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down a platter on which was a cock. The salt was
on the table. The Saviour stretched his hand to
take the salt first, and as the table turned
round all the apostles partook of it. Matthias
said to Jesus, " Rabbi, you see this cck. When
the Jews saw me killing it, they said, They will
kill your Master like that cock." Jesus sighed.
He said, " O Matthias, they shall accomplish the
word they have spoken. This cock will give the
signal before the light dawns. It is the type of
John the Baptist who heralded me in advance. I,
I am the true light which has no darkness in it.

* This is also quoted (from Clement ?) as a word of Matthias,
by Nicephorus Callistus, HE iii. 15.

t The one item of evidence that makes one hesitate is
Clement's version of Lk 19 lf - in Strom, iv. 6. 35, which begins,
' Zacchseus (some say, Matthias) . . .' But even if this is any
more than an instance of the frequent confusion between
Matthias and Matthew, it might simply mean that, in the
Gospel of Basilides or of Matthias, Matthias occupied the r61e
of Zacchaeus. Elsewhere he became confused not only with
Matthew but with Simon the Zealot (cf. Schermann, i'U 3rd
ser. i. 3 [1907], pp. 283-285).



GOSPELS (UNCANONICAL)



When this cock died, they said of me that I would
die, I whom Mary conceived in her womb. I dwelt
there with the cherubim and seraphim. I have
come forth from the heaven of heaven to earth.
It was hard for the earth to bear my glory. I have
become man for you. However, this cock will
rise." Jesus touched the cock and said to it, "I
bid you live, O cock, as you have done. Let your
wings bear you up, and fly in the air, that you
may give warning of the day on which I am be-
trayed." The cock rose up on the platter. It flew
away. Jesus said to Matthias, "Behold the cock
you sacrificed three hours ago is risen. They shall
crucify me, and my blood will be the salvation of
the nations (and I will rise on the third day) . . . "'
This fragment witnesses to the prestige of Matthias
in the tradition of the early Church ; he is ad-
mitted to the fellowship of the Last Supper of Jesus,
beside the twelve apostles, instead of being merely
(Ac I 23 ' 28 ) added to their company after the Resurrec-
tion. It was an easy step from this to make him
the author of a Gospel or the vehicle of esoteric
revelations.

(c) The Gospel of Mary. In SBAW (1896,
p. 839 f . ) C. Schmidt describes three fragments from
a still unedited Coptic MS of the 5th cent., and
shows that the title of the first, ' Gospel of Mary,'
covers them all. The alternative title, ' An Apoc-
ryphon of John,' belongs to the second fragment,
but this is intelligible, for the Mary literature
tends to be connected with apostolic apocalypses
(cf. p. 503). The passage in Ac I 14 , where Mary as-
sociates with the apostles, formed a suggestive point
of departure for this kind of religious romance.

The Gnostic references in these fragments tally
so exactly with some of the data supplied by
Irenseus in his refutation of the Barbelo Gnostics
(i. 29) that Schmidt and Harnack infer without
hesitation that this Gospel of Mary must have
been a document of the sect and known to Irenseus.
Hitherto, we had only the assertion of Epiphanius
(xxvi. 8) that certain Gnostic sects issued a number
of works in the name of Mary. The present find
ratifies this assertion.

' Now it came to pass on one of these days when John, the
brother of James who are the sons of Zebedee had gone up to
the temple [cf. Ac 3i], that a Pharisee named Ananias (?) drew
near to him and said to him, " Where is your Master, that you
are not following him ? " He said to him, " He has gone (?) to
the place whence he came." The Pharisee said to him, "By a
deception has the Nazarene deceived you, for he has . . . and
made you forsake the tradition of your fathers." When I heard
this, I turned from the temple to the mountain, at a lonely spot,
and was very sad in heart, and said, "How then was the
Redeemer chosen, and why was he sent to the world by his
Father who appointed him ? And who is his Father ? And how
is that seon created, to which we are to come?'" Suddenly
heaven opens ; the Lord appears, explains matters, and with-
draws the audience being not only John but the disciples.
They are dismayed at the prospect of having to preach Jesus
to the heathen. ' " How can we go to the heathen and preach the
gospel of the kingdom of the Son of Man ? If they refused to
receive him, how will they receive us?" Then Mary* rose,
embraced them all, and said to her brothers, " Weep not and
sorrow not, neither doubt ; for his grace will be with you all
and will protect you. Bather let us praise his goodness, that
he has prepared us and made us me_n.'" The discussion pro-
ceeds, Mary remonstrating with the incredulous disciples, and
finally bursting into tears at a sharp rebuke from Peter. Levi
stands up for her, however. But at this point our fragment
unfortunately breaks off, and the next episode is an appearance
of the risen Christ to John.

A fragment from ' the Wisdom of Jesus Christ '
then begins. ' After his resurrection from the
dead, his twelve disciples and seven women, his
women-disciples, repaired to Galilee, to the moun-
tain which . . .' The Lord's appearance is de-
scribed as 'not in his earlier form but in the
invisible spirit ; his form was that of a great angel
of light.' The disciples question him on topics of
Gnostic speculation, and receive answers.

The third fragment is an episode from the
She is evidently with them, as in Ac 1H.



miraculous career of Peter. As he is healing the
sick on the day after the Sabbath (i.e. the Ki/pto/ti} or
Lord's Day), a man taunts him with failing to cure
his own daughter, who had been for long paralyzed.
Peter then heals her. The story closes with an
account of the conversion of a pagan, Ptolemseus.

The Gnostic work from which these fragments
are preserved was, according to Schmidt, an
Egyptian 'Gospel of Mary' (p. 842 f.), and its
evident use by Irenseus proves its existence prior
to A.D. 130.

(<!) The Gospel of Bartholomew. When Bar-
tholomew evangelized India, according to the
tradition preserved by Eusebius (HE v. 10. 3), he
took with him Matthew's Gospel in Hebrew. This
is not what Jerome and the Gelasian Decree mean
by the Gospel of Bartholomew, which they rank
among the apocrypha. The latter may now be
recovered, in stray fragments from Latin, Greek,
and even Coptic sources, although the same kind
of problem emerges here as in the case of the
Gospel of Peter, viz. how far it is possible to
separate the extant fragments from a Gospel and
from an Apocalypse, and to assign them to either.

The Latin fragments are preserved in a Vatican
MS of the 9th cent. (Reg. lat. 1050), in which
a compiler of the 7th or 8th cent, has written
three episodes from that Gospel, containing con-
versations between Jesus and Bartholomew. Thus
Bartholomew asks Jesus to tell him who the
man was whom he saw carried in the hands of
angels and sighing heavily when Jesus spoke to
him. Jesus replies, ' He is Adam, on account of
whom I came down from heaven. I said to him,
"Adam, on account of thee, and on account of thy
sons, I have been hung on the cross." Sighing, he
said to me with tears, " Thus it pleased thee, O
Lord, in heaven."' Bartholomew then asks why
one angel refused to ascend with the other angels
who preceded Adam, singing a hymn, and why, on
being bidden ascend by Jesus, a flame shot from
his hands as far as Jerusalem. Jesus explains
that the flame struck the synagogue of the Jews,
in token of the Crucifixion. 'Afterwards Jesus
said, " Await me in yonder place, for to-day the
sacrifice is offered in paradise." Bartholomew
said, " What is the sacrifice * in paradise ? " Jesus
said, "The souls of the just enter the presence
of the just to-day." Bartholomew said, " How
many souls leave the body every day?" Jesus
said, "Truly, I tell thee, 12,873 souls t leave the
body daily."' The second fragment describes
Jesus reluctantly allowing Bartholomew and the
other apostles, with Mary, to see the devil, or Anti-
christ. Jesus places them on Mount Olivet, and
after a blast of Michael's trumpet and an earth-
quake, the Evil One appears, in chains of fire, under
a guard of 6,064 angels. He is 600 cubits high and
300 broad. Jesus then encourages Bartholomew
to strike Satan's neck with his feet, and to ask
him about his ways and means of tempting men.
Bartholomew kicks the devil, but returns in terror
to ask Jesus for something to protect him during
the conversation. Encouraged by Jesus, he makes
the sign of the cross, kicks Satan again, and forces
the furious creature to tell who he is. The third
fragment runs : ' Then Bartholomew approached
Satan, saying, "Go to thine own place with all
like thee/' And the devil said, " Wait till I tell
thee how I was caught when God made man. I
was then in the second heaven . . ." '

The extant Greek fragments, four in number,
are much larger than the Latin, but their character-

* For munus the Greek has BvcrCa, and, in the reply of Jesus,
Unless I am present, they do not enter paradise.'

t The editors Wilmart-Tisserant (RB, 1913, pp. 161 ff., 321 fl.)
add M between XII and D, to approximate to the 30,000 of the
Greek.



GOSPELS



GOSPELS (UNCANONICAL) 503



istics are the same. In the first, Bartholomew
asks the Lord after the Resurrection to show him
the mysteries of heaven. The apostle explains
that when he followed Jesus to the Crucifixion, he
saw the angels descend and worship Him, but that,
when the darkness came, He (Jesus) had vanished
from the Cross ; all that Bartholomew could hear
was a soiind from the under world, loud wailing
and gnashing of teeth. Jesus explains, 'Blessed
art thou, my beloved Bartholomew, that thou didst
see this mystery. And now I shall tell thee all
thou hast asked me. When I vanished from the
Cross, then I went down to Hades to bring up
Adam, and all who are with him, thanks to
(/card rfv ira.p6.K\i]ffiv) the archangel Michael.'
The sound was Hades calling to Beliar, ' God
comes here, as I see.'* Beliar thinks it may be
Elijah or Enoch or one of the prophets, and en-
courages Hades to bar the gates. Hades wails
that he is being tortured ; it must be God. ' Then,'
says Jesus, ' I entered, scourged him and bound
him with unbreakable chains, and took out all
the patriarchs,! and so returned to the Cross.' A
Greek replica of the first Latin fragment follows,
after which Bartholomew asks, ' Lord, when thou
wast teaching the word with us, didst thou receive
the sacrifices in paradise?' Jesus replies, 'Truly,
I tell thee, my beloved, when I was teaching the
word with you, I was also sitting with my Father.'
Bartholomew then seems to ask how many of the
souls who leave the world daily are found just (the
text is corrupt at this point) ; Jesus replies, 'Fifty.'
And how many souls are born into the world every
day? 'Just one more than those who leave the
world.' Then the conversation ends. ' And when
he said this, he gave them peace and vanished
from them.'

The second Greek fragment introduces Mary.
The apostles are in a place called Cheltura, when
Bartholomew proposes to Peter, Andrew, and
John that they ask Mary about the virgin-birth.
None of them cares to put the question ; Bartholo-
mew reminds Peter that he is their leader, but
Peter turns to John, as the beloved apostle and as
the ' virgin ' (irapdtvos). Eventually Bartholomew
himself approaches Mary. The text becomes
broken at this point, but Mary evidently utters
an elaborate prayer, at the close of which she
invites the apostles to sit down beside her, Peter
at her right with his left hand under her arm,
and Andrew similarly supporting her on the left ;
John is to support her bosom, and Bartholomew to
kneel at her back, in case she collapses under the
strain of the revelation. She then tells them :
' When I was in the sanctuary of God, receiving
food from the hand of an angel,! one day there
appeared to me the shape of an angel, though his
features could not be fixed (? rb $ irpfowirov avrov
fy dx^ipriTov) ; he had not bread or a cup in his
hand like the angel who formerly came to me.
And suddenly the veil of the sanctuary was torn,
and a great earthquake took place, and I fell on
my face, unable to bear the sight of him. But he
put out his hand and raised me, and I looked up
to heaven ; and a cloud of dew came . . . sprink-
ling me from head to foot. But he wiped me with
his robe and said to me, " Hail, O highly favoured
one, thou chosen vessel." And he put out his right
hand, and there was a huge loaf ; and he laid it on
the altar of incense in the sanctuary ; he ate of it
first, and gave to me. Again, he put out his left

* The Slavonic version, which differs considerably from the
Greek text at this point, paraphrases Ps 24't

t One of the themes which led to the composition of the so-
called Gospel of Nicodemus. This Harrowing of Hell became a
favourite theme of mediaeval religious romance.

t As in the Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (see above, p. 488). The
first annunciation takes place earlier hi the Gospel of Bartholo-
mew than in the other Gospels of this class.



hand, and there was an enormous cup, full of wine ;
he drank of it first, and gave to me. And I beheld
and saw the cup full and the loaf. And he said
to me, " Three years more, and I will send thee
my word, and thou shalt conceive a son, and by
him all creation shall be saved ; and thou shalt be
for the saving of the world. Peace to thee, nay
beloved ; yea, peace shall be with thee evermore.
And he vanished from me, and the sanctuary be-
came as it had been before.' At this, fire issued
from her mouth, and threatened to put an end to
the world ; whereupon the Lord bids her keep
silence on the mystery. The apostles are terrified,
in case the Lord is angry with them for their pre-
sumption in questioning her.

The third fragment is extremely brief and
broken. Evidently, the apostles (through Bar-
tholomew ?) had asked for a revelation of the
under world. ' Jesus said, " It is good for you not
to see the abyss. But if you desire it, follow and
look." So he brought them to a place called
Chairoudek, the place of truth, and nodded to the
western (dvriKois) angels ; and the earth was rolled
up like a scroll, and the abyss was revealed, and
the apostles saw it and fell on their face. But the
Lord raised them, saying, "Did I not tell you, it
is not good for you to see the abyss ? " '

The long' fourth fragment corresponds to the
second and third Latin fragments. Jesus takes
them to the Mount of Olives, accompanied by
Mary. He is at first stern, when Bartholomew
asks Him for a sight of the devil and his ways, but
eventually leads them down and orders the angels
over Tartarus to make Michael sound his trumpet ;
whereupon the fearful figure of Beliar appears, to
the terror of the apostles. Bartholomew, as in
the Latin fragment, is encouraged by Jesus to put
his foot on the giant's neck and to question him
about his names. The reply is, ' First I was called
Satanael, which means angel of God ; but when in
ignorance I rebelled against God, my name was
called Satan, which means angel over Tartarus.'
He proceeds, against his will, to make further
disclosures. ' When God made heaven and earth,
he took a flame of fire, and fashioned me first, then
Michael, thirdly Gabriel, fourthly Raphael, fifthly
Uriel, sixthly Aathanael, and the other six thou-
sand angels, whose names I cannot utter, for they
are the bearers of God's rod (papdovxoi TOV 0eoD), and
they beat me every day and seven times every
night, and never let me alone, and waste my
strength ; the two angels of vengeance, these are
they who stand close by the throne of God, these
are they who were fashioned first. After them
the multitude of angels were fashioned. In the
first heaven there are a million, in the second
heaven a million, in the third heaven a million, in
the fourth heaven a million, in the fifth heaven a
million, in the sixth heaven a million, in the
seventh heaven a million. Outside the seven
heavens. . . .' After a few more details on the
angels, the fragment then breaks off, in the MS
(lOth-llth cent.) from the library of the Orthodox
Patriarch at Jerusalem. The Vienna MS shows the
devil continuing the list of the angels of the elements.

The contents of these fragments correspond partly with what
we know elsewhere* of the 'questions of Bartholomew' (for
the Ethiopia and Coptic versions and recensions of this litera-
ture, cf. iJchtenhan in ZNTW, 1902, p. 234 f., and Haase, p. 22 f. j.
They also throw some light upon what lies behind the remark
of Epiphanius in the llth cent, (de Vita l/eatae Virginia, 25)
that the holy apostle Bartholomew said, ' The holy Mother of
God made a will.' There seems to be some connexion between
the Gospel, whose fragments we have just cited, and the sources
of the later Mary literature which is preserved in Sahidic and
Coptic fragments (see below). The Coptic fragments glorify



* There is another allusion in pseudo-Dion ysius the Areopagite
(de My st. theologia, L 8 : ' Bartholomew says that theology is
both large and small, and that the gospel is broad and large
and, again, contracted ').



504 GOSPELS (IIN T CANONICAL)



GOSPELS (UNCANONICAL)



the primacy of Peter and the prestige of Mary, with Gnostic
and Egyptian colouring (Revillout, Les Apocryphes copies, 185 f .);
they begin with an unsympathetic denunciation of Judas by
Jesus, one of the first things the Lord does, apparently, being to
reproach the traitor in Ainenti and confirm his eternal doom.
The Gospel from which they are taken was a Gospel of Bartholo-
mew, for that Apostle speaks in the first person.

According to Wilmart and Tisserant, the Jerusalem MS ap-
proximates more than the others to the primitive text The
original Greek Gospel of Bartholomew, they conclude, appeared
' vers le IV* siecle, dans quelque secte chretienne en marge de
1'^glise d' Alexandria.' It was on the basis of this that the
Coptic Bartholomew compositions, whether in the form of
Gospel or of Apocalypse, developed the literature whose debris
is now being recovered in still larger quantities.

(e) The Gospel of Nicodemus. The Gospel of
Nicodemus really belongs to the uncanonical Acts.
The Acts of Pilate and its allied literature go
back to the 4th or 5th cent. possibly, in some
primitive form, even to the beginning of the
2nd ; but while Nicodemus is associated with the
Acta (in one Greek edition of the text, they pro-
fess to be a translation of what Nicodemus wrote
in Hebrew ; in another Greek edition, Nicodemus
is a Roman toparch who translates the Hebrew
record of a Jew named ^Eneas; in the Latin
version, ^Eneas is a Christian Jew who translates
the Hebrew record of Nicodemus), they are never
styled 'a Gospel of Nicodemus ' till the 13th
century. It has been conjectured that the title
was due to the patriotism of the British, who
claimed Nicodemus as their chief apostle ('quae
coniectura inde aliquam probabilitatem habet quod
antiquissima omnium recentiorum versionum est
anglosaxonica : id quod documento est quanto
honore opus istud iam pridem in Anglia habitum
sit,' Tischendorf, i. p. Ix, n. 3) ; but wherever and
whenever it arose, it is quite adventitious.

Critical editions are promised by von Dobschiitz
(HDB iii. 545) and in the French series (cf. p. 479).

(/) The Gospel of Gamaliel. In one of the
Coptic Gospel fragments edited by Revillout
(Patrologia Orient, ii. 172 f.), the phrase occurs,
' I, Gamaliel, followed them (i.e. Pilate, etc.) in the
midst of the crowd,' and it has been conjectured
(e.g. by Ladeuze, Revue cThistoire ecclesiastique, vii.
252 f.,Haase, 11 f., and Baumstark in RB, 1906, pp.
245-265) that if these fragments belonged originally
to the Gospel of the Twelve, or if some other frag-
ments of the later Pilate literature can be referred
to such a source, there must have been a Gospel
of Gamaliel in existence, perhaps as a special
recension of the original Gospel of the Twelve.
To this some critics (e.g. Ladeuze and Baum-
stark) further propose to relegate one or more
of the Sahidic fragments which have been al-
ready referred to (cf. p. 500), placing the com-
position not earlier than the 5th cent., since
it implies the Acta Pttati. The ramifications
of the Pilate literature still await investigation,
especially in the light of recent finds (cf. Haase,
pp. 12 f., 67 f.). It would be curious if it could be
proved that there was a tendency to use the
Gamaliel of Ac 5 s4 '- in favour of Christianity, as
was the case with Pilate. But the period of this
Gospel is very late and its reconstruction unusually
hypothetical. ' Si 1'Evangile de Gamaliel est un
sermon compost au monastlre de Senoudah, comme
porte a le croire la provenance des manuscrits, il
n'est pas etrange qu'on y ait voulu mettre en
evidence, dans 1'expose de la vie du Christ, le r61e
de Barthelemy dont on se flattait de posseder le
corps au monastere, et qu'on s'y soit servi des
apocryphes dejk existants sous le nom de cet apdtre '
(Ladeuze, loc. cit. 265). The fragments which may
be conjecturally assigned to this Gospel (?) tally
with the Coptic Bartholomew fragments in several
features, e.g. the description of Christ in Amenti,
the appearance of Christ after the Resurrection
to his mother Mary first of all (cf. p. 505), the
narrative of the death of Mary, ana the bless-



ing pronounced on Peter as the archbishop of
the whole world. Ladeuze's suggestion meets the
main requirements of the case better than Revil-
lout's conjecture (RB, 1904, pp. 167 ff., 321 ff.) that
some primitive orthodox Gospel of the Twelve (see
above) professes to have been edited by Gamaliel,
the teacher of St. Paul, who had become a Christian
(cf. Zahn's Gesch. des Kanons, ii. 673 f.). Even if the
fragments are assigned to a ' Gospel,' they repre-
sent a late compilation, based primarily on the
Johannine narrative, and expanded on the basis of
legends drawn possibly from a special source. The
tradition of Gamaliel's conversion is noted in Clem.
Recogn. i. 65 and quoted by Photius (Bibliotheca,
171) from earlier written sources : ' Reperi quoque
in eodem illo codice, Pauli in lege magistrum
Gamalielum et credidisse, et baptizatum fuisse.
Nicodemum item nocturnum (quondam) amicum,
diurnum etiam redditum, martyrioque coronatum,
quern et Gamalielis patruelem haec testatur
nistoria. Baptizatum vero utrumque a Joanne et
Petro, unacum Gamalielia filio, cui Abibo nomen.'
Nicodemus became a martyr to Jewish fury, on
this tradition ; once the idea of his conversion
and authorship of a Gospel was started, it was not
unnatural that Gamaliel should also be brought
inside the Christian circle.

(g) The Gospel of Perfection. ' Some of them,'
says Epiphanius (xxvi. 2), speaking of the Nico-
laitans or Ophite Gnostics, ' bring in a manufactured
sort of adventitious work (&y6yiti.6t> n voirjfM) called
The Gospel of Perfection, ' which, he adds ironically,
is the very perfection of diabolic mischief ! This
notice is prooably derived from Hippolytus (Phil-
aster, Hcer. 33). If it was a Gnostic treatise in
Gospel form, it may have resembled, or been related
in some way to, the Gospel of Eve ; but no details
or quotations have been preserved, unless we niay
suppose that allusions to it occur in the Pistis
Sophia, where uncanonical Gospel material is more
than once employed.

(h) The Gospel of EYC. 'Others,' Epiphanius
adds (xxvi. 2f.), ' are not ashamed to speak of the
Gospel of Eve,' who owed her gnosis to the serpent.
One quotation from this Gospel is given : ' I stood
on a high hill, and I saw a tall man and a short
man (&\\ov Ko\op6v) ; and I heard as it were a voice
of thunder and drew near to listen, and it spoke to
me and said, "I am thou and thou art I, and
wherever thou art there am I also, and I am sown
in all (4v &v(urlv elfu t<rira,pii4i>os). And wherever
thou gatherest me from, in gathering me thou
gatherest thyself. " ' Probably the quotation which
follows, from the secret books of the Gnostics,
was also derived from this ' Gospel ' : (v d7ro/tpi50ots
avayivAffKovret &rt) 'I saw a tree bearing twelve
fruits a year, and he said to me, This is the tree of
life.' Epiphanius (xxvi. 5) explains that this meant
allegorically menstruation. But this so - called
' Gospel ' may have been either of an apocalyptic
character or simply, as Lipsius suggests, a doctrinal
treatise in more or less historical form. In any
case, its mysticism assumed a sexual form which



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