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French use the word Monsieur. But to the Greek-
speaking Christian Jew of the 1st cent., 6 /ttfpios had
a much deeper signification ; deeper also than the
complimentary Aramaic title 'Rabbi' (lit. 'my
great one'). For the Jews habitually used the
word 'Lord' as a substitute for 'Jahweh.' That
sacred name, though written, was not pronounced.
In reading the Hebrew OT, ' Adonai was substi-
tuted for it. And so the Hellenistic Jews, in read-
ing their Greek translation of the OT, found 6
Ktipios where the original has 'Jahweh.' When,
then, St. Paul declares that 'no man can say,
Jesus is Lord, but in the Holy Spirit' (1 Co 12"),
or bids the Roman Christian 'confess with thy
mouth Jesus as Lord' (Ro 10 9 RV ; cf. Ph 2 n ), he
does not mean merely that Jesus is a great teacher,
but he identifies Him with ' the Lord ' of the Greek
OT, that is, with Jahweh. St. Peter uses the
same identification when he says : ' Sanctify in
your hearts Christ as Lord' (1 P 3 15 RV ; the AV
reading is not supported by the best authorities) ;
here he quotes Is 8 13 LXX (icupiov afrrbv ayidffare).
actually substituting -rbv JLpurr6v for alrbv. (C.
Bigg [ICC, 1901, in loc.~\ renders 'sanctify the
Lord, that is to say, the Christ,' but this does not
affect the present argument.) This identification
is frequent in the NT. The title ' the Lord ' is
used both of the Father and of the Son. A re-
markable passage is Ja 5 4 ' 15 , where we read in
quick succession of 'the Lord of Sabaoth,' 'the
coming of the Lord,' ' the Lord is at hand,' ' the
prophets spake in the name of the Lord,' ' the
Lord shall raise (the sick man) up'; 'the Lord'
means here sometimes the Father and sometimes
the Son (in 3 9 RVit is explicitly used of the Father),
With this compare the way in which in 4 18 God is
said to be the one ' lawgiver and judge, who is able
to save and to destroy,' while in 5 9 Jesus is the judge
who ' standeth before the doors.' The passage 1 Co
10 9 would be still more striking if we could be sure




of the text. According to the A V and RVm, St.
Paul speaks of the Israelites who sinned against
Jahweh in Nu 21 5ff - as ' tempting Christ ' ; but the
reading rbv Xpurr6v is not quite so well attested as
rbv Kijpiov. Another identification of Jesus with
Jahweh is to be seen in the taking over of the
expression 'the day of the Lord' ('the day of
Jahweh') from the OT (cf. Am 5 18 , etc.) and the
using of it to denote the return of Jesus, in 1 Th 5 2 ,
2 P 3 10 , which have ' the day of the Lord,' and 1 Co
5 5 , 2 Co I 14 , which have 'the day of [our] Lord

Again, Jesus is in the NT called 'Lord' in a
manner which is equivalent to ' Almighty,' i.e. ' all
ruling' (see above, 3 (a)) ; e.g. Ac 10 36 (' he is Lord
of all'), Ro 14 9 ('Lord of the dead and the living'),
Ph 3- of - ('the Lord Jesus Christ . . . is able even
to subject all things unto himself), 1 Co 2 s (' cruci-
fied the Lord of glory ' an approach to the com-
municatio idiomatum [see above, 5 (6)]), Rev I 8
('ruler of the kings of the earth'), 17 14 19 16 (the
Lamb, the Word of God, is ' Lord of lords and
King of kings ' a phrase used in 1 Ti 6 18 of the
Father); cf. He l s< - 8 ('the Son . . . upholding all
things by the word of his power') and Ro 9 5 (' who
is over all'). God is commonly addressed by the
disciples as 'Lord,' as in Ac I 24 (but see above, 3
(c)) 4 29 (explicitly the Father ; see v. 30 ) 10 4 - 14 II 8 ;
and this is the way in which Saul of Tarsus and
Ananias address the Ascended Jesus in their
visions (Ac 9 8 - 10 ' ls [see v. 1M -] 22 8 - 10 ' 19 26 15 ; cf. Mt
25", etc.).

The title 'our Lord' for Jesus, which became the most
common designation among the Christians, is not very common
in the NT. In Rev Ills it j 3 used of the Father (' our Lord and
his Christ '). In 118 AV it is used of Jesus, but all the best MSS
here have 'their Lord.' It is, however, found in Ja 2 1 ('our
Lord Jesus Christ [the Lord] of glory') and in 2 Co 131*, i n
1", 2 Ti 1, He 714 1320, 2 P 3*5, etc.

(c) Our Lord's Divinity stated in express terms.
Many of the passages about to be given in this sub-
section have been keenly criticized, but it is im-
possible to pass over the whole of them. This
passage or that may possibly be explained other-
wise than is here done, or in some cases the reading
may be disputed ; but the cumulative effect of the
whole is overwhelming. Yet it must be remarked
that the doctrine of the Godhead of our Lord does
not depend merely on a certain number of leading
texts. The language of the whole of the apostolic
writings is inexplicable on the supposition that
their authors believed their Master to be mere
man, or even a created being of any sort, however
highly exalted.

In Ko 9 8 St. Paul says that Christ is ' over all,
God blessed for ever.' Such is the interpretation
of the AV and RV (RVm mentions the transla-
tions of some modern interpreters'), adopted 'with
some slight, but only slight, hesitation ' by Sanday-
Headlam in their exhaustive note (ICC in loc.).
The alternative interpretations insert a full stop,
and make the latter part of the verse an ascrip-
tion of praise to the Father.

In 2 Co 4 4 , Col I 18 Christ is called the ' image '
(elKuv) of God ; with this we must compare the re-
markable passage, He I 8ff> , where the Son is called
' the effulgence (diraifyaoyta ; cf . Wis 7 26 ) of his
glory and the very image of his substance ' (xapaKrrip
TTJS inro<rrd<reus airrov), and is declared to be higher
than, and worshipped by, the angels, and to have
eternal rule ; the quotation from Ps 45 6f> , begin-
ning ' Thy throne, O God,' is referred to the Son.
It is remarkable that whereas no Epistle empha-
sizes our Lord's humanity so strongly as Hebrews,
its beginning should dwell so forcibly on His
Divine prerogatives. The meaning of these ex-
pressions ' image,' ' effulgence,' is seen by studying
the passage Col I 15ff - with Lightfoot's notes (Colos-

sians 3 , 1879, in loc.). Christ is 'the image of the
invisible God, the firstborn of all creation' (see
FlRST-BoRN for Patristic interpretations). But
our Lord is not the ' image ' of God in the same way
as all men are (1 Co II 7 , Ja 3 9 , Gn I 28 ; Clement of
Rome uses in the same sense [Cor. xxxiii.
4] though he quotes Gn I 26 with elicwv). Christ is
the revelation of the invisible God because He is
His 'express image.' He is the 'firstborn of all
creation, as being before all creation, and having
sovereignty over it (Lightfoot). There can be
little doubt that St. Paul here refers to the pre-
incarnate Christ as the earlier Fathers, and even-
tually the later Greek Fathers, held. He adds
that ' in him all the fulness (ir\-/ipufj.a) dwells ' (Col
I 19 ), and that 'in him dwelleth all the fulness
of the Godhead bodily ' (2 9 ) : the totality of the
Divine power and attributes (Lightfoot) are in the
Incarnate Jesus.

In Ph 2 6 ' 8 St. Paul says that our Lord ' being
(uirdpxwv) in the form of God, counted it not a
prize [a thing to be grasped at] to be on an equality
with God, but emptied (iittvuve) himself, taking
the form of a servant, being made in the likeness
of man.' This passage, which has given rise to the
word ' Kenotic,' is elaborately treated by Lightfoot
(see his Philippians*, 1878, p. Ill f., and especially
his appended Notes, pp. 127-137). It expresses
Christ's pre-existence, for He 'emptied himself.'
Of what He emptied Himself is seen from the pre-
ceding words. He was originally (inrdpxuv, denot-
ing ' prior existence,' but not necessarily ' eternal
existence ' [Lightfoot]) in the form of God, partici-
pating in the ota-la of God. Yet He did not regard
His equality with God as a thing to be jealously
guarded, a prize which must not slip from His

We cannot lay great stress on Ac 20 28 , for
which see above, 5 (b), because of the uncertainty
of the reading ; but by all grammatical canons
(though this has been denied) Tit 2 13 must apply
the name " God ' to our Lord : ' our great God and
Saviour, Jesus Christ ' (RV ; rov fj.f-yd\ov 6eov ical
ffurrjpos TJ/M&V ' Irjffov XptoroD), and this interpretation
is borne out by the word eirupdveia ('manifestation')
which immediately precedes, and by the whole
context, which spealcs of our Lord (v. 14 ). The

Shrase in 2 P I 1 is similar : ' our God and Saviour
esus Christ ' (RV text).

The explicit ascription of Divinity is found
frequently in the Johannine writings. In 1 Jn 5 20 ,
indeed, the phrase ' This is the true God ' may be
applied either to the Father or to the Son (see above,
3 (c)) ; and in Jn I 18 the reading is disputed (see
ONLY-BEGOTTEN) ; ' God only begotten ' (novoyevfr
0e6s) is somewhat better attested than 'the only
begotten Son ' (6 ftovoyev^ uJ6s) and is the more diffi-
cult reading ; Westcott (Com. in loc.) judges both
readings to be of great and almost equal antiquity,
but on various grounds thinks that the former must
be accepted. But, whatever view we take of these
two passages, St. Thomas's confession, ' My Lord
and my God ' (20 28 ), is quite explicit ; and so is the
preface to the Fourth Gospel : ' The Word was
with God, and the Word was God' (I 1 ), and so are
our Lord's words, ' I and the Father are one ' (?c
tapev, 10 30 ). The Johannine doctrine of the Logos
or Word, which cannot be altogether passed over
even in an investigation which deals chiefly with
the NT outside the Gospels (though the title
' Word of God ' occurs only in Rev 19 13 outside the
Fourth Gospel, for He II 3 {J>^ 0eoC] is no excep-
tion to this statement), is equivalent to the Pauline
doctrine of the Image. The Logos is an eternally
existent ' Person ' through whom God has ever
revealed Himself ; who was in a true sense distinct
from the Father, and yet ' was God ' (Jn I 1 ) ; who
was incarnate, 'became flesh and tabernacled (t<rict)v-




ua-ev) among us ' (I 14 ). The Logos is identified with
Jesus Christ, whose glory the disciples beheld.

(d) Pre-existence of our Lord. This is stated
frequently in the NT. Besides the passages just
quoted in (c), we may notice Ro 8 3 (' God sending
his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh ') ; 1 Co
10 4 (the Israelites of old ' drank of a spiritual rock
that followed them, and the rock was Christ ' [note
the past tense ' was ' : it is not a mere type]) ; 15 47
('the second man is of heaven'; the best MSS
omit ' the Lord,' but this does not affect the
present point ; Robertson- Plummer, however \1CC,
1911, in loc.'], think that the reference is to the
Second Advent rather than to the Incarnation) ;
2 Co 8 9 ( ' though he was rich, for your sakes he
became poor' (eirrwxevffe) if He had no previous
existence, there never was a previous time when
He was rich) ; Col I 17 (' he is before all things, and
in him all things consist' [hold together] : see above
(c)) ; 1 Ti I 15 (' Christ Jesus came into the world ') ;
3 18 (' He who was manifested in the flesh ' : the read-
ing 0e6s for fls [i.e. 6C for OC], which would have
made this verse an explicit statement of our Lord's
Divinity, has ' no sufficient ancient evidence '
[RVm], but this ancient hymn, as it appears to
be, is good witness for the pre-existence) ; 2 Ti l w<
( ' which was given us in Christ Jesus before times
eternal, but hath now been manifested by the ap-
pearing of our Saviour Christ Jesus ') ; He I 8 ( ' when
he bringeth in the firstborn into the world ') ; 1 P
I 20 (' who was foreknown indeed before the founda-
tion of the world, but was manifested at the end
of the times for your sake') ; 1 Jn 3 s ' 8 (He 'was
manifested'); 4 a ('Jesus Christ is come in the
flesh '). See also below (e). Some of these expres-
sions might have been interpreted, though with
difficulty, of an ordinary birth ; but such an inter-
pretation is impossible when we compare them all

With these passages from the Epistles we may
compare a few examples taken out of the Fourth
Gospel. The Word was ' in the beginning ' and
'became flesh* (Jn I 1 - 14 ). Jesus speaks of Him-
self, or the Evangelist speaks of Him, as ' he that
cometh from above, he that cometh from heaven '
(3 31 ), 'whom thou hast sent' (17 8 ), as 'he that de-
scended out of heaven, even the Son of Man which
is in heaven ' (3 18 ; the last four words are omitted
by N B and some other authorities, and are thought
by WH [Appendix, p. 75] to be an early but true
gloss). Pre-existence does not in itself imply God-
head ; but, on the other hand, if our Lord was not
pre-existent, He cannot be God.

(e) Divine attributes ascribed to our Lord. At
the outset of the apostolic period St. Peter speaks
of Jesus as the ' Prince' (or 'Author,' dpxTy<k) 'of
life ' ; He could not be holden of death (Ac 2 24 ).
This resembles the sayings of the Fourth Gospel
that Jesus has ' life in himself ' ( Jn 5 M ; see below, 8),
and that He has power to lay down His life and to
take it again (10 18 ). Jesus 'abolished death and
brought life and incorruption to light through the
gospel' (2 Ti I 10 ). He is 'the first and the last,
and the Living One," who ' was dead ' but is ' alive
for evermore ' and has ' the keys of death and of
Hades' (Rev I 17f -) ; He is the ' Alpha and Omega'
(22 1S ), a title which had just before been given to
the Father (I 8 21; see above, 3 (6)). The Lamb,
as well as the Father, is the source of the river
(Rev 22 1 ) which is the gift of the Spirit (see Swete,
Com. in loc. ; cf. Jn 7 s8 ''). Christ, being the Living
One, is called ' our life,' the giver of life to us, in
Col S 4 ; cf. 2 Ti l w as above, and Jn 6" ('he that
eateth me, he also shall live because of me'; see 8).
And therefore He is 'in us' (Ro 8 10 , etc.).

Our Lord is represented as receiving the worship
of angels (He I 6 ), and of the four-and-twenty elders
(Rev 5 8 '-), and of the angels and living creatures

and elders (vv. 11 ' 14 ). He took part in the creation
of the world (Col I 18 , He I 2 - 10 3 3 , 1 Co 8 6 , Ro II 88 ,
Jn I 8 ). Both He and the Father are called ' the
Saviour.' The ascription of this title to the Father
is characteristic of the Pastoral Epistles (1 Ti I 1 2*
4 10 , Tit I 8 2 10 3 4 ; cf. 2 Ti I 9 ) and is also found in
Jude 25 RV, Lk I 47 (cf. Ja 4 U ) ; but it is given to
our Lord in 2 Ti I 10 , Tit I 4 3 6 (in each case just
after it had been given to the Father), as it is given
in Eph 5*, Ph 3 10 , 1 Jn 4 14 , 2 P 1 L 2 20 3 2 - 18 , Lk 2 11 ,
Jn 4 42 , Ac 5 31 13 28 (cf. also Jn 12 47 , He 7 25 ). His
human name of Jesus was given Him with that
very signification (Mt I 21 ). It was the foundation
of the gospel message that ' Christ Jesus came into
the world to save sinners' (1 Ti I 15 ). It is in the
same way that the Father is sometimes said to
be the Judge, sometimes our Lord. The Father
judges through the Son ( Jn S 22 ; cf. Ja 4 U with 5 9 ).
He that sat on the white horse ' doth judge and
make war' (Rev 19 11 ), though during His earthly
ministry our Lord did not judge (Jn 8 15 ). These
two considerations, that Jesus is Saviour and Judge,
might not be so conclusive as to His Divinity, if it
were not for another office ascribed to Him, that
of the One Mediator (1 Ti 2 5 ). He is Himself man
(v. 8 ), or He could not mediate ; and by parity of
reasoning He is Himself God. A mediator must
share the nature of both parties to the mediation.
A mere man can only supplicate ; God not incar-
nate can be merciful ; but God incarnate alone can

The great attributes of God love, truth, know-
ledge, holiness, righteousness (including justice)
are ascribed to our Lord. His love is spoken of in
some of the most pathetic passages of St. Paul :
' the Son of God who loved me and gave himself
up for me' (Gal 2 20 ), 'the love of Christ which
passeth knowledge' (Eph 3 19 ; cf. 5 M ). The Apoca-
lyptist declares that ' he loveth us and loosed us from
our sins by his blood ' (Rev I s ). It is because of
this Divine attribute of love that ' Christ forgave '
sinners (Eph 4 s2 ). His forgiving sins was a great
scandal to the Jews (Mk 2 s - 7 - w ). Well might they
ask, from their point of view, 'Who can forgive
sins but one, even God !' The forgiveness of sins by
our Lord differs in kind, not in degree, from human
absolutions pronounced by Christian ministers, who
do not profess to be able to read the heart or
to perform any but a conditional and ministerial
action. For the attribute of truth see Rev 3 7 - 14
(' the Amen ') 6 10 19 U (in these Jesus is [6] d\i}0tr6s,
the 'ideal or absolute truth,' not merely 'vera-
cious'), Jn I 14 (' full of grace and truth ') 14 8 (' I am
the way and the truth and the life'). Our Lord,
then, is absolute Truth ; and with this attribute
is associated that of knowledge : ' He knew all men
. . . he himself knew what was in man ' ( Jn 2 28 ) ;
without this He could not be the Judge (see also
1 Co I 24 - 80 , Col 2 s ). Most emphatically is our Lord
called holy. His is an absolute sanctity (Rev 3 7 :
'He that is holy, he that is true') ; not only the
holiness of a good man who strives to do God's
will, but absolute sinlessness. This attribute is
insisted on with some vehemence in 2 Co 5 21 , He 4 1B
j28. (< h iy [gj-toj ; gee 3 (f) note], ' separated from
sinners'), 1 P 1" 2 s8 , 1 Jn 3 B ; note also Ro 8 s
('in the likeness of sinful flesh'). Sanday-Headlam
justly remark (ICC in loc.) that ' the flesh, of Christ
is " like " ours inasmuch as it is flesh ; " like," and
only "like," because it is not sinful.' For this
attribute see also Ac 3 14 (' the Holy and Righteous
One ') 4 s7 , Rev 6 10 ; and, in the Gospels, Mk I 84 ,
Jn 6 s9 , etc. Both the demoniacs in a lower sense
and the instructed disciples in a higher one call our
Lord ' the Holy One of God.' It was announced
by Gabriel that from His birth Jesus should be
called holy, the Son of God (Lk 1 RV). Lastly,
the attribute of righteousness is ascribed to our




Lord, e.g. in Ac 3 14 22 14 , 2 Ti 4 8 , He I 9 , Ja 5 s , I P 3 18 ,
Kev 19", as in Jn 5 30 . It is this attribute which
assures a just judgment ; but it includes more than
' justice ' in the ordinary human sense ; it embraces
all that ' uprightness ' stands for. (With the whole
of this sub-section, cf. 3 above.)

(f) Christ's Godhead is not contrary to His true
humanity. In weighing all the above considera-
tions, we must remember the great stress that is
laid in the NT on the true humanity of Jesus (e.g.
Ac 17 31 , Ro I 3 , I Ti 2 s , Rev I 13 ), though this does
not come within the scope of this article. The
apostles did not make their Master to be a mere
Docetic or phantom man. Jesus really suffered in
His human spirit as well as in His human body.
But when we review all the passages given in the
preceding paragraphs, and others like them, what-
ever deductions we may make because of a doubtful
reading here or a questionable interpretation there,
we cannot doubt that the apostles taught that
Jesus is no mere man, or even a created angel,
but is God. See further below, 9.

7. Personality and Godhead of the Holy Ghost.
Much is said in the OT of the Spirit of God, who
from the first had given life to the world (Gn I 2 2 7 ,
Job 33 4 ). The ' Spirit ' in Hebrew, as in Greek and
Latin, is the Breath of God (nn, irvev/M, spiritus),
who not only gave physical life at the first, but
is the moving power of holiness. The Psalmist
prays : ' Take not thy holy spirit from me ' (Ps
51 11 ). But the OT teachers had not yet learnt
what Christian theology calls the personality of
the Holy Ghost (see above, 5 (a)), though in the
teaching about ' Wisdom,' which is in some degree
personified in the OT, e.g. in Pr 8 and the Sapi-
ential books of the Apocrypha, and also in the
phraseology of such passages as Is 48 16 63 10 , they
made some approach to it. In Christian times,
while there has been on the whole little doubt
about the Godhead of the Spirit (though in the 4th
cent, the Arians asserted that He was a created
being), yet men have frequently hesitated about
His distinct personality, and have thought of Him
merely as an Attribute or Influence of the Father.
It is therefore important to investigate the apos-
tolic teaching on the subject. We must first notice
that the NT writers fully recognize that the Holy
Spirit had worked in the Old Dispensation ; He
'spake by the prophets' [the enlarged 'Nicene*
Creed] ; the words quoted from the OT are the
words of the Holy Ghost (Ac I 18 2S 25 , 1 P 1", 2 P
I 21 , Mk 12 86 , etc.). The Pentecostal outpouring
was not the first working of the Spirit in the world.
But the apostolic writers teach a far higher doc-
trine of the Spirit than was known in the OT.

(a) The Godhead of the Holy Ghost. We have
already seen (above, 5 (c)) that the Spirit is in the
NT teaching joined to the Father and Son in a
manner which implies Godhead. The ' Spirit of
God ' (see below) must be God. When Ananias
lied 'to the Holy Ghost,' he lied not 'unto men
but unto God ' (Ac 5 3f - ; cf. v. 9 , where he and
Sapphira are said to have 'agreed together to
tempt the Spirit of the Lord '). With this we may
compare Mk S 29 , where blasphemy against the
Holy Spirit is said to have ' never forgiveness ' ;
the || Mt 12 314 - adds: 'Whosoever shall speak a
word against the Son of man it shall be forgiven
him.' The inference is that if the Son is God, the
Spirit is God. Divine attributes are predicated of
the Spirit. In particular, He is throughput named
holy. We may ask why this epithet is so con-
stantly given to Him, for it is obviously not in-
tended to derogate from the Father or the Son.
May not the reason be sought in the work of the
Spirit ? It is through Him that man becomes holy,
through Him that God works on man. In this
connexion we may notice two points. (1) In the
VOL. i. 30

OT we do not find the absolute title 'the Hoi}-
Spirit,' though the Spirit is called ' holy ' in Ps 51"
('thy holy spirit') and Is 63 1M - ('his holy spirit').
The use of the title ' the Holy Spirit ' is a token
of advance to the conception of personality; see
below (b). (2) In the NT there is frequently a
difference between the title when used without the
article and when used with it, so that irvevfw. dyiov
('Holy Spirit') is a gift or manifestation of the
Spirit in its relation to the life of man, while the
same words with the article (ri> wevfj.a rb dyiov or
ri> dyiov -a-veSfta) denote the Holy Spirit considered
as a Divine Person (Swete, The Holy Spirit in the
NT, 1909, p. 396 f.). Again, knowledge of the deep
things of God is predicated of the Spirit (1 Co 2 1M> ).
He is the truth (1 Jn 5 7 ; cf. Jn 15* 5 ). He is the
Spirit of life (Ro 8 s ), and immanent in man (Ro 5 5
8" 14", 1 Co 6 19 [cf. esp. 2 Co 6 16 ] 7 40 , Gal 4, Jn 14 17 ,
etc.). He is eternal (He 9 14 ; but on this verse see
Swete, p. 61).

(b) The Personality of the Holy Ghost. This
needs careful consideration. Is He but an In-
fluence of the Father ? The NT writings negative
this idea ; for, though they join together the Spirit
with the Father and the Son, as above, 5 (c), yet
they represent the Spirit as being in a real sense
distinct from both. In Jn 14 18 our Lord says : ' I
will pray the Father, and he shall give you another
(dXXo*') Comforter.' He is sent by the Father (14 28 ),
proceeds from the Father (15 26 ), and is sent by the
Son from the Father (15 26 16 7 ). He is called by St.
Paul in the same context 'the Spirit of God and
'the Spirit of Christ' (Ro 8 6 ). The Father is not
the same Person as the Son, and if the Holy Ghost
is the Spirit of both, He must be distinct from
both. This is seen also, though in not quite so
close and striking a context, in many other passages.
He is called ' the Spirit of God ' also in 1 Co 2 luf - 14
7 40 , Eph 4*>, Ph 3 s , 1 Th 4 8 , 1 Jn 4 2 - u , as in Mt 12 28
(where the || Lk II 29 has ' the finger of God ' instead,
the meaning being that God works through the
Holy Ghost) ; He is called ' the Spirit of your
Father ' in Mt 10 20 ; and ' the Spirit of Christ ' or
'of Jesus' or 'of the Son' in Ac 16 7 RV, Gal 4 6 ,
Ph l u , 1 P 1" ; note especially Gal 4 6 : ' God sent
forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts.' Again,
that the Spirit is distinct from the Son is clear
from Jn 16 7 ( ' if I go not away the Comforter will
not come unto you, but if I go I will send him unto
you') and v. 14 ('he shall take of mine and shall
declare it unto you ').

Personal acts are frequently predicated of the
Holy Ghost. In Ac 13*- 4 we read : ' They minis-
tered to the Lord, and the Holy Ghost said, Separate

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