jewish complaint
was a landmark in St. Paul's missionary labour,
and did a great deal to confirm his confidence in
Roman protection for his preaching.

Gallio's private character is eulogized by Seneca
in glowing terms. He was very lovable and fasci-
nating ; amiable, virtuous, just, and witty. The
casual glimpse we get of him in Ac 18 la '" shows
him in a favourable light as governor. The clause
' Gallic cared for none of these things ' does not
bear in the least the interpretation put upon it by
proverbial Christian philosophy. No doubt he had
more than a touch of the Roman aristocrat's con-
tempt for religious quarrels and for all Jews. But
he appears as an astute judge, seeing quickly into
the heart of things, firm in his decisions, and not
too pompous or punctilious to turn a blind eye to
a bit of rough popular horseplay. He seems to
have shared the fortunes of his more famous
brother, and was put to death by Nero.

LITERATURE. HDB, art. ' Gallio,' t'6. art. ' Corinth,' i. 481 ;
W. M. Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller, 1895, pp. 257-261, The
Church in the Roman Umpire, 1893, pp. 250, 346-349 ; R. J.
Knowling, EGT, 'Acts,' 1900, ad loc. ; F. W. Farrar, Seekers

after God, ed. 1879, pp. 16-21.


GAMALIEL (^'Vpt, ra^aX^X, 'reward of God').
1. Son of Simon and grandson of Hill el, a
' pharisee, a doctor of the law, had in honour of
all the people,' and a member of the Sanhedrin,
who intervened in the trial of St. Peter and the
other apostles (Ac S 33 " 39 ). He is also represented
by the Apostle Paul as his early teacher (Ac 22 s ).
Gamaliel was a representative of a broader and
more liberal school among the Pharisees, the school
of Hillel as opposed to that of Shammai. He was
interested in Greek literature and encouraged his
students to study it. His teaching tended towards
a broader and more spiritual interpretation of the
Mosaic Law, and encouraged the Jews to friendly
intercourse with foreigners, allowing poor strangers
equal rights along with Jews to the gleanings of
the corn, while he exerted himself for the relief of
wives from the abuses of the law of divorce and
for the protection of widows from the greed of
children (Gittin 32, 34). He was held in such es-
teem that it is related in the Mishna (Sota, ix. 15),
' with the death of Gamaliel the reverence for the
law ceased and purity and abstinence died away.'

Gamaliel's attitude towards the apostles has
been variously estimated. His advice to let them
alone is supported by the reason ' if this counsel or
work be of men, it will come to naught : but if it
be of God, ye cannot overthrow it, lest haply ye be
found even to fight against God ' (Ac 5 s8 - 3S ). Some
see in this the mark of a humane, tolerant, gener-
ous, liberal-minded man (C. D. Ginsburg in Kitto's
Bibl. Cycl., s.v. ' Gamaliel I. ') ; others regard it as
the statement of a time-server without definite
convictions, and incline to compare him unfavour-
ably not only with the apostles, but with his col-
leagues in the council, who were consistent and
convinced traditionalists. Perhaps the view of
Milligan (in HDB ii. 106) is the most satisfactory.
He is of the opinion that Gamaliel's conduct is
to be attributed rather to a ' prudential dread of
violent measures than to a spirit of systematic
tolerance.' The persecuting zeal of his pupil Saul
of Tarsus does not seem to indicate that universal
tolerance was part of the systematic teaching of
Gamaliel, though a pupil may depart from the
views he has been taught.

The influence which Gamaliel on this occasion
exercised in the Sanhedrin has been explained by
the acceptance of a Rabbinic tradition to the effect
that he was president of the Sanhedrin ; but not
until after the destruction of Jerusalem, when the
priesthood had lost its importance, do we find a
Rabbi occupying this position (cf. A. Edersheim,
History of the Jewish Nation, 1896, Appendix iii.,
p. 522 ff. ; also Schtirer, GJV* ii. 257, 431). The
influence of Gamaliel is better accounted for by
the predominating influence of the Pharisaic party,
which was represented in the Sanhedrin (Ac 23* ;
Jos. BJ II. xvii. 3, Vita, 38, 39), and also by
the personal influence of the man himself. The
importance of this latter factor is borne out by
unanimous Rabbinic tradition and is attested by
the fact that Gamaliel was the first among the
seven teachers who received the title Rabban a
higher form of Rabbi, which in the form Rabboni
is applied to the risen Jesus by Mary Magdalene
(Jn 20 16 ). Another incident bearing upon his com-
manding position in the Sanhedrin is related in
the Mishna (Edajoth vii. 7). The council had re-
cognized the need for appointing a leap-year, but,
as Gamaliel was absent, resolved that their decision
should take effect only if it received the subse-
quent sanction of their leading man.

The tradition that Gamaliel was a secret Chris-
tian and was baptized by St. Peter and St. Paul
is purely legendary (cf. A. Neander, Hist, of the
Planting and Training of the Christian Church,
ed. Bolm, i. [1880] 46 ff.). He died c. A.D. 57-58.

The historical events referred to in the speech
ascribed to Gamaliel in Ac S 363 - have given rise to

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