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arities : * and *yii>6o-Kw ; icaO'eros, *Ka6'l5lav ;
e<t>f\Trl5a (e<pifi\inffev, LXX) ; *dtf>i8e1v (the spiritus
asper is transferred from yuepa, d0o/>dw). The relation
of *<Jp/eos to &PKTOS is obscure. Examples of ovOek
(ofloWj also used) are more frequent in the LXX
than in the NT, and this corresponds to the usage
of the Koine in their respective periods.
(B) Inflexion. (1) For the vocative 6 6e6s see

Especially in his 'New Testament Greek in the Light of
Modern Discovery ' (Cambridge Biblical Essays, London, 1909,
p. 461 fl.).

t op. cit. i. 6ff.

t In what follows, a star (*) placed before the word indicates
that the form is found in both the LXX and the NT ; forms not
BO distinguished are in the NT.

The occasional use of v for ov in papyri (cf. SCXos for Sov\os
in LXX, 1 K 1421) 8 hows that it was akin to u ; hut at an early
period it had also the value of i in Asia and Egypt.

above, 8. Observe r6 (for 6) ?Xeos, and the like.
POUJ is declined vo6s, vot after the example of ous,
/3o<5j. (2) For V&KTO.V, *x.e'tpav, jSaffiXtav, etc., see
above. (3) TO fiXoj (for 6 #\s) ; 6pvil- for Spva is
perhaps a Dorism. (4) Verbs in -pi went gradually
out or use, as is attested by the MS readings lordw
(LXX), Iffrdvu, *d<plb}, *ffvv(ti}, ifivtiu. In the inflexion
of dpi we find an imp. mid. ij/j-riv. The earliest un-
mistakable use of PI ( = tve<rTi), from which arose
the Mod. Gr. etvai, ' he is,' instead of iffrl is found
in the NT ; the imperative is ijru (for ecru). (5)
ffr-ffKca (Mod. Gr. arena), the use of which is better
attested in the NT than in the LXX, is an innova-
tion formed from forr/ica, and on the analogy of
TJKW, which could be inflected like a perfect (LXX and iJKare). (6) Contracted verbs : *ireivav
and *5i\{/S.v, but *ffv ; the Hellenistic xp^Oai is but
meagrely attested in Biblical Greek. (7) The
spelling -xf> vvu (LXX x^ vu ) is of special interest, as
presents with vv occur also in the Cyprian dialect
of to-day, i.e. in Eastern Greek. (8) Personal
endings : (a) the ending -<rav extends far beyond
its original usage, but occurs more frequently in
the LXX (fjXOocrav, <ptpo<rav, ("yevvwcrav, w/ziXowrac)
than in the NT (efyoffav, tdopvfiovffav) : in Mod. Gr.
it is confined to contracted verbs ; (b) the termina-
tions of the first and second aorists begin to coa-
lesce, e.g. * ) *etSafj,ev ; as found in the im-
perfect (e.g. *e\fya,v), we cannot be so sure that
they belong to the original text ; (c) in 3rd plur.
perf. we sometimes find -av for -curt, as in *i<bpa.Kav,

(C) Syntax. (1) Indications of the decreasing
use of the dative are the occasional confusion be-
tween eh with ace., and iv with dat., the preference
for the gen. and the ace. after prepositions taking
three cases, and the growing use of the ace. after
verbs like *xpS(T0cu, Karapaffdai, tvedpetieiv. After
certain verbs, moreover, the ace. tends to supersede
the gen., as e.g. Kparelv, Karaducdfeiv nvd. (2) A pre-
positional construction sometimes takes the place
of simple noun with case, as e.g. evOleiv ex rov Aprov,
a.irexwO<u dir6. (3) The aorist, in comparison with
the imp. indie., is more frequently used than in the
classical period ; the use of the aorist in a perfective
sense is made distinct by prepositions, thus irpay-
fj.a.Tcij<ra.ff6at (Lk 19 13 ), ' trade with,' but dMirpa.yfw.Te6-
ffa.ffda.i (v. ls ), ' gain by trading.' This force of the
preposition explains also why a preposition is more
frequently attached to the aorist than to the pre-
sent stem ; but presents with aoristic force could
be formed in a similar way : cf. rbv nurdbv direxovo-i
(Mt 6 2 - B> 16 ), ' they have received their reward ' ;
dTr^xw is used in a like sense in receipts found
among the papyri. A characteristic feature of the
LXX and NT is that they always employ the
aorist imperative in invocations of God a usage to
which we find an analogy in Homer. (4) The ex-
tent to which the perfect was used in Biblical
Greek with the force of the aorist is disputed ; the
usage of Hellenistic Greek generally rather favours
the aoristic function (as e.g. of *et\rj(pa, *(ffxnKa.) in
Biblical Greek as well. (5) The optative was
obsolescent, alike in principal and in subordinate
clauses ; its disuse is more marked in the NT than
in the LXX. (6) The infinitive shows no sign of
decay in the LXX ; but in the NT it is widely (as
in Mod. Gr. always) superseded by tva, hence e.g.
fi/rw tva.,> tva. ; to look for a purposive
force in every tva, in Biblical Greek is a mistake.
The infinitive with the article, however, is common
also in the NT, and it may be remarked that a
number of old infinitive forms survive in Mod. Gr.
as nouns, e.g. Tb<t>i\l=rb tpiKeiv, 'the kiss.' (7) The
present participle active shows a tendency to be-
come rigid (the Mod. Gr. \eyovTa,s is indeclinable),
as e.g. in Jn 15 5 : pevwv iv epol K<iy& (fiAvu] ev afrry.
A remarkable feature is the use of the participle


without copula as a predicate.* As this usage is
not only found in papyri, but is still very common
in Malalas, it was probably a peculiarity of the
Eastern Koine. (8) The wealth of particles char-
acteristic of the classical language has been largely
lost. The Gospels, like the popular tales of Modern
Greek, generally exhibit a simple co-ordination of
clauses, either without connectives or connected by
Kal , T6re, 64, yueri TOVTO, 4v tKelvy r$ Kaip$. As already
said, it is quite wrong to regard this feature and
in particular the frequent use of /cat as a Hebraism,
the paratactic sequence of clauses being in reality a
characteristic of simple popular narrative.f (9) In
Biblical Greek the verb would seem to head the
sentence more frequently than in Greek generally.
Its initial position may well be due in part to
Semitic influence (see above), but we must on this
point await the results of a more searching and
detailed investigation.

While the LXX and the NT belong to the same
linguistic milieu, yet, as has been more than once
noted in the foregoing grammatical sketch, they
exhibit features indicative of their respective stages
of development. In general, we may regard the
contemporary papyri as providing the nearest
parallels to each, though the LXX is occasionally
more archaic than the papyri of its age ; thus, while
we find in it the forms i)Ka/j.fv, iJKare, ijicao-i, we do
not find as yet ijK^ai, ijicfa-uv. No comparison has
yet been made between the LXX and the NT as
to the relative frequency of the linguistic changes
in each an undertaking for which the MS tradi-
tion would have to provide the basis ; such a
comparison would be the most reliable means of
measuring the interval between the two groups
of texts.

10. Post-Biblical Greek. In certain productions
of early Christian literature outside the NT canon
(the l^T Apocrypha, the Apostolic Fathers) the
neologisms of the Koine bulk more largely than in
the biblical writings, so that these non-canonical
works must be regarded as belonging to a later
linguistic stratum ; with regard to particular
books, however, it is more difficult than in the
case of the LXX and NT to determine what is to
be set down to the MS tradition, i.e. to decide
wh ether forms like \tyovv ( = \yov<ri) in the Acts
of Pilate, or -fiydirovv ( = ydiruv) in the Acts of
Thomas, were not originally due to later copyists.
Apart from this, the linguistic differences found
in the several writings of this group themselves,
and the linguistic differences between this group
and the NT canon, are marked only by larger or
smaller concessions to the literary language of the
educated. It is no doubt true that, even in the
NT, Luke is distinguished from the other Gospels
by a certain inclination to Atticism, and that
other early Christian productions likewise reflect
the literary tendencies of the age. Nevertheless,
there was at the outset a sharply marked contrast
between Biblical Greek and the literary language
of the period ; the Atticism (see above) then coming
into vogue aimed at the revival of the classical
(Attic) diction, and the cultured heathen looked
down scornfully upon the ' barbarous sailor-speech '
of primitive Christianity (Papfiaplfova-a Kara icpdros
Kal ffoi\oiKlovffa and ivofjunrovoiiats ^veus ffwreTay-
fj.fvi]).'^ But just as in the succeeding centuries the
youthful and revolutionary spirit of Christianity
allied itself more and more with Greek philosophy
and culture, and came at length to be quite hel-
lenized, so too the language of Christianity soon
lost that charm of originality and naive freshness

* Moulton, Einleitung, p. 352 ff.

t Examples from the papyri are given by Witkowski, Glotta,
vi. [1914] 22 f.
t See E. Norden, Antike Kunstprosa, Leipzig, 1898, ii. 516 ff.

which is characteristic of Biblical Greek. It is, in
fact, only in the Lives of the Saints and similar
productions that we still hear the speech of the
simple people to whom the earliest preachers of
the gospel appealed.* The great teachers of the
Church turned aside from the unschooled language
of the Gospels, and adopted the style of cultured
heathenism ; in other words, they followed the
literary fashion of Atticism. Even the early
apologist Tatian aspired to be an Atticist, though
his success in that direction was but meagre ; t
while Chrysostom actually gave an Atticistic form
to his quotations from Scripture.J The develop-
ment in the language of Greek Christianity from
the NT to the close of antiquity is a faithful re-
flexion of the process through which the Christian
religion itself passed. In the course of a few cen-
turies the faith of humble fisher-folk became the
dominant religion of the Grseco-Roman world,
and, passing from its native lowliness to the high-
est places, it paid its tribute to the culture of its
new sphere.

LITERATURE. Books and articles already fully cited in the
course of this art. are not further mentioned here.

Griechische Grammatik 3 , Leipzig, 1896 ; more recent in A.
Thumb, ' Die Forschungen fiber die hellenistische Sprache in
den Jahren 1896-1901,' in Archivfur Papyrusforschung, ii. [1902]
396 ff., '. . . In den Jahren 1902-1904,' ib. iii. [1903] 443 ff.
(also Indogerm. Forsch. Anzeiger, i. [1892] 48, vi. [1896] 224 ff.);
Witkowski, 'Bericht uber die Literatur zur Koine aus den
Jahren 1898-1902,' in C. Bursian's Jahresbericht uber die Fort-
schritte der klass. Altertumsurissenschaft, cxx. [1904] 153 ff.,
'. . . aus den Jahren 1903-1906,' ib. clix. [1912] Iff. ; J. H.
Moulton, ' Hellenistic Greek,' in The Year's Work in Classical
Studies, ed. for the Classical Association, latest art. in 1913, p.
187 ff. ; A. Deissmann, ' Die Sprache der griechischen Bibel,'
in Theologische Rundschau, i. [1898] 463 ff., ix. [1906] 210 ff., xv.
[1912] 339 ff. ; further, the section 'Das Neue Testament' (in
recent years by R. Knopf) in the 3rd division of the Theolog.
Jahresbericht, ed. Q. Kriiger and M. Schian, Leipzig, 1909 ff.,
deals very fully with the linguistic side.

II. GRAMMAR OF THK KOINB. K. Dieterich, Untersuchungen
zur Geschichte der griechischen Sprache, Leipzig, 1898; G.
Meyer(as above), Thumb-Brugmann, Griechische Grammatik*,
Munich, 1913 ; A. N. Jannaris, An Historical Greek Grammar,
London, 1897 (not in the modern method) ; alio the various
works mentioned above and below.

Linguistic Conditions in Ancient Italy and Greece,' in Classical
Journal, i. [1906] 99 ff. ; J. P. Mahaffy, The Silver Age of the
Greek World, Chicago, 1906 (deals with the culture and expan-
sion of Hellenism); A. Thumb, Die griechische Sprache im
Zeitalter des Hellenismus, Strassburg, 1901, ' Prinzipienfragen
der Koine-Forschung,' in Neue Jahrbiicher fur das klassische
Altertum, xvii. [1906] 246 ff. ; P. Kretschmer, Die Entstehung
der Koine, Vienna, 1900 ; D. C. Hesseling, De .Koine en de
oude dialekten van Griekenland, Amsterdam, 1906 (in the
publications of the Koninklijke Academie); cf. also the works
of Deissmann and Moulton in section IV. below ; a sketch of
the Koine in connexion with the general history of the Greek
language is given in J. Wackernagej, Die griechische Sprache
( = Kultur der Gegenwart, pt. i. vol. viii. [^Leipzig, 1912]), and A.
Meillet, Apery u d'une histoire de la langue grecque, Paris, 1913,
p. 259 ff.

IV. BIBLICAL GREEK. (1) General. G. A. Deissmann, Bibel-
studien, Marburg, 1895, Neue Bibelstudien, do. 1897 (Eng. tr.,
Bible Studied*. Edinburgh, 1903), Die sprachliche Erforschung
der griechischen Bibel, Giessen, 1898, New Light on the NT,
Eng. tr., Edinburgh, 1907, The Philology of the Greek Bible, Eng.
tr., London, 1908, Licht vom Osten^-3, Tubingen, 1909 (Eng. tr.,
Light from the Ancient Easfi, London, 1911), Die Urgeschichte
des Christentums im Lichte der Sprachforschung, Tubingen,
1910; A. Thumb, 'Die sprachgeschichtliche Stellung des bib-
lischen Griechisch,' in Theologische Rundschau, v. [1902] 85 ff. ;
J. H. Moulton, A Grammar of NT Greeks, Edinburgh, 1908
(Germ. tr. [in reality a new ed.], Einleitung in die Sprache des
NT, Heidelberg, 1911), The Science of Language and the Study
of the NT, Manchester, 1906 ; S. Dickey, ' The Greek of the NT,'
in Princeton Theological Review, i. [1903] 631 ff. ; H. Lietzmann,
' Die klassische Philologie und das NT,' in Neue Jahrbiicher fur
das klassische Altertum, xxi. [1908] 1 ff. ; S. Angus, ' Modern
Methods in NT Philology,' in Harvard Theological Review, ii.
[1909] 446 ff. , also Hellenistic and Hellenism in Our Universities,

* Cf. Vogeser, Zur Sprache der griechischen Heiligenlegenden,
Munich, 1907.

t Cf. Heiler, de Tatiani apologetce dicendi genere, Marburg,

J It may be observed in this connexion that F. Blase, who in
his edd. of the Gospels of Matthew and John uses these quota-
tions as a means of ' emending ' the MS tradition of the NT, is
here working on entirely wrong lines.




Hartford, Conn., 1909, also "The Koine: the Language of the
NT,' in Princeton Theological Review, viii. [1910] 43 ff .

(2) Grammars. R. Helbing-, Grammatik der LXX, Gottin-
gen, 1907 ; H. St. J. Thackeray, A Grammar of the OT in
Greek, i., Cambridge, 1909 ; Winer-Schmiedel, Grammatik des
neutest. Sprachidioms, Gottingen, 1894 ff. (not yet completed) ;
F. Blass, Grammatik des neutest. Griechisch (4th ed. by A.
Debrunner, Gottingen, 1913 ; Eng. tr. by Thackeray 2 , London,
1905) ; L. Radermacher, Neutest. Grammatik (in Handbtich
zum XT, ed. Lietzmann, L 1), Tubingen, 1911 ; E. A. Abbott,
Jphannine Grammar, London, 1906 (Conybeare-Stock, Selec-
tions from the LXX, Boston, 1905, and J. Viteau, 6tude sur le
grec du NT compart avee celui des Septante, Paris, 1897, are
out of date).

(3) Important monographs. H. B. Swete, An Introduction
to the OT in Greek, Cambridge, 1900, p. 289 ff. ; R. Meister,
' Prolegomena zu einer Grammatik der LXX,' in Wiener Studien
xxix. [1907] 228 ff., also Seitrdge zur Lautlehre der LXX,
Vienna, 1909 ; J. Psichari, ' Essai sur le Grec de la Septante,' in
Revue des Etudes juives, 1908, p. 161 ff. ; M. Johannessohn,
Der Gebrauch der Kasus und Prdpositionen in der LXX,
Berlin, 1910 ; E. de W. Burton, Syntax of the Moods and Tenses
in NT Greeks, Chicago, 1898 ; Th. Vpgel, Zur Charakteristik
des Lukas nach Sprache und Stil, Leipzig, 1897 : M. Krenkel,
Josephus und Lukas, do. 1894 ; A. Schlatter, Die Sprache und
Heimat des U. Evangelisten(=Beitrdge zur Forderung christ-
licher Theologie, vi. 4 [1902]), andT. C. Laughlin, The Solecisms
of the Apocalypse, Princeton, 1902 (the last two of little use) ;
W. Heitmiiller, Im Namen Jesu, Gottingen, 1903.

(4) Lexicography. As supplementing the standard Greek
lexicons the following are of importance : E. A. Sophocles, A
Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, New York,
1887, and H. van Herwerden, Lexicon grcecum suppletorium
et dialecticum?, Leiden, 1910 ; for the LXX, Hatch-Redpath,
Concordance to the LXX, 6 vols., Oxford, 1892-97 ; for the NT,
Grimm-Thayer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the NT 2 , 1890 ;
F. Zorell, Aovi Testamenti lexicon grcecum, Paris, 1911 ; E. A.
Abbott (as in IV. (2) above) ; Naegeli (as cited in art.) ; the
' Lexical Notes from the Papyri ' (of great importance for the
vocabulary of the NT), by J. H. Moulton and G. Millig-an, in
recent years of The Expositor, are not yet completed, and are
to be collected and published separately.

V. POST-BIBLICAL GREEK. H. Reinhbld, De grcecitatepatrum
apostolicorum librorumque apocryphorum (=Dissert. philolog.
Halenses, xiv. [Halle, 1898]) 1 ff. ; F. Rostalski, Sprachliches
zu den apokryphen Apostelgeschichten, 2 pis., Programm,
Myslowitz, 1910 and 1911 ; E. J. Goodspeed, Index patristicus,
Leipzig, 1907 ; T. M. Wehofer, Untersuchungen zur altchrist-
lichen Epistolographie, Vienna, 1901 ; J. Compernass, De
sermone grceco volgari Pisidice Phrygiceque meridionalis,
Bonn, 1895 ; X. Hiirth, De Gregorii Nazianzeni orationibus
funebribus (= Dissert, phitolog. Argent, selectee, xii. 1 [S trass-
burg, 1907]), p. 71 s. A. THUMB.


HELPS. ' Help' (i.prf\i)ftiffts) is fairly common in
the LXX, in the Psalms, and in 2 and 3 Maccabees.
In Sir ll ia 51 7 we have persons who are in need of
dvTl\Tifj.\//is. The plural dvn\rifj.\f/ea occurs in 1 Co
12 28 , coupled with ' governments,' and nowhere else
in the NT. The verb from which it comes (avri-
\anpdveo-9ai) is found in Lk I 84 in a quotation from
the LXX, where it is frequent ; also in Ac 20 35 in
a speech of St. Paul. The verb means ' to take
firm hold of some one in order to help (1 Ti 6 2 is
different) ; and by ' helps ' or ' helpings ' St. Paul
probably means the succouring of those in need,
as poor, sick, and bereaved persons. Perhaps the
helping of those in mental perplexity or spiritual
distress, and all whom St. Paul calls 'the weak,'
is also included. H. Cremer (Bibl.-Theol. Lex.',
1880, p. 386) is mistaken in saying that this sense
of ' helping' is ' unknown in classical Greek ' : it is
frequent in papyri, in petitions to the Ptolemys
(G. A. Deissmann, Bible Studies, Eng. tr., 1901,
p. 92). The Greek commentators are also mistaken
in interpreting ' helpings ' as meaning deacons,
and 'governings' as meaning elders ; such definite
official distinctions had not yet arisen. St. Paul is
speaking of personal gifts. He is not speaking of
select persons whom he or the congregation had
appointed to any office ; and neither he nor they
can confer the gifts ; that is the work of the Spirit.
He exhorts the whole congregation to ' continue to
desire earnestly the greater gifts' ; and individuals
might receive more than one gift from the Spirit.

We have an instance of the gift of ' helping ' in
Stephanas and his household ( 1 Co 16 1 *" 18 ), and it is

expressly stated that they 'appointed themselves
to minister to the saints.' The Apostle did not
nominate them to any office of 'helper,' nor did
the congregation elect them to any such post. A
person who believed that he possessed the gift tried
to exercise it. If he was right in this belief, the
people accepted his ministrations. There was no
other appointment, and there was no class of
officials into which he entered.

LITERATURE. F. J. A. Hort, The Christian Ecclesia, 1897,
pp. 156-160 ; Robertson and Plummet, 1 Corinthians, 1911,
pp. 280-284 ; H. A. A. Kennedy, Sources of NT Greek, 1895,

~ 1909, p. 186 f. ;

p. 96 ; H. B*. Swete, The Holy Spirit in the NT, 1
art. ' Helps ' in HDB and SDB. A. Pi

HERESY (at/>e<rtj). The primary meaning of
a2/>ru is ' taking,' used especially of ' taking a
town' (Herod, iv. 1). Its secondary meaning is
' choice,' ' preference.' From this it passes to ' the
thing chosen,' and so 'a plan,' 'a purpose.' In
later classical usage it comes to mean a pnilosophic
school of thought, and hence a sect.

In the passages in which the word occurs in the
Acts, it has the meaning of a religious party, e.g.
Ac 5" : }) atpeo-is T&V ~Za.58ovKa.lwv 15 6 26* : /card, -Hjv

<ratos. Thus it is used of the Christians not by
themselves but by others, e.g. 24 5 : irparroo-rdTrjv re
TTJS TWV Nafwpalwj' at/screws ; and again, v. 14 : /card T^V
oSbv ty \tyovaiv alpeaiv (see also 2S 23 ). In the Epistles
it is used of the evil principle of party spirit, divi-
sion, and self-assertion. Thus in Gal 5 20 it is
classed among the works of the flesh in company
with tpiQeiai and Sixoffraalai. In 1 Co ll u ^ St.
Paul uses alp^ras as the natural outcome of <rxlff-
fMTa : d/coL'w (rxiff/J-OLTO. 4v iifuv {nrdp^fiv, Kal fitpos TI
TricrTfvu. Sei yap Kal alptffta et> V/MV elvat, Iva ol ocm.uot
<t>avepoi ytvuvrai iv vfuv. So that, bad though these
things are, they may serve a providential purpose
in testing men's characters and showing those that
can stand the test.

These divisions destroyed the harmony of the
Agape. The brotherly spirit which should have
characterized the common meal was absent and
the sacredness of the Communion was lost in
general disorder. In this passage ' heresy ' and
'schism' (q.v.) approach very nearly to becoming

As St Augustine says : ' Haeresis autem schismainveteratum '
(c. Crescon. Don. IL 7). And Nevin quoted by Trench (-AT?
Synonyms 8 , 1876, p. 359) says : ' Heresy and schism are not
indeed the same, but yet they constitute merely the different
manifestations of one and the same disease. Heresy is theoretic
schism : schism is practical heresy. They continually run into
one another, and mutually complete each other. Every heresy
is in principle schismatic; every schism is in its innermost
constitution heretical.'

So far we have found no trace of atpent being used
in connexion with false doctrine but simply with
divisions and factious party spirit. But m 2 P 2 1
a new meaning is introduced, and from the idea of
a party or sect we pass to the principles and teach-
ing which characterize the sect, alpto-ets diruXelat
must refer to doctrines which lead to destruction ;
indeed the following words, ' even denying the Lord
that bought them/ point to a specimen of such
false teaching, implying either a rejection of
Christ as the Son of God, or a denial of His re-
demptive work. As this Epistle was written at
a much later date than the Acts, it marks the
gradual transformation that was going on in the
meaning of ' heresy ' as it passed from party or
sect, first to schism and finally to erroneous teach-

There is no trace in the NT of either atpe<ra or
ffxifffJM denoting a party that had separated itself
from the main body. Pharisees and Sadduceea
were sects in Judaism, not withdrawn from it.
Such sects were, so to speak, recognized, not depre-



cated. Again, the parties in the Corinthian Church
which called themselves after the names of Paul,
Cephas, Apollos, and Christ were divisions in the
Church, not separated from it. It was the harm
done by strife and the absence of that spirit of
unity and charity, which is the very essence of
Christianity, that called for the Apostle's rebukes.
By the time that we pass into the sub-apostolic
period, a'ipeffis connotes theological error and false
teaching, and the sense of a sect or party gradu-
ally recedes till it passes away entirely. Two
passages from Ignatius may be quoted in support
of this : Sri irdvres /ca-rct d\7j8eiav f^re ical 8ri iv
oi' alpeffis KarotKei (ad Eph. vi.) ; and Trapa/caXw
otv V/J.8.S . . . /ibvy TTJ ~KpiffTLavg rpo<f>rj xprjffde, dXXo-
rp/as 3 fiordvys dv^xeffOe, ijris tariv cupe<ris (ad Trail.



HERMAS ('EpAtas, Ro 16 14 ). Hermas is a Greek
name, a contracted form of several names sucli as
Hermagoras, Hermeros, Hermodorus, Hermogenes,
etc., common among members of the Imperial
household (J. B. Ligntfoot, Philippians*, 1878, p.
176). It is the last of a group of five names (all
Greek) of persons, and ' the brethren with them,'
saluted by St. Paul. Nothing is known of any
member or the group. It is conjectured that to-
gether they formed a separate KK\ij<ria or ' church,'
the locality of which we shall suppose to have
been Rome or Ephesus, according to our view of the
destination of these salutations. Cf. vv. 5 - 15 and
perhaps v. 11 , and 1 Co 16 18 and perhaps Ac 20 20 .
Possibly these five men were heads of five separate
household churches, or leaders or office-bearers in

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