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which He acts ; and because it is so, men experi-
ence in grace those energies which constitute the
Spirit of the Son, the energies of God.

Hence His indwelling manifests itself in the par-
ticular dispositions and graces of character** which
He calls into existence, called ' the fruits of the
Spirit.' We need not trace the forms in which the
spiritual principle unfolds or the spheres within
which it operates. ft We point only to the infinite
variety and individuality of grace in its exhibition
here, and to its limitless prospect and horizon.
God in Christ through His Spirit is the Maker,
the Creator of this new spiritual character.JJ It
is the production of the original and underived con-
ception of His mind, not an origination in man's
nature nor within its limits. Hence its freshness,
pregnancy, fruitfulness, and hopefulness. It is a
life to be worked up to (a Divine ideal), not
worked out from and no man can fix the bounds
of its splendour.

It finds exercise in the natural virtues, in the
spiritual graces, in the service and worship of God,
in the religious emotions, and in the realization of
the blessings of salvation. It is ' unto good works,'
with sublime inclusiveness. There is no fixed
pattern. God has no set moulds for character to
run in : nothing is fixed but the predestined path

*Ro8.

t This is prominent in Romanist teaching of gratia, infusion
of saving energy by the work of the Spirit, just as in Reformed
doctrine 'grace' is the free favour of God, manifested in
justification, which brings with it assurance. St. Paul's idea
comprises both.

t Ro 55. Ro 818- ".

II Jn 14, 16, etc. 1 Jn 1613.

** St. Paul gives a fine list (Gal 622.23); St. John gives its no
less fine spirit love (1 Jn 31).

tt Briefly, the Spirit's 'manifestation* is (a) ecstatical, (6)
ethical, (c) religious. St. Paul gives the lowest place to (a), the
highest to (c) (1 Co 13).

II Eph 210, ' we are His " poem " created.'



' that God has ordained that we should walk in.'*
The same idea occurs in another fine setting in St.
Peter. t The greatness of grace lies quite as much
in what it is to be as in its present value ; in grace
there is an inherent, indefinitely prolonged, and
enduring propagativeness, another aspect of grace's
resources. In this regard the Spirit is ' an earnest.'
An earnest implies two things more to follow,
and more of essentially the same kind. The pres-
ence of the Spirit in a man's life speaks to him
with assurance of the future, and the blessedness
awaiting ; and, if it does not enable him to forecast
the particulars of that life, yet it does enable him
to foretaste its nobleness and bliss. What grace
gives here J will be enjoyed there in perfect glory
and perfected fullness. Only let ns 'live in the
Spirit ' and ' walk in the Spirit'

3. Historical controversies. The subject of grace
bristles with controversy. Every fresh epoch, bring-
ing larger thought and fresh foci of emphasis, sees
the recurrence of perplexities. The Apostolic Age
is no exception. Its apologetic protagonist, St.
Paul, discusses at least four points grace in rela-
tion to (a) nature, (6) merit, (c) freedom, (d) the
Church and sacraments. A brief note on each may
fitly close this exposition.

(a) Grace and nature. The question is in reality
part of the perennial problem of nature and the
supernatural, and their relation. With the Apostle
it offers two facets : (1) the extent to which unre-
generate man may be said to be under grace ; (2)
the conversion of sinful nature by grace. As to
the former, there have been in subsequent times
two attitudes : (a) man's unregenerate nature is
wholly outside grace, a massa perditionis (St.
Augustine), a ' total depravity' (Calvin), ' in bond-
age' (Luther); and (/3) it is only in part outside
the operation of grace ; grace includes natural
virtue as well as supernatural gifts ; in the work-
ing of reason and conscience we see the working of
God's Spirit; the question is one of degree. As
to the latter there have been also two attitudes : Is
sin radical or superficial, imperfection or perver-
sion ? If it is a radical perversion, then the con-
verting grace required is above nature, the free
gift of God's mercy ; if a superficial imperfection,
moral influence by way of education will suffice to
eradicate it.

These attitudes in varying guise have divided
Christendom through the centuries. On which
side may we range the apostles ? The question is
not easy to answer. They offer no systematic state-
ment. Two considerations are relevant. First,
they inherit the national attitude, the cardinal
feature of which is the natural affinity of man for
God and the easy access of God's Spirit to man.
The Spirit operated specially but also generally;
His grace lay in the ordinary as well as in the ex-
ceptional facts of moral and religious life. There
is no sign that the apostles broke with this point
of view (nor did the Patristic age).|| They make,
however, a most significant addition, due to the
vital effect of Christ's Personality in their experi-
ence, introducing an absolutely new strain, form-
ing a new centre round which the problem gathers.
The inherited theory is left unreconciled with the
new focus ; the new focus inevitably leads to the
profoundest widening of the gulf between nature
and grace ; and pre-Christian moral and religious
life is conceived of as, in its general disposition,
evil, abandoned of God, even if, in its higher
tendencies, especially in Israel under the Law, it
was propaedeutic and led to demands for revelation

Eph 210. 1 1 P I".

t ' The Spirit of glory and of God rests upon us now ' (1 P 4").

The believer who has the Spirit thus has Him as ' a seal '
(2 Co 122, Eph 113 430).

I The Greek Fathers teach that the Greek philosophers are
under the influence of the Holy Spirit.



512



GEACE



GEACE



of grace. In both St. John and St. Paul the con-
ception of sin is immeasurably deepened its opposi-
tion, even enmity, to God and grace starkly ex-
pressed.

(b) Grace and merit. The doctrine of merit in
its full technical sense belongs to later days. It is
fully developed in mediaeval scholasticism, where
it occupies a large place. It was seriously assaulted
by the Reformers. It was prepared for fey a long
anterior development from small beginnings as
early as the sub-apostolic teaching.* Many factors
entered in the course of history to enhance its theo-
logical interest. From the sub-apostolic age there
begins the emphasis on works. Again, increasingly,
Christianity tends to become a new Law, the Chris-
tian life its submissive acceptance. Still more, as
the Church - consciousness grew, there grew the
ecclesiastical idea of redemption as a great system
beginning in baptism and ending in resurrection ;
grace working not spiritually but mechanically in
its mode.t The Latin Fathers gave a strong im-
petus to the idea of merit in the doctrine and dis-
cipline of penance. In the Pauline anthropology
the idea is present and is opposed in its most rudi-
mentary form. It has a natural basis, which the
Apostle takes up, and, dissociating it from the
popular view, makes serve as the foundation of
his doctrine of faith as the human factor in the
renewal of the believing heart. It is not quite
true that in Pauline theology man 'can dp nothing'
and 'needs to do nothing.' Grace requires marrs
co-operation in faith, which is not simply an initial
act, but a constant attitude. Faith, or the recep-
tive heart, implicit, humble trust in God, may be
all the sinner has to exercise but it is a vast deal,
and has a distinct moral worth.J Its worth, how-
ever, is not extended to the good qualities or
good works of which it is the precursor ; these are
credited solely to the grace whose reception faith
renders possible. The Pharisaic doctrine of merit
is before the Apostle's mind ; and his arguments
emphasize the gospel of absolute grace in reaction
from the conception of Law as conditional reward.
He labours to prove that the Law by its very nature
cannot unite the sinner to Christ or God, union
with whom is the proper idea of grace. The true
relation is reversed when character and conduct are
made pre-conditions of our obtaining Divine grace
instead of the joyous result of our having accepted
it. Besides, even faith is the gift of God. The
Spirit implants. For that express purpose Christ
is exalted. || These principles reappear in the
Reformers' polemic against the Catholic dogma.
' Faith unites the soul to Christ.' That primary
fact it is that outcasts all merit, and faith is ' the
gift of God.'

(c) Grace and freedom. In the life of grace as a
human experience God of His own motion takes
part. Another problem is : What is the part God
takes, and what is man's ? The problem is one of
the most difficult. It is continually emerging in
the course of human thought, and, like all of these
grace problems, has continuously divided Christian
loyalty. Two great answers have been given which
in their extreme statement are directly contradic-
tory of one another, but modifications of which are
continually proposed. The first is known as Pelagi-
anism, according to which the spiritual life of a man
is the direct result of his own choice. The second
is known as Augustinianism, according to which
the spiritual life is necessitated by God's will. The
best-known modification is Semi-pelagianism, which

* In ' Hernias ' we have the idea of supererogatory merit ; and
also of some works better pleasing to God than others.

t Not the same as the magical working of the impersonal
' infusion ' of later scholasticism.

t He 116.

This is all more fully considered under art. JUSTIFICATION.

I Ac 61.



finds prevailing favour in the Roman Catholic teach-
ing, as Augustinianism does in Reformation doc-
trine. It is a form of Synergism, according to which
Divine grace is insufficient till human effort con-
joins with it. The three may be thus defined in
the Pelagian view, grace precedes and assists the
natural (unregenerate) wall ; in the Augustinian,
grace prepares and assists the regenerate will ; in
the Semi-pelagian, grace is not operative at all till
man's will (indifferent) brings it into play. The
answer to the problem depends on the philosophy
of personality adopted.* What is here relevant is
the fact that the apostolic doctrine has nothing of
all this in view, however much it may suggest it.
These eternal values are carried up to the eternal
purpose of God and at the same time the ethical
basis of moral responsibility in human freedom ia
recognized. The Divine control of human life in
the whole of its activities is one of the great con-
ceptions of the OT. It is power animated by a
gracious and righteous purpose and conditioned by
the recognition of human freedom. The OT idea
of providence culminates in the NT idea of salva-
tion. The assertion of human freedom runs through
both OT and NT, Divine control and human free-
dom accompanying each other, in harmonious in-
timacy, regarded in a purely practical manner.
Whatever invasion of ' freedom there is, is due to
sin ; but the evil tendency is never pressed into
determinism. The apostles, as later the Fathers,
think in this ancestral descent. Religious depend-
ence has for necessary concomitant moral inde-
pendence; the deeper the dependence (religious)
the richer the independence (morality). It is this
independence that St. Paul emphasizes in the bless-
ing which he terms ' the glorious liberty of the
sons of God,' ' the freedom wherewith Christ sets us
free ' t a primary feature of the new life. Grace
is the personal relation to our moral self by which
that self attains emancipation. Modern moral
theory approves.

(d) Grace and the Church and sacraments. In
apostolic thought the Church is a visible and
Divine institution : the Body and Bride of Christ.
It is the appropriate social environment for the
sanctified soul, wherein at once the gifts of each
are available for the profit of all and the spiritual
atmosphere conduces to the uplift and sanctity of
all. It is specially the ' fulness of him that filleth
all in all,' J i.e. the complement of His purpose, the
means by which He accomplishes His loving scheme
for man's salvation. There are two strata of con-
cepts concerning the Church, one lower than the
other, which have given some justification for the
belief that the apostles describe the Church in two
aspects, visible and invisible, realistic and ideal-
istic. Rather they find in the Church as men see
it something evident only to spiritual insight.
To them the Church's life and spirit are but the
realization and extension of the Spirit of Christ
Himself, and the Church possesses, in the midst of
its variety of spiritual influence upon its members,
a mysterious unity, which is not only the sum-total
of all present variations, but something always be-
yond and far-reaching, inviting and calling and as-
sisting the believing members upward and onward
identically after the manner of Christ Himself
with the soul living in Him. To magnify the
Church is to magnify this Divine Spirit living and
working in the Body of Christ.

The ordinances of the Church possess a particular
character. They are not subordinate as mere
means of influencing the soul : they are means of
grace to the soul. They are of co-ordinate import-
ance with the Incarnation, whose effects they
continue, with the Atonement, which they com-

* A question into which we need not here enter,
t Gal 51. : Eph 1.



GRAFTING



GEAVE, GRAVITY



513



memorate, for they apply the graces of these.
This efficacy hangs on the Living Presence of
Christ, whose grace they convey ; for the effect of
sacraments depends on the action of Christ Him-
self. In them He communicates what He alone
can bestow, for the use of which faith and spiritual
affections are required, but which they cannot
create.* Through His Spirit's operation they
unite us with Him in the mystical union. The
Church in this sense was purchased by Christ's
blood t and is the object of justification.^ Very
early the rapidly growing Christian society seized
upon this conception and began to relate the grace
of Christ through His Spirit to the sacraments as
feeders of the mystery of the inner life. The whole
ancient Church, e.g., connects the gift of the Spirit
with baptism. Yet there is no disposition to regard
the rite as magical or mechanical : the spiritual effi-
cacy of the ordinance is due to the Holy Spirit.
Not the rite ex opere operate, not the minister, but
the Spirit dispenses grace ; the visible elements and
the ministerial action derive their validity from
the Spirit alone. Soon pagan and superstitious
elements were to enter in, to alter this free spiritual
idea of sacramental grace into 'another grace'
altogether a lapse from personal to sub-personal
categories, in perfect consonance with the new and
attractive idea of the Church in its visibility and
authority as the exclusive custodian of grace.
Externally as that idea was formulated, and false
as its rapid development grew to be to the apostolic
mind, its opponents too often forget that to the
apostolic mind there is no idea so fundamental as
the reality of a great spiritual society living by its
own truth and Hie, having its own laws, and these
exclusively spiritual. For the life of grace consists
not simply in the new life of the soul. It is the
new order of the world, a new permanent order
of life, a real supernatural constitution unfolding
itself in the world, in absolute rupture with the
present world, deeper and more comprehensive
than the life of believers, having objective substan-
tiality in the Life of God as the Life of Christ itself,
whose embodiment on earth it is an idea whose
present and practical realization the modern social
necessities imperatively demand.

LITERATURE. Besides the books referred to in the body of
the art., the following will be found useful : the artt. ' Grace ' in
JE, CE, and ' Onade ' in PRE* ; the Commentaries on Romans,
particularly that of Sanday-Headlam in ICC, 1902 ; C. Pie-
pinbring, J6sus et les Apdtres, Paris, 1911 ; A. E. Garvie,
Studies of Paul and his Gospel, London, 1911 ; J. R. Cohu,
St. Paul in the Light of Modern Research, do. 1911 ; G. Steven,
The Psychology of the Christian Soul, do. 1911 ; W. A. Cor-
naby, Prayer and the Human Problem, do. 1912 ; a series of
artt. by W. M. Ramsay, A. E. Garvie, and H. A. A. Kennedy
in the Expositor, 8th ser. iii. [1912], iv. [1912], v. [1913] ; the great
work of H. J. Holtzmann, Die Neutest. Theologie*, Tubingen,
1911, and an older work of great merit J. W. Nevin, The
Mystical Presence, Philadelphia, 1846. A. S. MARTIN.



GRAFTING. The Greek word used
has two distinct meanings : (1) ' goad ' or ' spur on '
(cf. Ac 26 14 , ' It is hard for thee to kick against the
goad [Ktvrpor]),' and (2) 'inoculate ' or 'graft.' The
English word ' graff ' is derived from the Gr. ypd<f>-
fiv, ' to write,' and means a slip of a cultivated tree
inserted into a wild one, so called because of its
resemblance to a pencil. In the NT the word
occurs only in Ro li- : St. Paul here follows the
Prophets (cf. Jer II 16 ) in likening Israel to an olive
tree (cf. art. OLIVE). Its roots are the Patriarchs,
the original branches are the Jews, and the
branches of the wild olive which have been grafted

* The point is not how Christ acts upon us by His Divine
Humanity in the Church ordinances, whether by transubstantia-
tion or spiritual power, but the fact that He does so act really
and truly, whatever the mode.

t Eph 525, Tit 21*.

J Of. Ritschl, Rechtfertigung und Versohnung, ii. 217 ft.

i 01. H. B. Swete, Holy Spirit in the Ancient Church, 1912. I
VOL. I. 33



in are the Gentile Christians. Some of the original
branches have been broken off owing to their lack
of faith, and by a wholly unnatural process shoots
from a wild olive have been grafted into the culti-
vated stock. But this is no ground for self-adula-
tion : all the blessings which the Gentiles derive
come from the original stock into which they have
been grafted through no merit of their own ; let
them beware, therefore, lest through pride and
want of faith they also are cut off, for it would, on
the one hand, be a much less violent proceeding to
cut off the wild branches, which have been grafted
in, than it was to cut off the original branches ;
while, on the other hand, it would be far easier and
far more natural to graft the original cultivated
branches back into the stock on which they grew
than it was to graft the Gentiles, who are merely
a slip cut from a wild olive, in amongst the
branches of the cultivated olive. The olive, like
most fruit trees, requires a graft from a cultivated
tree if the fruit is to be of any value. A graft
from a wild tree inserted into a cultivated stock
would of course be useless, and such a process is
never performed ; hence the point of St. Paul's
comparison.

LITERATURE. Sanday-Headlam, Romans** (ICC, 1902), pp.
319-330 ; HDB ii. 257 f . ; EBi 3496 ; SDB, p. 314 ; J. C. Geikie,
The Holy Land and the Bible, 1903, p. 50 ; W. M. Thomson,
The Land and the Book, 1910, p. 33.

P. S. P. HANDCOCK.

GRAYE, GRAVITY (<refj.v6<i, ffe^vbr^, 1 Ti 2 a
34. s. i^ Tit 2 s - 7 , Ph 4 8 ). The translation is, as a
rule, 'grave,' 'gravity' ; but in Ph 4 8 the AV has
'honest,' 'venerable* (marg.) (RV 'honourable,'
'reverend' [marg.]), and in 1 Ti 2 2 'honesty'
('gravitv,' RV). The Vulgate has pudicus, except
in 1 Ti 3 4 (castitas) and in Tit 2 7 (gravitas). ' The
idea lying at its root (<re) is that of reverential
fear, profound respect, chiefly applied to the bear-
ing of men towards the gods' (Cremer, Lexicon 3 ,
1880, p. 522). It is akin to the Latin serins,
severus, and the Gr. etfo^/Seta.

1. The word was used in a local sense of places
haunted by supernatural powers of caves,* of the
boundary t of heaven and earth as pointing to
the Divine guardianship of the world. In the
LXX the word is used in this sense of the Temple
at Jerusalem, because it possessed a nva Oeov
dfoajuv which miraculously thwarted Heliodorus
when he sacrilegiously tried to rob it (2 Mac 3).
In an inscription of the 2nd cent. Beroaa is called
o-eiJ.vor6.Ti) because it was a Temple-guardian (veu-
ic6pos).

2. Akin to this was the religious application of
the word to Divine persons a usage which is
common in early Christian literature. In Hermas,
Mand. iii. 4, it is used along with a\r}0h of the
Holy Spirit. It is used of the name of the Deity
(2 Mac 8 1S ), just as in classical Greek the word
was applied to the gods, 'E/wj'tfey al o-efwal Oeal.

In the NT, while the word has not lost its re-
ligious meaning, it is used mainly in a moral sense.
It occurs only once outside the Pastorals (Ph 4*),
and probably was familiarized in common speech
through the influence of popular Stoicism. The
sophist claimed this title (Luc. Rhet. Prcec. i.).
In Hermas, Vis. in. viii. 8, Sejui'dnjj is one of the
daughters of IK<ms, and thus has a place among
the Christian virtues. The word is- applied to
persons or personal qualities in two senses either
subjectively, of a conscious moral attitude of
gravity, or objectively, indicating the influence
produced on others by such a grave, decorous
behaviour. The best translation seems to be
'gravity.' Vergil (^En. i. 151 ff.) speaks of a
' pietate gravem ac mentis virum.' At his
approach a seditious mob stands still, waiting
Find. Pyth. ix. 60. f Eur. Bippol. 74.



514



GEAVE, GRAVITY



GRECIANS, GREEKS



silently to hear him ; and he rules their mind and
calms their passions by his word.

This gravity of behaviour eminently becomes
Church officials bishops (Tit 2 7 ), deacons (1 Ti 3 8 ),
deaconesses (v. n ), and the aged in general (v. 4 , Tit
2 2 ). They are to act, in all their official duties,
with a sense that they are dealing with holy
things ; they are to teach with grave impressiveness
(Tit 2 7 ). It is thus the opposite of light-hearted
flippancy or frivolity. It implies dignity, and in
this sense Aristotle uses it of the high-souled man
(Eth. Nic. IV. iii. 26).

The home is a nursery for the training of gra-
vity (cf. !Ti3 4 ). Hence it is not altogether right to
say that 'gravity is hardly a grace of childhood'
(see N. J. D. White in EGT, 1910, on 1 Ti 3 4 ).
It is the ' " morum gravitas et castitas" which be-
nts the chaste, the young, and the earnest, and is,
as it were, the appropriate setting of higher graces
and virtues ' (C. J. Ellicott, The Pastoral Epistles
of St. Paul 3 , 1864, p. 27). It befits all in the
home children and women as well as the heads
of the household, and all Christians as well as
Christian officials (1 Ti 2' 2 ). This aspect of gravity
is referred to by Clement more than once in his
First Epistle to the Corinthians (ch. i.). In an
inscription it is found applied to a wife (see J. H.
Moulton and G. Milligan in Expositor, 8th ser.
i. [1911] 479). Regard for becoming conduct must
be fostered in the home, and women and youths,
as perhaps more open to frivolity and disobedience,
must live tre/u.j'dJs.

So, in the Church, gravity is the opposite of
disorder, of shamelessness of behaviour. It is the
opposite of dir6voia (see Theophrastus, Char. xiii.).
In 1 Ti 2 2 , the Apostle inculcates gravity as a
Christian attitude towards the State, and for this
end prayer is to be made for kings and all in
authority. Christians are not to imitate the Jews,
who brought on themselves Roman hostility by
their religious contempt of authority (Jos. BJ
II. xvii. 2). Because God wills all men s salvation,
and Christ gave Himself a ransom for all, Chris-
tians are to respect sincerely all authority as such.

' Christian reverence . . . hallows to us everything in life.
The Christian regards himself as a valued work of God. His
body is a temple built through ages by the Almighty. His
race is a divine offspring. He loves even in the unworthy the
stamp of their Maker. Material nature, human history, daily
industry, the common intercourse of life gleam for him with
the veiled light and movement of the Omnipresent' (G. G.
Findlay, Christian Doctrine and Morals, 1894, p. 19).

Thus in Ph 4 8 the word is very wide in meaning
whatever demands and commands respect as
well as the 'noble seriousness' (M. Arnold, God
and the Bible, 1884, p. xvi) which such objects
produce. Christian gravity is not, however, ' that
sham gravity which so often discredits the word ;
not . . . the gravity of self-importance, or narrow-
ness, or gloom ; but ... a free and noble reverence



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