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be seen kissing the mouth, the beard, and even the
clothes of their honoured guests (cf. Geikie, The
Holy Land and the Bible, i. 143). They refuse all
remuneration for their services, but, after three
days, the host may ask his guest whether he in-
tends to prolong his stay, and, if so, the host may
provide him with work. For three days the hospi-
tality accorded is regarded strictly as a right to
which the guest is absolutely entitled, and the
guest can, of course, on the expiration of three
days, take up his abode in another tent in the same
place, and thus renew his right. During his so-
journ, the person of the guest is inviolable, and
this is the case even if he be the sworn enemy of
the man of whose hospitality he is partaking. The
Oriental view of the binding nature of this virtue
is well expressed in the two local proverbs ' every
stranger is an invited guest,' and ' the guest while
in the house is its lord.'

LITERATURE. B. F. Westcott, The Epistle to the Hebrews,
1889, p. 429 ; E. C. Wickham, The Epistle to the Hebrews,
1910, p. 123 ; C. J. Ellicott, The Pastoral Epistles of St. Pauls,
1864, pp. 73 f., 185; Sanday-Headlam, Romans* (ICC, 1902),
363; Speaker's Commentary: 'Romans to Philemon,' 1881, p.
786 ; C. Big-g, St. Peter and St. Jude (ICC, 1901), 173 ; W.
M. Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire, 1893, pp. 288,
368 ; W. M. Thomson, The Land and the fioofc.'new. ed., 1910 ;
J. C. Geikie, The Holy Land and the Bible, 1887, i. 143, 306, 443 ;
H. C. Trumbull, Studies in Oriental Social Life, 1894, pp. 73-
142 ; A. Edersheim, Sketches of Jewish Social Life, 1908 ; G.
Robinson Lees, Village Life in Palestine, new ed., 1905 ;
Smith's DB, ed. Fuller, vol. i. pt. i. pp. 1401-03 ; SDB 365-67 ;

DOG i. 761. p. S. P. HANDCOCK.

HOUR (figurative).* As in the literal sense
' hour ' signifies a point in, or part of, the course
of a day, so in the NT it is used metaphorically to
signify a point or period in a course of historical
development. In Ro 13 U the use is vividly real-
istic. The present time of trial is like the dark
and gloomy night, but ' salvation ' draws nigh ;
already, therefore, it is ' the hour to awake out of
sleep.' With this single exception, the metaphori-
cal sense of the word is peculiar to the Johannine
group of writings (cf. Jn 2 4 4 21 12 23 13 1 , etc.), and
may be defined as the fixed time, in distinction
from Kaipds, the jit time ( ' the boast of heraldry,
the pomp of power . . . await alike th' inevitable
hour'). Thus the Apocalypse speaks (14 15 ) of the
' hour ' for reaping the harvest of the earth, which
is the 'hour' of God's judgment (14 7 ) upon the
pagan world. To the faithful church in Phila-
delphia (3 10 ) safe-keeping is promised from the
'hour of testing' which is about to come upon
the whole earth, i.e. the period of trial which
is to usher in the Messianic deliverance. This
is defined (13 14 ' 17 ) as a time of seduction to the
worship of the Beast (the Imperial cult) ; but in
1 Jn 2" the sign of this ' last hour ' is already seen
in the rise of Antichrist, yea, of ' many antichrists,'
i.e.. the Gnostic propagandists. In many passages
the appearance of false teachers is foretold or dis-
cerned as a symptom that the last hour of this
world's day is running its course (Mt 24 5 - 11 ' 28 - 24 ,
Lk 21 8 , 1 Ti 4 1 ' 8 , 2 P 3 3 , etc.). ROBERT LAW.

HOUSE. In this article the references in the
* For ' Hour ' in the literal sense see TIME.



HOUSE



HOUSE



587



NT to the structure and appointments of a house
will be collected together, and a description of a
house in apostolic times will be given, with illus-
trations from the present writer's observations in
his Eastern travels. For ' house ' in the sense of
those who inhabit the building, and of descendants,
see FAMILY.

1. Foundations and materials. Great attention
was paid to the foundations ; they were if possible
of stone, even if the walls were of mud. The foun-
dations (the apostles and prophets) and the corner-
stone (Christ) are the principal elements in the
spiritual house (Eph 2 20 ). The importance of the
foundations of the wall of the holy city is illustrated
in Kev 21 14ff - by their being adorned with precious
stones. It thus happens in the present day that in
the ordinary Eastern house the foundations often
cost as much as all the rest of the building put
together. In places where stone is plentiful all
houses are built of that material ; otnerwise only
the very rich men's houses are of stone and all
others are built of sun-dried bricks (sometimes of
kiln-dried bricks, which are more expensive), or
even of mud set in layers, each layer being left to
dry hard before the next layer is placed on the top
of it. The sun-dried bricks are made simply of
clay with which chopped straw is mixed (Ex 5 7 ),
ana are set to dry in the sun for a few days before
they are wanted for the building. Thus brick-
making and house-building go on together on the
same ground. The perishable nature of the
material explains why, with the exception of
the royal palaces, which were built of stone,
nearly all Nineveh has completely vanished.
If Layard's rather doubtful theory is correct
(Nineveh and its Remains, London, 1849, vol. ii.
p. 236 ff.), that vast city of 'three days' journey'
[round the walls] (Jon 3 3 ) occupied the large area
between the fortresses, which alone remain to this
day, and was some 75 miles in circumference ; but
of the buildings in the centre of the area there is
not a trace. The same thing also explains the
references to ' digging through ' houses in Mt 6 19
24 43 , Lk 12 39 ; this is quite an easy thing to do.

2. The roof (Sw/^a; sometimes 0-^717, Mt 8 8 ,
Lk 7 6 ). This is flat, made of mud laid on beams
of wood, crossed by laths, and covered with mat-
ting. It is used in summer as a sleeping-place, and
by day (especially in the evening) as a sitting-room,
or often as a promenade, for roofs of adjacent houses
in the villages are frequently joined together. It
is possible sometimes to walk: from one end of the
village to the other without descending the ladders
or staircases to the courtyards and streets. Hence
in time of persecution the fugitive would do well to
flee along the roofs rather than fall a prey to the
enemy in the streets (Mt 24 17 , Mk 13 1 *, Lk 17 81 ).
So St. Peter goes to the roof to pray (Ac 10 9 ). The
roof is a favourite place for village gossip ; this is
the 'proclamation on the housetops' of Mt 10 27 ,
Lk 12 3 . The nature of the material of the roof
explains how easy it was to dig through it (Mk 2*,
QoptifavTes ; cf. Gal 4 15 ) in order to let the paralytic
down ; the mention of tiles in || Lk 5 19 is merely a
paraphrase adopted by St. Luke for the compre-
hension of his more Western readers or at least
of readers less acquainted with the customs of
Palestine than those of St. Mark (W. M. Ramsay,
Was Christ born at Bethlehem?, 1898, p. 57 f.).

3. The windows (6vp(6es). In the East these
now usually look into the courtyard, not into the
street, as privacy is of the greatest importance.
Such was probably the case in Ac 20 9 , where Euty-
chus, sitting in a window, falls from the third story
(dn-d TOV Tpurrtyov) ; as Eastern houses are usually
of two stories (for the kitchen see below), we must
here have an exception to the general rule. It is
not common for windows to be in the outside wall



of a town ; yet this must have been the case in
Ac 9 M , 2 Co II 33 , where St. Paul is let down through
the town wall and escapes, in both cases from
Damascus, for both passages seem to refer to the
same incident (cf. also Rahab, Jos 2 1S ). Except in
the better houses, no glass is used in the windows ;
oiled cotton or paper serves instead of glass in the
winter, being removed in the summer. Glass
(other than that used for mirrors) is mentioned in
the NT only in Rev 4 8 15 2 21 18 - 21 ; its costliness in
ancient times, as in the modern East, is seen by its
being coupled with gold in Job 28 17 RV.

4. The house - gate. The door or gate itself
is Oupa. (Mk 2 2 , Jn 18 16 , figuratively in Rev 3 20 ),
but w\uv is the gateway or entry of a house,
especially if large, as well as of a city (Mt 26 71 ,
Lk 16 2U , Ac 10" 12-; in the last passage the
full expression 'door of the gate' (dvpa. TOV wvXwvos)
is used, but in v. 14 wv\<bv includes Qtipa, for it is
' opened ' by Rhoda ; cf. artt. DOOR and GATE).
For a house-gate v6\ij is not ordinarily used ; it
is the gate of a city, and so of a public building
like the Temple or a prison (Ac 3 10 12 10 , but 3 2
has Otipa.). The house-gate was naturally kept
locked in troublous times, as in Ac 10 17 12 13 ' 18 , and
was guarded by a porter (Mk 13 34 , 6 0vpup6s) or a
portress (Jn 18* 6 , r, Bvpupds ; cf. Mk 14 89 , Ac 12 18L ),
just as the figurative sheepfold in Jn 10 3 is guarded
by ' the porter,' probably the Holy Spirit (H. B.
Swete, The Holy Spirit in the NT, 1909, p. 146).
The entry (irvXuuO is either the same as, or else
leads into, the fore-court (irpoatXiov) of Mk 14 68 ,
where || Mt 26 71 has u-i/Xti?. Outside the gate of the
great houses the beggars sit (Lk 16 20 , Lazarus), as
they did at the gate of the Temple (Ac 3 2 - 10 ). Inside
the gate, perhaps in the fore-court, were the water-
pots for washing (Jn 2 s ) ; evidently not in the
guest-room.

5. The courtyard (a6\^). This occupied the
centre of the house (Mt 26 69 , Mk 14 54 - 66 ). We
read of a charcoal fire in it a brazier in the open
air (Mk 14 54 - SJ , Lk 22 s6 '-, Jn 18 18 - 2S ), in the middle
(Lk 22 5S ). On this courtyard the rooms opened ;
our Lord inside was visible to Peter in the court
(Lk 22 61 ). The rooms, in places where there is
little cold weather, might be entirely open to the
court, as may be seen at the present day, e.g. at
Mosul ; or, in colder places, might open on the
court with doors and windows, with or without a
covered gallery.

6. The kitchen. The kitchen itself is not men-
tioned in the NT, though the oven (Mt 6 30 ) and
kitchen utensils (Mk 7 4 ) are referred to. Yet in all
but the richer houses it is the most commonly used
part of the house, and the family ordinarily live in
it ; in some Eastern countries it is emphatically
called 'the house' as opposed to 'the rooms.' The
oven is a hole in the floor ; the fire, of dried manure,
is kindled at the bottom ; and the sides are made
of hardened clay, to which the flaps of dough adhere
until they are baked and ready to be hooked out as
bread. Other food is cooked over the fire in pots.
As there is no chimney (in our sense of the word),
the kitchen must necessarily be of one story only,
to allow of a hole in the roof for the escape of the
smoke.

7. The rooms. (a) There is not in the East, in
the ordinary houses, the distinction usually found
in the West between bedrooms and sitting-rooms.
The latter are turned into bedrooms by spreading
the bedclothes on the floor. Thus the ' bed-chamber '
(/coiTt&f, Ac 12 20 ) of which Blastus was guardian
would be unusual except in a great house such
as that of Herod.

(ft) Most houses, even of the comparatively poor,
have a fairly large room or rooms, often, but not
always, on the first floor, to entertain guests whc
come unexpectedly, for Eastern hospitality is great



588



HOUSE



HUMILITY



(see HOME). Hence we read that the upper room
(dvdryeov or ivdiyaiov or dvuye&v or dvdyaiov) of Mk
14 14t , Lk 22 uf - was large, and it is expressly called
a 'guest-chamber,' KardXv/M, i.e. a place where the
guests unpack their baggage ; it may be doubted
if icardXvfM in Lk 2* is rightly rendered ' inn,' for
this in 10 84 is called vavdoxfiov. Probably the
KardXvfM was a guest-chamber in a house where
Joseph expected to lodge, but it is a word elastic
in meaning (see A. Plummer, St. Luke 3 [ICO, 1898],
54). The upper room of the Last Supper was very
probably the place where the Ten and the rest
were assembled^ on Easter Day, and if so must have
been somewhat large, though the word used (ij0por-
ptvovs, Lk 24 s3 RV ; cf. v. 9 ) suggests crowding, just
as the compounds owrjOpourfitvoi, ffwa.6pol<ras in Ac
12 ia 19 28 suggest a large assembly. In Acts the
word used for such an upper room is inrepyov, I 13
937. 89 (Dorcas) 20 8 (at Troas). The room mentioned
in I 13 must have been large, for it held 120 people ;
and it was perhaps the same as the coenaculum of
Mk 14 14t , for it is called 'the upper room' (RV).
It has been suggested that as different words are
used, the rooms must have been different ; yet this
would not account for St. Luke's using dvwyeov in
his Gospel, and always inrepifov in Acts. It was no
doubt in such a guest-chamber on the first floor
that Jesus healed the paralytic, for it was under
the roof. (With this arrangement for an upper
room we may compare the ordinary provision in a
caravanserai of a room or rooms over the gateway
for the guests, while the stables are below, and
round the courtyard. ) Such an upper room is prob-
ably the &via in Philem M , Ac 28 23 a lodging in
a private house. In response to St. Paul's request,
Philemon would doubtless offer his own guest-
room. When the Apostle arrived in Rome he
probably at first lodged, guarded by soldiers, in
the guest-room of a friend, though afterwards he
hired a private house ((j.i<rd<ajM, Ac 28 30 ). For the
use of these guest-rooms as the first Christian
churches, see FAMILY.

(c) Besides the above rooms we read in the NT
of a ra/j-elov (better ra/ueiov) and an dirod^Kri. The
latter is a barn or granary (Mt 3 U G 26 13 30 , Lk 3 17
12 18 - 24 ). The former is properly a store-chamber
(Lk 12 24 ), and is usually used in that sense in the
LXX (Dt 28 8 , etc.). All Eastern houses have such
chambers, and for security they are usually placed
so as not to have an outside wall, but to open off
the kitchen. Hence any inner chamber used for
living in came to be so called (Mt 6 6 24 28 , Lk 12 3 ).
The Latin translations of rap^iov vary greatly
(Plummer, St. Luke 2 , 318).

8. Paving of the rooms. This is very seldom of
wood (except in Solomon's Temple, 1 K 6 15 - **, where
the wood was overlaid with gold), but, even on the
upper floors, of beaten mud, sometimes of a sort
of cement. In rich houses pavements of stone or
marble were used ; thus the Gabbatha (JLiffforpurov)
of Jn 19 18 was probably a hall paved with stone.

9. Furniture of the rooms. Very little is said
of this in the NT ; and, in truth, Eastern houses
need little furniture. Carpets (with straw mats
under them to protect them from the mud floor),
mattresses, and bedclothes are practically the only
necessaries. When we read in the NT the various
words for a ' bed ' as used for sleeping in xXLvi) (Mt
9 2 , Lk 5 18 ), KXivldw (Lk 5 19 - M ; the same as K Xlv>,,
v. 18 ), Kpdpparov (Mk 2 6 M , Jn 5 8 ) only mattresses
and bedclothes are meant. The man who rises in
the morning ' takes up his bed,' and, rolling it up
in an outer cover, places it against the wall, where
it serves as a cushion in the day-time. The same
is probably true of icXivr) in Mk 7 30 , Lk 17 34 , Rev 2 22 ,
where either sense is possible ; and of the K\ivdpia
ml cpd/3/3oro in Ac 5" (inferior MSS substitute
K\lvai for the former word), where the sick are laid



in the streets. On the other hand, the low couches
(K\lt>ai, triclinia, rpiicXivia. [the last not in the NT])
used for meals are clearly articles of furniture in
Mk 4 21 7 4 (here a ' Western ' addition, but it may
be genuine), Lk 8 16 ; for a lamp may be put under
them (cf. dpxiTplicXtvos, Jn 2 8 ). On these couches
the people reclined ; hence dvdei/uat is ' to sit at
meat' (Mt 9 10 , etc.), and the guests are dvaKel/j^vot
(Mt 22 10 ). It seems doubtful if bedsteads are evei
mentioned in the NT ; see, further, art. BED,
COUCH. The ' candlestick ' or lamp-stand (Xvxvla)
mentioned in the above passages is also a piece oi
furniture, set in the middle of the room to hold
the light. Chairs and tables are not much used
by non-westernized Orientals to this day ; but
sometimes a low stand is placed on the floor to hold
food at meals, though more often the meats are
placed on a tablecloth on the ground. Thus ' table '
in the Bible does not usually denote an article of
furniture, except in the case of the money-changers
in Mt 21 12 , Mk II 15 , Jn 2 15 , where a house is not
being spoken of. The throne (prj/j.a), of a king is
mentioned in Ac 12 21 , and figuratively the dp&vos of
God and the Opbvoi of angels or men (Mt 19 28 , Rev
20 4 , etc. ) are spoken of ; but ordinary people sat,
as they still sit in the true East, on the ground, 01
on cushions, though chairs or seats (KaOtdpat) were
not unknown (Mt 21 12 , Mk II 15 ).

LITERATURE. C. Warren in HDB ii. 431, art. 'House
(especially for the OT) ; A. J. Maclean and W. H. Browne,
The Catholicos of the East and his People, London, 1892 ; A. H.
Layard, Nineveh and its Remains, do. 1849, especially pt. L
ch. vL and vii., pt ii. oh. ii. A. J. MACLEAN.

HUMILITY (raireivotppoffvrri). 1. In the OT.

The word is common in the NT, but, according
to Lightfoot (Pfiilippians*, 1878, p. 109), does not
occur earlier. ' Even the adjective Taireii>6(ppwv and
the verb Ta.Treivo<j>poveiv, though occurring once each
in the LXX (Pr 29 23 , Ps 130 2 ), appear not to be
found in classical Greek before the Christian era.'
Moreover, in heathen writers Tmreivds has almost
invariably a bad meaning : it signifies ' grovelling,'
' abject.'

' It was one great result of the life of Christ,' says Lightfoot
(toe. tit.), ' to raise " humility " to its proper level ; and, if not
fresh coined for this purpose, the word Tcarti.vo<t>pocruvri now
first became current through the influence of Christian ethics.'

All the same, it is to be recognized that the virtue
of humility is greatly commended in the OT, and
its place in the Christian ethic can only be properly
understood when we remember this. Especially
in the Psalms and Proverbs and some of the
Prophets is the value of humility recognized, and
the NT writers sometimes enforce what they have
to say on the subject by a quotation from the OT
(cf., for instance, Pr 3 s4 , Ja 4 6 ).

2. In the NT. The value of humility was a chief
point in the teaching of Jesus Himself, and the
apostolic writers follow Him in their estimate of
it. The root of humility, as it is described in the
NT, is a true estimate of oneself as in the sight
of God. It presupposes, therefore, a knowledge of
our weakness. ' Recognizing this, man ceases to
hold himself of great account, and therefore easily
believes that others are more excellent than him-
self, nor takes it amiss that they are preferred
before him ' ( J. F. Buddeus, Institutions Theologies
Moralis, Leipzig, ed. 1727, p. 141).

Above all, however, the recognition of one's
position in the sight of God leads to humility
towards Him. Before Him no one can boast
(1 Co 4 6 ) ; whatever merit one possesses rests upon
the Divine grace (1 Co 4 7 ). ' He is humble before
God, who attributes nothing to himself, or to hi
own strength, and regards himself as simply un-
worthy of all Divine benefits' (Buddeus, loc. cit. ;
cf. 1 P 5 6 , Ja 4 18 , Ac 2 20 ).



HUMILITY



HYMEN^EUS



589



But, as has been already indicated, humility is
also to be exercised towards our fellow-men. St.
Paul and St. Peter alike enforce the need of such
humility (Ph 2 s - 6 , Col 3 12 ; cf. 1 Co 13 4 , 1 P 5 s ).
St. Paul, moreover, adduces as the great example
of such humility the humility of Christ in the
Incarnation, in that He laid aside the form of God,
and took upon Him that of a servant, becoming
obedient to death, even the Death of the Cross
(Ph 2 5 " 8 ). It is not necessary here, in simply treat-
ing of the virtue of humility in the apostolic writ-
ings, to go on to discuss the Kenosis, on which so
much has been said and written ; but it may
perhaps fitly be pointed out how this instance of
the Lord's humility in the Incarnation has been
made use of in Catholic Christianity from A ugustine
onwards. Pride, according to St. Augustine, is the
root of all sins ; therefore to cure it God wrought
in the Incarnation by introducing into humanity
the antidote of humility. The humility of Christ
is the cure of man's pride. By St. Francis of
Assisi this humility of Jesus was connected closely
with the thought of His earthly privations ; and
thus was struck the key-note of the peculiar
mediaeval piety of the imitation of the lowly Jesus.

3. In the Apostolic Fathers. Among the sub-
apostolic writings outside the NT, 1 Clem, stands
out because of its particular emphasis on humility.
It may indeed almost be regarded as a sermon on
humility, with many instances, examples, and
exhortations. The emphasis on this particular
virtue follows naturally from the situation at
Corinth, which the Epistle of the Roman Church
through Clement is intended to deal with. A
contention has taken place in the Church, in which
two parties are involved. The majority of the
community are on the one side, led by a few head-
strong and self-willed persons (I 1 ). On the other
side are the officers of the Church, the presbyters,
with very little support in the Church. During
the conflict some presbyters have actually been
deposed by the Church (44 6 ). The Epistle of the
Roman Church, indited by Clement, is intended
to bring about the submission of the Church to
its presbyters, and so restore unity. No wonder
then that such stress is laid on the virtue of
humility. What is aimed at is to produce a proper
submission to constituted authority in place of the
present sedition against it. To quote the passages
on humility would occupy too much space, ra-jreivos
occurs in xxx. 2, Iv. 6, lix. 3 ; raireivo<j>povtu in ii. 1,
xiii. 1, 3, xvi. 1 f., 17, xvii. 2, xxx. 3, xxxviii. 2, Ixii.
2 ; Taireivo<j>poff\jvi] in xxi. 8, xxx. 8, xxxi. 4, xliv. 3, IvL
1, Iviii. 2 ; ra.irei.v6<t>ptav in xix. 1 ; raireivbia in xviii.
8, 17, lix. 3 ; and rairelvuffis in xvi. 7, liii. 2, Iv. 6.
Two passages will give an idea of the general drift
of the exhortation and argument on the point of
humility. ' Let us therefore be lowly-minded,
brethren, laying aside all arrogance and conceit
and folly and anger, and let us do that which is
written. For the Holy Ghost saith, Let not the
wise man boast in his wisdom, nor the strong in
his strength, neither the rich in his riches ; but
he that boasteth, let him boast in the Lord, that
he may seek Him out, and do judgment and
righteousness ' (xiii. 1 [Lightfoot's tr.]). ' For
Christ is with them that are lowly of mind, not
with them that exalt themselves over the flock.
The sceptre [of the majesty] of God, even our Lord
Jesus Christ, came not in the pomp of arrogance
or of pride, though He might have done so, but in
lowliness of mind, according as the Holy Spirit
spake concerning Him [here are quoted Is 53 1 ' 13
and Ps 22 s - 8 ]. Ye see, dearly beloved, what is the
pattern that hath been given unto us ;"for if the
Lord was thus lowly of mind, what should we do,
who through Him have been brought under the
yoke of His grace' (ib. xvi. 1, 2, 17).



The Epistle of Barnabas also commends humility :
it is a point in the way of light (xix. 3). Cf. also
Ign. Smyrn. vi. 1, ' Let no one's position puff him
up ; for faith and love are everything, of which
things nothing takes precedence.' Cf. yet again
Hermes, Mand. xi. 3, where humility appears as
the mark of the true prophet, by which he may be
surely known from all false prophets.

4. St. Paul and false humility. In conclusion,
mention must be made of St. Paul's condemnation
of a false humility in Col 2 18<2S . Certain false
teachers had appeared at Colossae, who maintained
that a perfection beyond that attainable by ordinary
Christians could be realized only by a yvuvis, which
paid special worship to the angelic powers, and
reverenced the particular ordinances enjoined by
them. ' Amongst these ordinances were Jewish
circumcision and the observance of Jewish feast-
days, new moons and sabbaths. We may remember
that Paul himself in Gal. (3 19 4 s - 8 ' 10 ) regards the
Jewish ceremonies as ordinances of the angels of
the Jewish law. But it was not merely the
Jewish law which was observed by the Colossian
teachers ; they added other precepts of their own
of an ascetic character by the observance of which
especially communion with the angels might be
attained. The idea is that, as the angels are above
this world, so the ascetic, by cutting himself off
from the things of the world, draws near to the



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