Copyright
James Hastings.

Dictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) online

. (page 163 of 234)
Online LibraryJames HastingsDictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) → online text (page 163 of 234)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


readily lent itself to obscene interpretation.

(i) The Gospel of Judas. The Gnostic Cainites,
in the 2nd cent., composed ' a Gospel of Judas '
(Iren. i. 31. 1 ; <rvrray(juiri.6t> rt, Epiphan. xxxviii. 1)
in the name of their hero, Judas, who was supposed
to have alone penetrated the Divine secret, and
consequently to have deliberately betrayed Jesus
in order to accomplish it. Nothing has been pre-
served of this Gospel.

The fifth of Revillout's Coptic fragments (Les
Apocryphes copies, 156-157) contains a novel tra-
dition about Judas. The disciples speak: 'We
have found this man stealing from what is put
into the purse every day, taking it to his wife, and
defrauding the poor in his service. Whenever he



GOSPELS (UN CANONICAL)



GOSPELS (UNCANONICAL) 505



returned home with sums of money in his hands,
she would rejoice at what lie had done. We have
even seen him failing to take home to her enough
for the malice of her eyes and insatiable greed.
Whereupon she would turn him into ridicule.' His
wife then, like a Lady Macbeth, instigates him to
the crime of selling Jesus. ' " Look how the Jews
pursue your master. Up then and betray him to
them. They will give you plenty of riches, and we
will bestow them in our house, so as to live thereby."
He got up, the unfortunate man, after listening to
his wife, till he had consigned his soul to the hell
of Amend,* in the same manner as Adam listened
to his wife, until he became a stranger to the glory
of Paradise, so that death reigned over him and his
race. Even so, Judas listened to his wife and thus
set himself outside the things of heaven and the
things of earth, to end in Amenti, the place of tears
and moaning. He went to the Jews and agreed
with them for thirty pieces of silver to betray his
Lord. They gave them to him. Thus was ful-
filled the word which was written : " They received
the thirty pieces of silver for the price of him who
is appraised." He rose up. He carried them to
his wicked wife.'

Here the motive of Judas is not personal greed ;
he is a thief, as in the Fourth Gospel, but it is
owing to his wife's pressure. She is a temptress,
and the misogynism of the author leads him to
blame her more than her poor husband. But this
is a catholic exculpatory estimate of Judas, in
Egyptian circles, which is very different from the
Gnostic glorification of him ; he is not the author
of a Gospel, but he is made out to be not so de-
liberately the author of Christ's betrayal as in the
canonical traditions. We cannot tell whether the
Gnostic Gospel made use of any such motive to ex-
plain his conduct. It is unlikely that this would
be so, for his conduct, on the Gnostic theory, re-
quired no exculpation.

Another Coptic Gospel fragment, assigned doubt-
fully by Revillout (op. cit. 195-196) to the Gospel
of Bartholomew, belongs to the same line of
tradition. 'The apostle Judas, when the devil
entered into him, went out and ran to the high

Eriests. He said, " What will you give me for
anding him over to you ? " They gave him thirty
pieces of silver. Now the wife of Judas had taken
the child of Joseph of Arimathsea to bring him up.
The day when the unfortunate Judas received the
thirty pieces of silver and took them home, the
little one (would not drink). Joseph went into
the woman's chamber . . . Joseph was utterly
distressed over his son. When the little child saw
his father (he was seven months old), he cried,
saying, " My father, come, take me from the hand
of this woman, who is a savage beast. Since the
ninth hour of this day, they have received the

Erice (of the blood of the just)." When he
card this, his father took him. Judas also went
out. He took ..." Then follows a broken pas-
sage belonging to the Acts of Pilate literature.

(j) Coptic fragments. (i.) A Coptic Akhmlm MS
(4th-5th cent. ) contains two fragments, which may
have belonged to an uncanonical Gospel of the
2nd century. The second is a fragment of pro-
phetic discourse by Jesus, predicting Ac 12 3t (?).
The first opens with Mary, Martha, and Mary
Magdalene going to the sepulchre to anoint the
body, and weeping when they find the sepulchre
empty. The Lord says to them, '"Why do you
weep? Cease weeping, I am he whom ye seek.
But let one of you go to the brethren and say :
Come, the Master has risen from the dead."
Martha went away and told this to us. We said
to her, " What hast thou to dp with us, O woman ?
He who died is buried, and it is impossible that
* An Egyptian touch as above (p. 500).



he lives." We did not believe her, that the Re-
deemer had risen from the dead. So she went to
the Lord and said to him, " No one among them
has believed me, that thou livest." He said, " Let
another of you go and tell it to them again. " Mary
went and told us again, but we did not believe her.
She went back to the Lord and told him. Then
said the Lord to Mary and her other sisters, " Let
us go to them." And he went and found us within
and called us outside. But we thought it was a

host, and we did not believe it was the Lord,
o he said to us, "Come and . . . Thou, Peter,
who hast denied me thrice, dost thou still deny?"
And we went up to him, doubting in our hearts
whether it was he. So he said to us, " Why do
you doubt still and disbelieve ? I am he who told
you, so that on account of my flesh and my death
and my Resurrection you may know it is I. Peter,
lay thy finger in the nail-marks on my hands ;
and thou, Thomas, lay thy finger in the lance-
wounds on my side ; and thou, Andrew, touch my
feet and see that they ... to those of earth.
For it is written in the prophets : * phantoms of
dreams ... on. earth." We answered him, " We
have in truth recognized that ... in the flesh."
And we threw ourselves on our faces and confessed
our sins, that we had been unbelieving.'

This fragment professes to give the testimony to
the Resurrection which the disciples bore, based
on revelations received by them from the Lord.
As in the appendix to Mark's Gospel, their un-
belief is emphasized ; they refuse to believe the
story of the women, and it requires the direct
appearance of Jesus to convince them. 'There-
fore . . . we have written to you concerning . . .
and we bear witness that the Lord is he who was
crucified by Pontius Pilate." The apologetic in-
terest of this emphasis on the original incredulity
of the apostles may be to heighten the importance
of the Resurrection appearances, as against the
denial of the bodily Resurrection by some Gnostics.
Even the disciples, it is said, held it impossible
once ! But they were taught the truth ! The
fragment mentions ' Corinthus' ( = Cerinthus) and
'Simon' (= Simon Magus), and the original Greek
Gospel writing, of which it is a translation, was
evidently a piece of apologetic fiction issued by
some pious (Gnostic ?) Christian in order to refute
the heretical tendencies represented by these two
great names. It professes to be written in the
name of the Twelve, and probably appeared during
the first half of the 2nd century. The data do
not enable us to determine whether it belonged
to a Gospel of the Twelve or, as Schmidt thinks,
to the pseudo-Petrine literature.

SPECIAL LITERATURE. The fragment was published first by
C. Schmidt in SB A W, 1895, pp. 705-711, but a full edition is still
awaited ; Harnack's essay appeared in Theolog. Studien B.
Weiss darcjebracht, Gottingen, 1897, pp. 1-8 ; cf. Bardenhewer,
397-399, Haase, 36-37. Harnack dates it between A.D. 150 and
180, Schmidt somewhat earlier. The second fragment suggests
that the Gospel (if it was a Gospel) was a Peter Gospel, but
the extent and aim of its ' Gnosticism ' cannot be determined
in the present state of our knowledge.

(ii.) Some lines of another Coptic papyrus (4th-
6th cent.) appear to contain debris or what was
once an uncanonical Gospel. The fragments are ex-
tremely mutilated, and the translators and editors
disagree upon their age and origin. The last runs
thus evidently the close of a Gospel narrative
which described a post-Resurrection scene on the
mountain, prior to the Ascension : ' (that I) may
manifest to you all my glory and show you all
your power and the mystery of your apostleship

* Wis 1817, in a description of the terrors that befell the
Egyptians during the plagues. The scriptural authority of
Wisdom in wide circles during the 2nd and 3rd centuries
is well known, but probably Origen is the only writer who ex-
pressly calls this literature prophetic (Horn, in Levit, v. 2, in
xod. vi. 1).



506 GOSPELS (UNCANONICAL)



GOVERNMENT, GOVERNOR



... (on the) mountain. . . . Our eyes penetrated
all places, we saw the glory of his divinity and all
the glory (of his) dominion. He invested (us with)
the power of (our) apostle(ship).' The previous
fragment, whose contents are only separated from
the other by two or three lines, may be either a
piece from the same setting or a fragment of some
Gethsemane story. It runs thus : ' (that) he be
known for (his) hospitality . . . and praised on
account of his fruit, since . . . Amen.* Grant
me now thy power, O Father, that . . . Amen.
I have received the diadem of the Kingdom, (even
the) diadem of ... I have become King (through
thee), O Father. Thoushalt subject (all) to me . . .
Through whom shall (the last) Enemy be destroyed?
Through (Christ). Amen. Through whom shall
the sting of death (be destroyed) ? (Through the)
Only Begotten. To whom does (the) dominion
belong ? (To the Son.) Amen. . . . When (Jesus
had) finished all ... he turned to us and said,
" The hour has come when I shall be taken from
you. The spirit (is) willing, but the flesh (is)
weak . . . then and watch (with me)." But we
apostles wept . . . said . . . (Son) of God. . . .
He answered and said (to us), " Fear not destruc-
tion (of the body), but rather (fear) the power (of
darkness). Remember all that I have said to
you : (if) they have persecuted (me), they will also
persecute you. . . . Rejoice, then, that I (have
overcome) the world, and have . . ." '

The fragments are evidently based upon the
Gospels of Matthew and John ; so much is clear
even from what can be deciphered. Possibly they
belonged to some uncanonical Gospel current in
Egypt during the 3rd or even the 2nd cent.,
but the internal data are too slender to support
any hypothesis which would connect them with
the Gospel of the Egyptians (Jacoby) or even with
the Gospel of the Ebionites=the Gospel of the
Twelve (Schmidt, Zahn, Revillout). The 'Gnosti-
cism ' of the fragments is mild.

SPECIAL LITERATURE. A. Jacoby, Ein neues Evangelienfrag-
ment, Strassburg, 1900; C. Schmidt (GGA, 1900, pp. 481-506);
Za.hn(XKZ, 1900, 361 f.); Revillout, Pair. Orient. 1907, pp. 169-
161 ; Haase, 1-11 (where further literature is discussed).

(iii. ) Another Coptic fragment from a narrative of
the trial is edited by Revillout (Pa.tr. Orient., 161 f.) :
' ... to Jesus who was in the prsetorium. He
said to him, " Whence do you come and what do
you say of yourself? I am sore put to it in de-
fending you, and I . . save you. If you are king
of the Jews, tell us definitely. Jesus answered and
said to Pilate, " Do you say this of yourself, or
have other people told you about me T" Pilate said
to him, " Am I a Jew ? I ! Your own people have
handed you over. What have you done ? Jesus
replied, "My kingdom is not of this world. If
my kingdom were of this world, my servants would
fight to prevent anyone handing me over to the
Jews. However, my kingdom is not of this world."



learn the truth from your own lips so that you
may be relieved of these troubles and these revolu-
tions." Then he said to him, "Behold, you confess,
you say with your own lips that I am a king. I
was born and I have come into the world for this
thing, to bear witness to the truth. He who be-
longs to me hears my voice." Pilate said to him,
" What is truth ?" Jesus said to him, "Have you
not seen you ! that he who speaks to you is
Truth? Do you not see in his face that he has
been born of the Father ? Do you not hear from
his words that he does not come from this world?
Know then, O Pilate, that he whom you judge,

* According to Revillout, these ' Amens ' are not final but in-
troductory = ' Truly.'



he it is who shall judge the world with justice.
These hands which you seize, O Pilate, have
formed you. This body you see and this flesh
which they . . ." '

The fragment is also assigned by Revillont to
his Gospel of the Twelve, but it may be no more
than a paraphrase of Jn IS 33 *- from some early
Egyptian homily. The rest of Revillout's frag-
ments (cf. above, p. 503) are plainly from an Egyp-
tian treatise which belongs as much to the Mary
literature as to the category of the uncanonical
Gospels.

(k) An unidentified fragment. In Augustine's
treatise contra Adversarium Legis et Prophetarum
(ii. 14), he quotes a saying from some apocryphal
scripture evidently a Gospel, since he proceeds :
'but in the Gospel of the Lord, which is not
apocryphal' (i.e. esoteric), he taught the disciples
after the Resurrection about the prophets (Lk 24 27 ).
The quotation is as follows : ' But when the apostles
asked what view should be taken of the prophets
of the Jews, who were thought to have sung
something about his arrival in the past, our Lord,
vexed that they still took such a view, replied,
" You have sent away the living One who is before
you, and you make up stories about the dead ! " '
This may have come from some Marcionite or
Ebionitic (cf. above, p. 493) Gospel. J. H. Ropes (TU
xiv. 2 [1896], 119-120) suggests that it would fit in
with the story of Mt S 22 , but the context in Augus-
tine points rather to a post-Resurrection dialogue
between Jesus and the disciples.

(1) The Fayyum fragment. The Fayyum frag-
ment, first published by G. Bickell (cf. Zeitschrtft
fur kath. Theologie, 1885, pp. 498-504, 1886, p.
208 f.), is a 3rd cent, scrap of papyrus which has
received more attention than it deserves ; it is no
more than a loose quotation of Mk 14 26 ' 27 - 29 - so
(so Zahn, as against Bickell, Harnack [TU v. 4,
481-497], Resell {TU x. 2, 1894, pp. 28-34], P. Savi
[RB, 1892, 321-344], and others), and cannot be
assigned with any probability to the Gospel of
the Egyptians or any other uncanonical Gospel.
The fragment runs : ' And in departing he spoke
thus. " You will all be offended (ffKavdaXiffd-^fffo-de)
this night, as it is written : / will smite the shep-
herd, and the sheep shall be scattered." Peter
said, "Though all [are offended], not I!" The
Lord said, " The cock will crow twice, and thou
shalt be the first to deny me three times."' Revil-
lout (Les Apocryphes copies, 158-159) places it as
a sequel to the Matthias fragment quoted above
(pp. 501-502), assigning it to his 'Gospel of the
Iwelve.' But it may have come from some Gospel
of our third group, if it came from any Gospel at all.

J. MOFFATT.

GOVERNMENT, GOVERNOR (1) The term
'government' occurs twice in the AV of the NT,
in neither case with reference to civil government.
In the first passage, 1 Co 12 28 , it occurs in the plural,
being a translation of the Greek Kvfifpvrifffis, which,
like the English ' government,' is a metaphor from
steersmanship (see following article). In thesecond
passage, 2 P 2 l (cf. Jude 8 ), the word appears to be
abstract, but to have an implicit reference to the
domination of angels (see art. DOMINION).

(2) The word ' governor ' occurs many times in the
NT. In nearly every passage it is a translation of
riyeuwv or some word connected with it. This word
is the most general term in this connexion in the
Greek language (=Lat. presses). This can be seen
in two ways. In the first place, in Mk 13 9 (and
parallels) and 1 P 2 18 the word is coupled with
' kings ' (emperors), and the two words together
include all the Gentile authorities before whom
the followers of Jesus will have to appear. In the
second place, the term, or its cognates, is used with
reference to authorities of such diverse status as



GOVERNMENTS



GRACE



507



the Emperor Tiberius (Lk 3 1 ), the legate P. Sul-
picius Quirinius (Lk 2 3 , a special deputy of consular
rank sent by the Emperor Augustus in an emergency
to have temporary rule over the great province of
Syria), and the successive procurators of the small
and unimportant province of Judaea, Pontius
Pilate and Felix; for 2 Co II 33 see ETHNARCH.
It was in accordance with Greek genius to avoid
specific titles and to use general terms, and to
tne Oriental the king (emperor) dwarfed everyone
else. The procurator (agent) was really a servant
of the Emperor's household, never of higher rank
than equestrian, and belonged to the lowest class of
governor. He is never called by his own (Greek)
name (&T/T/JOJTOS) except in a variant reading of
Lk 3 1 . A. SOUTER.

GpYERNMENTS. In each of the five lists of
spiritual gifts or of gifted persons which St. Paul
places in his Epistles (1 Co 12 8 - 10 - w ' so , Ro 12 6 - 8 ,
Eph 4 11 ) there are at least two items which are not
found in any other list. In 1 Co 12 28 we have
' helps ' or ' helpings ' (dvrtX^/t^cts) and ' govern-
ments ' or ' governings ' (/cwjSepi^o-eis). In 1 Co 12 28
' gifts of healings ' are followed by ' helpings ' and
'governings.' These two form a pair, and refer
to management and direction in things external.
' Governings ' is a word which comes from the idea
of a Kvpepv-ffn)** a shipmaster (Ac 27", Rev 18 17 ) or
pilot (Ezk 27 8> ** *), directing the course of a ship.
The word occurs nowhere else in the NT, but in
the LXX we have it in the sense of ' wise guidance '
in peace or war (Pr II 14 24 6 ). St. Paul probably
uses it of those who superintended the externals of
organization. It would therefore denote those who
are over the rest, and rule them, the irpoicrTd/j.evoi of
1 Th 5 12 , Ro 12 s and the -iiyotnevoi of He 13 7 - " u ,
Ac 15 83 . The ' governors ' are directors and organ-
izers, not teachers ; still less are they ' discerners
of spirits,' as Stanley suggests. They are persons
with a gift for management. It is possible that
they afterwards developed into a class of officials
as 'elders' or 'bishops,' but that stage had not
been reached when 1 Cor. was written. See HELPS
and CHURCH GOVERNMENT. A. PLUMMER.

GRACE. 1. General meaning and presupposi-
tions. (a) Divine jorevenience and generosity.
Grace is a theistic idea. It emerges inevitably in
the progress of religious thought and practice with
the idea of God's separateness from man (cf. in
India, Brahmanism ; in Greece, Orphism). It
deepens in character and content in the growing
sense of separateness, with the concurrent con-
viction, ever deepening in intensity, of the Divine
goodness in sustaining fellowship with man (cf. in
Israel, Hebraism, Judaism). It attains perfect
form in Christianity, whose Founder exhibits a
personal life so dependent on and penetrated by
God as to reach absolute maturity simply through
the Divine power immanent within it the cease-
less sense, possession, and operation of the Divine
Spirit. Irresistibly the soul's interior experience
of that fellowship postulates a realm of Divine
provenience and generosity. Generally the postu-
late embraces three features : the priority of God,
His self-donation to man, His regard and care for
man's salvation all making emphatic the given-
ness of man's best life, the Divine action inviting
his. Grace is thus a purely religious affirmation
expressing the soul's assurance that God's good-
ness is the beginning, medium, and end of its life.
Here God is not simply a great First Cause : first
in time, foremost in space ; He is rather the back-
ground and dynamic force of man's inner being,
and, for its sake, of all created being ; enfolding
and comprehending it, giving it its origin, reason
of existence, unity, completeness, final end ; the



envelope of the whole by which the parts do their
best and issue in their most fruitful results, so
that the soul is a harmony of linked forces,*
Divine and human. Here, too, the soul's blessed-
ness is not simply the gift of God. The soul's life
is through Himself ' His veiy self and essence
all-Divine.' f Its various stages, the growing pro-
cess of His grace, do not depend, nay, disappear
when made to depend, on merely mental reference
to His acts, or on merely self-originating impulses.
Such attachment of the human to the Divine is
too superficial. The inadequacy of man's spirit
to work out its own perfection is irremediable.
Salvation is only secure in utter and entire de-
pendence on the Divine Life, distinct from man's,
the life which precedes and from which proceeds
all his capacity for good: in which, truly, 'we
live and move and have our being.'

(b) The Christian experience. The apostolic
doctrine of grace presupposes the distinctive Chris-
tian experience. The NT teaching falls into three
groups : Synoptic, Pauline, Johannine. The first
reproduces the most immediately and literally
faithful picture of Christ's sayings ; the second and
third present the earliest impressive developments
of His sayings in individual realization, and are
rich in exposition and explanation of the subjective
apprehension and appropriation of Divine grace.
It is the process in man's activity that is detailed
more than the analysis of the attribute in God.
Between the two types we are conscious of marked
contrasts, not only in their form but in the sub-
stance and mode. Along with a deep underlying
unity of fundamental thought, it is true to say
that the consciousness of the apostles is not
identical with the consciousness of Christ. Christ
is not repeated in them.J The teaching of both is
the direct transcript of their spiritual history ; but
their spiritual constitution is so radically different
that their teaching is bound to have radical differ-
ences. ' He spoke as the sinless Son of God ; they
wrote from the standpoint of regenerated men.'
The principle of sin alters the whole position. The
view-points for estimating grace increase. Thus it
is that while Christ speaks little, if at all, of grace,
it is a central conception of the apostles. There-
fore also, while grace is in both, it is 'in Christ '
in a vitally intimate way such as cannot be predi-
cated of the apostles except ' through Christ.' It
is ' the grace of Christ,' as ' of God ' ; not the grace
of the apostles, whose it is only 'by his grace.'

Again we have to note in Christ's case no trace
of that separateness of the human from the Divine
Spirit in their communion and inter-operation in
the relationship of grace, which is so clear in the
case of the apostles, a distinction of which they
are so confident that they claim a special illumina-
tion and infusion of supernatural light and energy
in this experience. Christ's mediation of grace to
them is basic. It differentiates their doctrine not
only from Christ's, but from all ethnic and pro-
phetic ideas. The apostles are neither mere seekers
after God, nor simply seers or servants or inter-
preters of God : they are sons, the bearers of Him-
self ; || and the immensely richer experience is
reflected in the ampler refinement of their idea of
grace and its more commanding place in their
system. Nor should we fail to observe that the
term 'grace' denotes a new economy in human
history. Primarily it signifies a fresh advance of
the human spirit under the impetus of new Divine

* Cf. Tennyson's picture of ' the awful rose of dawn ' in the
Vision of Sin.

t Cf. Newman's hymn : ' Praise to the Holiest in the height.'

I Cf., for an admirable discussion of this point, P. T. Forsyth,
The Person and Place of Jems Christ, 1909.

W. P. Paterson, The Aportlef Teaching, pt L: 'The
Pauline Theology,' 1903, p. 5.

I Cf. the early Christian term for believers Xpioro^dpoi.



508



GEACE



GEACE



redemptive force. That fact implies a fresh out-
flow of energy from God and a fresh uplift of the
world's life ; man is ' a new creation,' * the world
' a new earth ' ; t there is revealed a new stage in
the fulfilment of the eternal purpose. Grace here
has cosmic significance. Sin is over-ruled for good
in the whole world-order as it is in the individual
Christian heart. History, like the soul, is trans-
formed through Christ. The initial and control-
ling causes of that whole vast change are discovered
to the primitive Christian perception in a great
surprise of God's forgiveness, pronounced and im-
parted by Christ, and made effective for regenera-
tion by a force none other than, not inferior to,
His Holy Spirit. Thereby a new era is inaugur-



Online LibraryJames HastingsDictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) → online text (page 163 of 234)