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xc. 38.

But the Death and Resurrection of Christ as
historical facts are the decisive elements which St.
Paul lays hold of and works out in their relation
to the Kingdom of God, making new combinations
of old ideas, throwing fresh light on the purpose
of God, and filling the old categories of thought
with a new vital force. No apocalyptic scheme
offered any such conception as the Death and
Resurrection of Messiah, and the acceptance by
St. Paul of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus
as historical facts, together with his identification
of Jesus with the Messiah, set a train of thought
working in his mind which yielded entirely new
forms, not to be explained by any patch-work of
older elements to be found in them. There are
certain essential points of St. Paul's scheme of
things which were never grasped by the Apologists
and the early interpreters of Apostolic Christianity.
This was partly because the eschatological element
was not understood, and perhaps still more because
St. Paul's attitude towards the human side of the
Incarnation was not understood. The side upon
which Irenseus lays stress, the answer to the
question Cur Dens Homo? was fully grasped and
developed, viz. the ' deification ' of man through
the Incarnation of the Son of God. But owing to
the rise of christological controversies the emphasis
laid by St. Paul and the primitive Church on the
ethical value of the Resurrection of Christ and its
implications dropped out of sight.

(a) First of all, then, for St. Paul the Resurrec-
tion of Christ has an ethical value which is of
great importance in his view of the future life of
believers. The Resurrection of Christ was not a
foregone conclusion resulting from His Divinity,
but it was intimately connected with Christ's faith
and holiness as man. His Resurrection was ac-
cording to the Spirit of holiness ; He was raised
from the dead by the glory of the Father. In His
Resurrection the full working of the law of the
Spirit of life was displayed. 'He lives to God.'
The word ' glory ' which St. Paul .uses to describe




the present state of the risen Christ as well as His
future manifestation has both an ethical and a
quasi-material significance. The full moral like-
ness to God which Christ displayed has its counter-
part in His present state of existence, ' the glory of
God in the face (4v Trpocruirtp, possibly better rendered
4 in the person ' [cf. 2 Co 2 10 ]) of Jesus Christ.'

(b) This resurrection state of Christ is spiritual.
The historic Christ retaining His moral character-
istics has passed into a spiritual condition, by
the operation of a law made manifest for the first
time in His case. Christ is identified with the
Spirit. He is no longer limited in manifestation
by time and space, but can dwell in those who re-
ceive Him by faith. It is the real Christ that
St. Paul conceives of as dwelling in believers and
thereby bringing into operation in them the same
law that resulted in His own Resurrection and
victory over ' the law of sin and death.'

(c) The ultimate result of this indwelling of
the Spirit of Christ is to assert the complete
triumph of life over death even in the bodies of
believers (Ro 8 11 ). The full manifestation of this
life will bring deliverance for creation (v. 21 ) from
the bondage of corruption ((/>0opd). For St. Paul,
then, immortality is not dOavaffta, but d(p0ap<ria.
It is an integral part of the triumph of the King-
dom of God, beginning with the Resurrection of
Christ (1 Co Iff"*: dirapxi) Xpi<rr6s).

(3) The corporate nature of the future life.
The last point that comes out from the study of
St. Paul's teaching on this subject is the corporate
nature of the future existence, in strong contrast
to the immortality presented by Plotinus and the
later Neo-Platonists an immortality of ' the Alone
with the Alone.' The indwelling Spirit of Christ
is the ground of unity, as well as the assurance of
immortality ; the future life of bliss is the life of
a blessed community of glorified persons, united
to Christ and like Him morally and spiritually,
finding their joy in the activities of eternal life,
doing the will of God.

The Pauline view of the subject is also bound up with the
Parousia and with the closely allied subject of the resurrection
of believers. Hence the reader is referred to the articles on
these subjects in this Dictionary for supplementary discussion
of the Pauline teaching.

2. Petrine and other primitive teaching. For

the sake of convenience, the general teaching of
the Catholic Epistles and the Pastorals is taken
together with the Petrine doctrine of immortality.
The doctrine of 1 Peter may be said to represent
the general standpoint of the primitive Apostolic
Church on this matter, while the Pauline and the
Johannine teaching contain developments which
profoundly affected the thought of the Church but
which were never wholly understood and accepted.

(1) The First Epistle of Peter shows the same
eschatological background that we find in St.
Paul and everywhere in the primitive Church,
and the same view of the ethical value of the
Resurrection of Christ : ' who through him are be-
lievers in God, which raised him from the dead,
and gave him glory ; so that your faith and hope
might be in God' (1 P I 21 ).

But there is nothing of the extraordinary
development of the consequences of the Resurrec-
tion-life of Christ in the Spirit, and the resultant
view of the Kingdom as already manifested in its
working. The most important passage for our
purpose is 1 P 3 18 ' 20 , the 'Descent into Hell' of
the Creeds.

Eendel Harris (Side-lights on NT Research, 1908, p. 208) has
proposed the emendation tv u icai "Evia\ on the supposition
that "Ev&x has dropped out by haplography, and would refer
the passage to a reminiscence of the visit of Enoch to the con-
demned watchers and his intercession for them (see Enoch xii.,
xiii.). But the interruption to the general sense of the passage
is too serious, except on a very low estimate of the logical
VOL. I. 39

sequence of thought in the Epistle, to admit of the probability
of this ingenious suggestion.

If the passage be interpreted to refer to the visit
of Christ to the souls in Sheol during the interval
between His Death and His Resurrection, then
this is the only NT passage which supports such
a conception, and it is a possible view that the
Christian interpretation of the passage has been
influenced by the strong belief which grew up in
the primitive Church in the descent of Christ to
Hades. But the passage requires fuller treatment
than space allows of here (see, further, art. DE-
SCENT INTO HADES). If the credal interpretation
be accepted, the passage is evidence rather for an
intermediate state than for any clearly defined
doctrine of the immortality of the soul. It does
not necessarily imply more than is implied in the
later Jewish view of Sheol. Still more perplexing
is 4 6 , if the same interpretation be attached to it.
But it is possible to interpret both passages of the
preaching of Noah to those who though dead now,
were alive at the time when the Spirit of Christ
in Noah preached to them. Then the last clause
of 4 6 may be evidence for the future state of the
condemned. After judgment they continue to
live in spirit in relation to God. Apart from
this the writer's attention is fixed on the coming
' glory,' ' the crown of glory,' to be revealed at the

(2) Hebrews. The author of the Epistle to the
Hebrews retains the eschatological background
common to the early Church, but adds to our in-
quiry one important new conception that which
is implied in the term TereXetw/^i'os. Christ in His
present risen state is spoken of as TereXetw/t^os
(T 28 ) ; the spirits in the heavenly Jerusalem are
called the spirits of ' the perfected righteous,'
dmalw rere\eiu^vuv (12 23 ; cf. also 5 9 II 40 , Lk 13 32 ).
It is difficult to find the Pauline conception of a
glorified body here. It would rather seem to
present the Alexandrian Judaistic point of view
that the righteous immediately after death reach
their perfected state of bliss in full communion
with God. The writer undoubtedly believes in
the Resurrection of Christ and also in the ethical
aspect of it already mentioned, but he does not
seem to carry on, as St. Paul does, the conse-
quences of this to the bodily resurrection of be-
lievers. But he clearly looks forward to a <ra/3/Jar-
r/Js for the people of God, a heavenly city, and
a corporate immortality, all based upon the pre-
sent risen life of Christ.

(3) The Pastoral Epistles add one or two points.
The dogmatic conception of abstract immortality
what Friedrich von Hiigel (Eternal Life) calls
4 quantitative immortality ' perhaps appears in
1 Ti 6 16 : 6 jj.6vos fywv ddavaaLav. In 4 8 a sharp dis-
tinction is drawn between 'the life that now is
and that which is to come,' a sign of the passing of
the eschatological form of the distinction between
'the present age' and 'the coming age.' The
rich are charged to lay hold on what is truly life
(TTJS oVrws fwTjs, 6 19 ).

In 2 Ti I 1 we have the Pauline conception, 'the
promise of life which is in Christ Jesus ' ; 2 11 , ' if
we suffer with him we shall reign with him ' ; 4 1 ,
living and dead are to be judged by Christ at His
appearing ; 4 18 , ' shall save me unto his heavenly
kingdom.' But the two most characteristic pas-
sages in this Epistle are I 10 , where our Saviour
Jesus Christ has annulled death and brought life
and immortality (d<j>9ap<rlai>) to light, through the
gospel ; and 2 10 , where speaking of ' the elect ' the
writer says ' that they too may obtain the salva-
tion that is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory.'
Tit I 1 "* echoes the phrase of 2 Ti I 1 , the hope
of eternal life, still reflecting the eschatological
colouring. In Tit 2 ]2 ~ 18 4 the present age ' is con-




fcrasted with ' the appearing of the glory of the
great God and our Saviour Christ Jesus,' also
spoken of as ' the blessed hope ' ; in 3* a - the bath of
regeneration (iraXivyeveffia.) and the renewing of the
Holy Ghost are connected with righteousness and
the hope of eternal life after the Pauline manner.

3. Johannine. The three groups of Johannine
literature are here treated separately.

(1) The Apocalypse. The phrase which is so
characteristic of the Fourth Gospel, ' eternal life,'
does not occur in the Apocalypse. For our subject
we have the following passages : 2 n , the overcomer
' shall not be hurt of the second death ' ; 3 5 , the
overcomer's name will not be blotted out of the
book of life. In 4 4 the ' elders' (who may possibly
represent those who have attained the 'elders'
of He 11) are seen in the symbolic garb of victors.
In 6 9 the souls of the martyrs are seen under the
altar, crying for vengeance. In 7 13 " 17 there is a
description of those who have come out of great
tribulation and who enjoy perpetual bliss before
the throne of God. In 20 4 those who are slain
during the great tribulation are raised for the
millennial kingdom, and reign with Christ for a
thousand years. 20* adds ' the rest of the dead
lived not again until the thousand years were
ended.' Then in 20 11 ' 18 ' the dead small and great,'
i.e. apparently ' the rest of the dead,' are raised
and judged according to their works, and all not
found written in the Book of Life are cast into the
Lake of Fire.

Here again the eschatological interest is para-
mount. The future existence of individuals is not
a question of psychological or philosophical interest,
but is determined by the view of the future King-
dom of God. Hence ' quantitative immortality '
does not appear. The righteous receive the reward
of their works and patience, and enter on a blessing
which appears to extend beyond the millennial
kingdom, and at any rate reaches its climax there.
The writer is not so interested in anything after
that. But the future fate of the wicked is indeter-
minate. The view taken as to this depends upon
our interpretation of the writer's symbolism.
The fire may be destructive, purgative, or penal.
The torment of the beast and the false prophet is
spoken of, but the final end of the wicked is not ex-
plicitly stated. They are cast into the Lake of Fire.

(2) The Epistles. In the Johannine Epistles the
Parousia still forms the background of Christian
hope, but the precise form of the hope is vague, and
shows signs of transformation into a purely spiritual
expectation. The contribution of the Epistles
belongs rather to the subject of the Parousia
(q.v.). The term 'eternal life 'occurs frequently,
but never with the eschatological sense in which it
is used in St. Paul's Epistles and the Pastorals.
But the profound ethical implication of likeness to
God and to Christ fills the term with a new mean-
ing. 'The life of the coming age,' the original
sense of the term afy ';n, has become the life of
God, expressed in Christ, imparted to the believer,
working itself out in moral likeness to God, and
perfected when Christ appears. He who dwells
in God and God in him can never die, and he who
loves dwells in God, and partakes of God's eternal
life. Immortality is 'qualitative' wholly here,
with no thought of duration.

(3) The Fourth Gospel. Here the transformation
of the eschatological background is practically
complete. Subsequent developments really con-
sisted, not in a deeper and richer spiritualization
of the eschatological view-point, with all its
stimulus and insistent pressure of the real world
surrounding and penetrating the phenomenal world,
l)ut in the total abandonment of eschatology and
consequent impoverishment of the Church's life.
But in the Fourth Gospel the intensity and reality

of the hope are retained, while the particular
Jewish colouring and schemes of thought are
quietly dropped, with a few exceptions.

In this Gospel 'eternal life' is the principal
category under which the subject of immortality
falls to be considered. The most important group
of passages is in the 6th chapter. Here our Lord,
after the miracle of the loaves, and evidently, in
the mind of the author of the Gospel, explaining
the significance of the miracle, claims that He is
the living bread come down from heaven. Those
who eat of this bread live for ever. Continuing to
explain the saying, our Lord adds that the bread is
His flesh and His blood, and that he who eats the
flesh and drinks the blood of the Son of Man has
eternal life, and will be raised by Christ at the
last day. Again, ' he that eateth this bread shall
live for ever. It is possible that we must accept
the predestinarianism of vv. 36 ' 37 as part of the older
eschatological colouring. But evidently a difficult
point is involved here. Schweitzer would explain
the passage as the expression of 'a speculative
religious materialism which concerns itself with
the problem of matter and spirit, and the per-
meation of matter by Spirit, and endeavours to
interpret the manifestation and the personality of
Jesus, the action of the sacraments and the possi-
bility of the resurrection of the elect, all on the
basis of one and the same fundamental conception '
(Paul and his Interpreters, p. 202 f.). That is,
broadly speaking, the immortality described in the
Fourth Gospel is sacramental, conditioned entirely
by participation in the sacraments which, through
the communication to them of the Spirit of the
Risen Christ, have received this potency.

Like so much of Schweitzer's exegesis, this is
brilliant and stimulating, but not wholly sound.
Throughout the Gospel the possession of eternal life
is independent of sacraments and connected simply
with faith in Christ: 'he that believeth on me
hath everlasting life,' 'he that believeth on me,
though he were dead, yet shall he live, and he that
liveth and believeth on me shall never die.' The
charge of 'unintelligent spiritualizing' is hasty
and unfounded. As in the Synoptic Gospels, so
also in the Fourth Gospel, Schweitzer has not
recognized the peculiar ethical element which is
the real basis of the primitive Church's view of the
Resurrection of Christ, and of the resurrection and
future state of believers.

So in the Fourth Gospel the immortality implied
is at bottom ethical ; it is the life of God which
Christ is in Himself and has come to earth to
reveal, and in order to impart it in its fullness He
must enter upon the spiritual state. It is expedient
for them that He should go away. After His
departure they will know that He is in the Father,
they in Him, and He in them.

Hence, while in St. Paul we have the eagei
movement of the new life towards its glorious
consummation, in the Fourth Gospel we have
rather the steady contemplation of the fully
revealed nature of the life of God in this world
now. In both cases all the interest is centred on
the purpose of God in its realization, rather than
on the individual man and his ultimate fate. So
that we have the appearance of the conditional
immortality which is found in Athanasius, really
only apparent, because the nature of immortality
as a dogma was not in question, but the wider
issue of the coming in of the Kingdom of God. In
the Fourth Gospel we have also the corporate
nature of the life insisted on. In St. Paul, spirit,
soul, and body are to be preserved to the day of
Christ ; there is no immortality of the soul con-
ceived of as a mere abstraction, but the eternal
gain for the Kingdom of God of a person, whole
and entire. In the Fourth Gospel there is not the




same prominence given to the resurrection of the
body, but ultimately the body of him who possesses
the life of God must pass under the law of eternal
life, although the author of the Fourth Gospel
never states the expectation in the same way ; it
is not ' your mortal bodies,' but ' I will raise him
up.' The incident of the grave clothes also shows
that the writers conception of the Resurrection
was purely spiritual : the Lord had become a Spirit,
although capable of revealing His continued
personal existence to His disciples. So for the
Fourth Gospel the ultimate thing also is the gain
of the individual : ' no man is able to pluck them
out of my Father's hand.'

4. The Apostolic Fathers. Here we have much
less of vital importance. The creative impulse has
died away, and we can trace the process, already
mentioned, of the gradual abandonment of much
that was most characteristic of the teaching of St.
Paul. Ignatius offers the closest affinities with the
point of view of the Fourth Gospel, as is well
enough known. The following are the principal
relevant passages :

(1) 1 Clement. The principal passage in this
Epistle is in chs. xxiv.-xxvi. The future resur-
rection is based on the Resurrection of Christ, and
the simile of the seed is used. Ch. xxvi. seems to
limit the resurrection to the faithful, ' those who
served Him in holiness, in the confidence of a good
faith.' Those who have died as martyrs or in the
faith are spoken of as having obtained the inherit-
ance of glory and honour (cf. v. 3, 7, xlv. 7). In
1. 3 ' those who were perfected in love by the grace
of God have a place among the pious who shall be
made manifest at the visitation of the Kingdom of

(2) 2 Clement has several interesting passages :
v. 5, ' our sojourning in this world in the flesh is a
little thing and lasts a short time, but the promise
of Christ is great and wonderful, and brings us
rest, in the kingdom which is to come, and in
everlasting life.' In vi. 7 rest is contrasted with
eternal punishment (alwvtov xoAdtrews). The future
existence depends on the keeping of the baptism
undefiled ; the first occurrence of this conception
is in vi. 9, vii. 6, viii. 6. In ch. ix. there is the
assertion of the resurrection of the flesh to judg-
ment, based on the Incarnation and not on the Re-
surrection of Christ. Ch. xii. contains the curious
Agi'aphon possibly from the Gospel of the Egyp-
tians, ' When the two shall be one, and the outside
as the inside, and the male with the female, neither
male nor female.' It is interpreted by the author
as referring to the moral perfection and asceticism
suited to the kingdom.

In xiv. 5 we have an important passage. After
a somewhat strained analogy of the flesh as the
Church, referring to the Church as pre-existent and
possessing the Spirit, the author says : ' So great
a gift of life and immortality (adavaa-iav) has this
flesh the power to receive ii the Holy Spirit be
joined to it.' In xix. 3, 4 we have a statement of
immortality in fairly quantitative terms, and the
expression ' the immortal fruit of the resurrection*
(rbv dOdvarov rrjs dvaffrdo-eus Kapirbv). In xx. 5 Christ
is the Saviour and Leader of immortality

(3) Ignatius. We owe to Ignatius the famous
phrase ' the medicine of immortality,' <pdpfjutKov
d0ava<rlas (Eph. xx. 2), which is so often repeated
by later patristic writers. Ignatius frequently uses
the word 'immortality,' but as frequently shows
that his conception is ethical qualitative, not
quantitative. What he seeks is not mere duration
of bliss, but true life (rb d\i)6ivbv rjv, xi. 1). Faith
and love constitute this true life, the life of God
(xiv. 1). Christ has breathed immortality on the
Church (d<t>0apfflav, xvii. 1). At the Incarnation

' God was manifest as Man, for the newness of
eternal life ' (fis KaivonjTa. didiov farjs), a reminiscence
of Ro 6 4 , but dtdiov is never used of life in the NT.
In xx. 2 it is the Sacrament, the bread, which is
the medicine of immortality.

Other passages are Magn. i. 2, ix. 2 : a reference
to the Descensus ; Trail, ii. 1, ix. 2 ; Rom. vi. 2 ;
Phil. ix. 2 : the gospel is ' the perfecting of im-
mortality ' (dwdpTiff/j-a d<f>dapfflas) ; Smyrn. xii. 2,
' resurrection both fleshly and spiritual ' ; ad
Polyc. ii. 3, ' the prize is immortality and eternal

The remaining literature of our period adds
nothing of importance.

III. CONCLUSION. The principal trend of the
teaching of the NT lies mainly along the lines laid
down by our Lord, and expanded by the original
thinking of St. Paul and St. John, if we may
assume a name for the author of the Fourth Gospel
for convenience' sake. The expansion followed lines
which were principally determined by the accept-
ance of the Resurrection of Christ as a historical
fact. The emphasis thus lies on the value of com-
plete personality brought into the sphere of the
operation of the Kingdom of God. Those opera-
tions take on the form of eschatological expecta-
tions, but express fundamental and eternal realities
of religion. The pale and thin conception of mere
duration of existence is of no interest to the apos-
tolic writers. It was of fundamental importance
to possess true life, the life of God ; and as the
meaning of the Incarnation was explored, the con-
ception of eternal life grew in depth and breadth
and height.

LITERATUKE. Sanday-Headlam, Romans* (ICC, 1902);
Robertson-Plummer, Corinthian* (ICC, 1911) ; J. Armitage
Robinson, Ephesians, 1903; F. J. A. Hort, 1 Peter, 1898;
B. F. Westcott, St. John, 2 vols., 1908, and The Epistles of
St. John, 1883 ; H. B. Swete, The Apocalypse*, 1907. See also
A. Sabatier, The Apostle Paul, Eng. tr., 1891 ; P. Gardner,
The Religious Experience of St. Paul, 1911 ; A. Schweitzer,
Paul and his Interpreters, Eng. tr., 1912 ; E. Underbill, The
Mystic Way, 1913 ; F. von Hiigel, Eternal Life, 1912 ; S. D. F.
Salmond, The Christian Doctrine of Immortality*, 1901 ; E. F.
Scott, The Kingdom and the Messiah, 1911, also The Fourtk
Gospel, 1906 ; W. Sanday, Christologies, Ancient and Modern,
1910; C. Bigg-, The Christian Platonifts of Alexandria, rep.
1913; J. B. Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers, 1891; J.
Drummond, Philo Judceus, 2 vols., 1888; H. J. Holtzmann,
NT Theologie,Zvols.,19n; A. Harnack, History of Dogma,
Eng. tr. 3 , 7 vols., 1894-99, also The Mission and Expansion of
Christianity, Eng. tr. 2 , 2 vols., 1908 ; R. H. Charles, Eschato-
logy Hebrew, Jewish and Christian, 1899 ; G. Dalman, The
Words of Jesus, Eng. tr., 1902 ; F. Cumont, The Oriental
Religions in Roman Paganism, 1911 ; S. Reinach, Orpheut,
Eng. tr., 1909. S. H. H.OOKE.


INCENSE (evftlafta, generally plural). The burn-
ing of aromatic substances on the altar of incense
was part of the daily Temple-ritual, and the office
for each occasion was assigned by lot to a priest
who had never before enjoyed the honour. The

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