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and we find ' Jew ' to be the designation usually
applied by foreigners to members of the Chosen

In the NT the term is found applied to those who
belonged to the ancient race in contrast with
various other groups or classes of men. The Jews
themselves divided the whole world into Jews and
Gentiles ; and we find the Apostle Paul using this
contrast in speaking of God's judgment on sin :
4 tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man

VOL. I. 41

that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the
Gentile' (Ro 2 9 ). Again the term is used in con-
trasting Jews and Samaritans (Jn 4 9 ), the latter
being descended from the mixed race of ancient
Israelites and the settlers introduced by the As-
syrian conquerors (cf. 2 K 17 24 ' 41 ).

The Jew is also contrasted with the proselyte
who was a Jew by his adopted religious beliefs,
but not by birth (Ac 2 10 ). In the Fourth Gospel
we find the term 'Jews' applied to those who
opposed the teaching of Jesus, as contrasted with
believers in Christ, whatever their nationality
might be ; but generally the Jewish rulers seem to
be indicated by the name in this Gospel. Thus
' the Jews ' censure the man for carrying his bed
on the Sabbath (5 10 ), and contend with the man
born blind (9 22 ). Perhaps this usage of the Fourth
Gospel arose from the influence of later times,
when the Jews, and especially the Jewish authori-
ties, were bitterly opposed to the teaching, of
Jesus. In the other parts of the NT the term is
never used in contrast with believers in Christ.
Thus in Gal 2 1 * ' the Jews ' are the Christians of
Jewish race. In the Epistle to the Romans (2 28> 2*)
we find a distinction made between a Jew who is
such outwardly and a Jew who is such inwardly.
Here, as also in Ro 3 1 , the Apostle uses the term
' Jew,' where we should naturally expect to find
' Israelite,' to designate a member of the Chosen
People as a recipient of special Divine favour.
Some who belong to the Jewish race are not spirit-
ually partakers of the blessings which attach to it.
In the passage where the writer of the Apocalypse
(2 s 3 9 ) speaks of those ' who say they are Jews, and
are not, but are the synagogue of Satan,' he may
be referring to men who made a false claim to
belong to the Jewish nation, or to Jews by race
who were far from belonging to the true Israel of

One of the most remarkable features in con-
nexion with the Jews in the apostolic times was
their world-wide dispersion. From Spain in the
West to the Persian Gulf in the East Jews had
settled in every large city. Their exclusive re-
ligion and their contempt of the heathen kept
them together as a community within the larger
population where they found a home, and their
capacity for commerce often enabled them to be-
come extremely wealthy. Their exclusiveness and
the commercial dishonesty of many of them led to
their being hated by the common people, while
their wealth made them exceedingly useful to
rulers and princes, who thus were induced to pro-
tect them. The Dispersion was one of the most
important factors in the spread of the Christian
faith in apostolic and sub-apostolic times. Wher-
ever the apostolic missionaries went, they found a
Jewish synagogue, where they had access not
merely to the Jewish population, but to the more
earnest among the heathen who had been attracted
by the monotheism and the moral characteristics
of Judaism, and who often formed the nucleus of a
Christian Church. The Jewish religion was toler-
ated in the Roman Empire, being regarded as a
religio licita ; and, so long as Christianity grew up
and flourished in the shelter of the synagogue, it
too might be regarded as enjoying the same toler-
ation. This fact no doubt enabled the new faith
to secure a footing in these early days. In the
Acts of the Apostles we see how the Roman pro-
consul Gallic (18 12 ~ 17 ) simply regards Christianity
as an insignificant variation of Judaism, and the
same view is taken by King Agrippa (26 3 -), as well
as by the town-clerk of Ephesus (19 37 ). The
author of the Acts is careful to state these favour-
able opinions of officials. Probably, however, the
popular hatred of the Jews, which was always
smouldering and ready to burst forth at any




moment among the excitable populace, was one
of the first causes of Christian persecution, as it
took some considerable time before Christianity
was fully recognized as an independent religion.
The Jews themselves became the most persistent
and implacable persecutors of the Christians.
They were ever ready to stir up the disaffected
people and divert attention from themselves by
turning it on the adherents of the new faith.
Probably the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by
Claudius (Ac 18 2 ) was the result of dissensions re-

farding the new religion, which had sprung from
udaism and threatened to overwhelm it. The
reference of Suetonius (Claudius, 25) to Chrestus,
which is probably a mistake for Christus, seems to
favour this idea, although various views have been
taken of the passage (cf. R. J. Knowling, EGT,
1 Acts,' p. 384 f.).

In Rome, as well as in many other cities of the
Empire, Jews obtained considerable influence, in
spite of the popular aversion to them. Their
wealth opened many doors which otherwise would
have remained shut against them. Jews, and
especially Jewesses, were to be found in many
prominent Roman families, and intermarriage
between Jewish women and Gentiles was by no
means uncommon. Thus Eunice, the mother of
Timothy (Ac 16 1 ), was a Jewess who had married
a Greek, while Drusilla, the wife of Felix the
governor of Syria (Ac 24^), is also described as a
Jewess. In both references the word simply implies
that the women belonged to the ancient race of
Israel, without any thought of the particular tribe
from which they may have claimed descent.

LITERATURE. H. H. Milman, History of the Jews 3 , 1863 ; J.
J. I. Dailinger, Heidenthum und Judenthum, 1857 ; O. Holtz-
mann, NTZG, 1895 ; E. Schurer, GJV*, 1901-11 ; A. Harnack,
Mission und AusbreitungZ, 1906 ; A. Berliner, Geschichte der
Juden in Rom, 1893 ; W. M. Ramsay, The Church in the
Roman Empire, 1893, St. Paid the Traveller, 1895 ; R. J. Know-
ling, EGT, ' Acts,' 1900, M. Dods, EGT, ' The Gospel of St.
John,' 1897 ; Sanday-Headlam, Romans* (ICC, 1902) ; artt. in
H DB and EBi. W. F. BOYD.

JEZEBEL. Jezebel is referred to in the NT in
Rev 2 20 : 'I have somewhat against thee, because
thou dost tolerate the woman Jezebel who calleth
herself a prophetess, and teacheth my servants to
commit fornication and to eat of things offered
to idols and leadeth them astray.' [Some MSS,
KCP and about 10 minuscules, insert trov after
ywalica., so as to give the sense ' thy wife,' but the
a-ov is placed in the margin by WH and rejected
by Nestle. It probably reflects some copyist's
view that the 'angel* of the Church was its
bishop.] The passage goes on to say that her
misdoing was of some standing, that the woman
gave no sign of amending her ways, and that
therefore she and her companions in sin would be
cast into a bed, or triclinium, defined as great
affliction, while her children would be smitten
with death. One result of this punishment would
be that all the Churches would recognize Jesus as
the Searcher of the thoughts and wills. Further,
this Jezebel taught what she and her followers
called ' the deep things,' to ' which the author
sardonically adds 'of Satan.'

It is fairly clear from these hints what ' Jezebel '
stands for. In the first place, the opprobrious
term may mark an actual prophetess. For Thya-
tira possessed a temple of Artemis and a temple
of a local hero Tyrimnus taken over by Apollo,
while outside the city was the cell of an Eastern
Sibyl known as Sambethe (CIG 3509: Fabius
Zosimus set up a burial-place for himself and his
sweetest wife Anrelia Pontiana in a vacant place
in front of the city in the neighbourhood or quarter
where was a fane of the Chaldsean Sambethe [vol.
ii, p. 840]. The date is probably about A.D. 120).

Though it is not at all probable that by Jezebel
this Sibyl could be aimed at, seeing that the ob-
noxious teacher was within the Thyatiran Church,
yet it is not improbable that a Chaldsean prophet-
ess outside might stimulate a Christian prophetess
inside the Church. It is of course always possible
that Jezebel is not a personal name at all, but a
scornful designation of a Gnostic group inside the
Christian community at Thyatira, whose action
and doctrine the author regarded as being like
those of the OT Jezebel-religion, in that it tended
to seduce its followers from the 'form of sound

One characteristic of the civic life of Thyatira
was to be found in the gilds into which the bakers,
potters, weavers, and artificers in general were
grouped. As one inscription (CIG 349) speaks of
' the priest of the Divine Father Tyrimnus,' and
as all heathen religions celebrated periodically
religious banquets, there is little doubt that from
time to time Christian members of these gilds
were faced by the question whether it was lawful
for them to partake of these banquets as coming
under the head of things offered to idols. Rigorists
would hold that to eat at such banquets was to
communicate with idols and so to commit spiritual
fornication. Jezebel, whether a prophetess or a
group, taught apparently that Christians might
lawfully partake of these religious banquets, and
this the writer of the Apocalypse regarded aa
equivalent to Jezebel's idolatry in the OT.

It is also plain that the followers of 'Jezebel'
were Gnostics, for the latter were explicitly
inquirers into the 'deep things,' the esoteric
truths which the ordinary person was incompetent
to understand. In 1 Co 2 10 St. Paul claims for his
disciples that the Spirit who searches all things
(same verb as is used in Rev 2 13 ), yea, the deep
things of God, had revealed these hidden things
to them. The apocalyptic writer, however, is
more concerned here with the opposite depths
those of Satan. Thus in 2 9 he speaks of the false
Jews in Smyrna who formed a synagogue of Satan.
In 2 U he says that Satan had his throne at Per-
gamum. In 3 9 Philadelphia is charged with har-
bouring a synagogue of Satan. These passages,
taken in connexion with the references to the
teaching of Balaam in 2 14 and of the Nicolaitans
in 2 16 , favour the interpretation of Jezebel which
sees in the name a term of opprobrium applied
dyslogistically to a heretical sect or form of
doctrine. That the depths of Satan are Gnostic
doctrines is clear from Iren. (H. xxii. 1), who says
that the Ptolemseans said that they had found
the mysteries of Bythus, a phrase repeated in II.
xxii. 3 (cf. Hippol. Hcer. V. vi., and Tertullian,
adv. Valent. i., de Res. Carnis, xix.). The name
Jezebel does not occur anywhere in the Apostolic
Fathers. W. F. COBB.

JOB ('I<5/3). Job is named by Ezekiel (14 14 - 20 )
in the 6th cent. B.C., probably about two centuries
before the writing of the Book of Job along with
Noah and Daniel as a proverbially righteous man.
After the publication of the great drama, it was
natural that he should be regarded rather as a
model of patience in affliction (vir6Sfiyna TTJS KO.KO-
Tra6eiasKalfjiaKpoOvfj.las,Ja,5 i0 - "). While the profound
speculations of the book regarding the problems
of pain and destiny, as well as the theological doc-
trine which the poet intended to teach, might be
beyond the grasp of the ordinary reader, the moral
appeal of the simple opening story came home to
all suffering humanity. 'Ye have heard of the
patience (TTJV hroftovfy) of Job' (5 11 ). Similarly the
conclusion of the tale, which revealed God's final
purpose in regard to His servant (rb rtXos xvpiov),
proving Him to be full of pity and merciful




vos Ka.1 olKripfiuv) , presented a situation which
all readers might be asked to observe. The im-
perative TSere, which is as well supported as etSere,
calls their attention to a surprising fact, which
they might well mark, learn, and inwardly digest.
The Quran repeats the admonition and the lesson.
' And remember Job ; when he cried unto the
Lord, saying, Verily evil hath afflicted me : but
thou art the most merciful of all those who show
mercy. Wherefore we [God] heard him and re-
lieved him from the evil which was upon him, and
we restored unto him his family,' etc. (sura 21).
' Verily we found him a patient person : how ex-
cellent a servant was he ' (sura 38).


JOEL ('luttJX). Joel is proved by internal evi-
dence to have been one of the latest of the Hebrew
prophets. The prominence in his writings of
priests and ritual at home, and of a diaspora
abroad, his reference to the distant sons of Greece,
his use of Aramaic words, and the lurid apoca-
lyptic colouring of his prophecies, clearly point to
the Persian period. But Joel has not the wide
outlook of some of the other prophets. He is
not fascinated either by Isaiah's visions of Israel
as the light of the Gentiles, or Malachi's of the
heathen waiting upon Jahweh. He has not the
humanitarian feeling of the author of Jonah, who
may have been his contemporary. He is a rigid
and exclusive Israelite. In his view the heathen,
as being apparently beyond redemption, are to be
destroyed, not to be won to the knowledge of God.
But if he is narrow, he is intense ; and while he
cherishes the priestly ideals, his hope for Israel
lies rather in such a diffusion of the prophetic
spirit as shall create an inspired nation. Nothing
less will satisfy him than the fulfilment of Moses'
wish : ' Would to God that all Jahweh's people
were prophets.' For him the goal of Hebrew his-
tory, the Divine event to which all things move,
is that God shall, by the mighty working of His
Spirit, so enlighten and control His people, so
adapt them to share His confidence and receive
His revelations, that the thrilling experiences
which have hitherto been confined to the prophets
shall then be shared by all Israel. ' Your sons
and your daughters shall prophesy, and your old
men shall dream dreams, and your young men
shall see visions : and also upon the servants and
upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out
my spirit ' (2 28 - ).

This particular prophecy wins for Joel a prominent
place in the NT. St. Peter at onc recognized its
fulfilment in that outpouring of the Spirit, that
baptism of fire, that Divine intoxication, which
was experienced on the day of Pentecost. He
quoted the prophet's words, and the question
naturally arises how he interpreted 'upon all
flesh.' Was he, like the prophet himself, still a
particularist, extending the promised blessing to
all the Jews of the Diaspora, but limiting it to
them, and so making the old distinction of Israel
from the heathen more marked than ever? Or
did he there and then change his standpoint so as
to include the nations in his purview ? Did he
in that hour of inspiration read into Joel's words
the later universalism of St. Paul ? Probably the
issue did not become clear to his mind so soon. It
was not a day for correct definitions but for over-
whelming impressions. Enough that to the effusion
of the Spirit there was meantime no limit of sex
('your sons and your daughters'), of age ('your
young men, your old men '), or of condition (' my
bondmen and my bondwomen '). Time would also
show that there was to be no limit of race (Jew
or Gentile) ; for however men (even prophets)
may limit 'all flesh,' to Christ and His Church it
means ' all humanity.' JAMES STRAHAN.


1. Contents. It is not easy to summarize the con-
tents of the First Epistle. The ' aphoristic medi-
tations ' of this mystic writer are strung together
in such fashion that they almost defy analysis.
The most successful attempt is that of T. Haring
( ' Gedankengang und Grundgedanke des I* 8
Johannesbriefs,' in Theol. AbJiandlungen C. von
Weizsacker gewidmet, Freiburg i. B., 1892). If we
cut off' the first four verses, which are clearly an
introduction, and also 5 13 ' 21 , which form a final
summary, the main body of the Epistle gives us
a triple presentation of two leading ideas. The
ethical thesis, ' Without walking in light, more
specially defined as love of the brethren, there can
be no fellowship with God,' is developed in the
sections 1 5 -2 17 , 2 2 <W-3 24 , 4 7 ' 21 . The christological
thesis, ' Beware of those who deny that Jesus is
the Christ,' is similarly developed in 2 18 " 27 , 4 1 ' 6 ,
5 i(?5)-i 2- In t h e nrs t presentation (l 6 -^) the two
theses are stated without any indication of their
mutual connexion ; in the second (2 28 -4 6 ) they are
again presented in the same order, but the verses
(323. 24) w hich form the transition from the one to
the other are so worded as to bring out clearly
the intimate connexion which the author finds
between them ('his command is that we should
believe, and love as he commanded ') ; in the third
(4 7 -5 12 ) they are inseparably intertwined. A rough
analysis may be attempted.

I 1 - 4 . The introduction states the writer's pur-
pose to rekindle the true joy of fellowship in his
readers, by recalling the old message of Life, which
has been from the beginning, and of late has been
manifested in Jesus, the Son of God (I 1 " 4 ).

j8_227 ( a ) Th e burden of that message is that
God is Light. As the light must shine, so it is of
His essence to reveal Himself to those whom He
has made to share His fellowship. In spite of
what some Gnostics may say, there is nothing in
His nature that hides Him from all but a few
select souls. But ' light ' describes, so to speak,
His character as well. Fellowship with Light is
only possible for those who 'walk in light.' To
claim fellowship, and go on committing deeds of
darkness, is to tell a lie. But for those who try,
He has prescribed a way of dealing with. their
partial failures (v. 7 ). Two similar false pleas are
then set aside : the denial that sin is a real power,
active for evil, in those who have sinned, and the
denial that actual sin has been committed. They
are shown to be contrary to experience, and to
what we know of God's dealing with men (vv. 8 ' 10 ).
In 2 1 the writer sets aside a false inference which
might be drawn from what he has said. The uni-
versality of sin might seem to be an excuse for
acquiescence. The writer states that he writes to
prevent, not to condone, sin. And this is possible,
for in the Christian society the means are ready to
hand for dealing with the sins which occur. The
Paraclete is pleading their cause in heaven, and
He is the propitiation He ministers. And men
can know ho\v they stand. Obedience is the sign
of knowledge of God. Men are in union with God
when they try to follow the steps of the Christ
(vv. 2 ' 6 ). In vv. 7 ' 17 thesis and warning are put
forward on the grounds of the readers' circum-
stances and experiences. Obedience to command
suggests a general statement of the command to
love. ' Thou shalt love thy neighbour ' is an old
command. It received new force and meaning in
the light of Christ's life, and the new life which
Christians have learned to live. This is more
clearly realized as in the new society the darkness
passes away. A man cannot be in the light and




hate his brother Christian. Love lights the path,
so that he can walk without stumbling.

The writer then turns to immediate circum-
stances (vv. 12 " 17 ). The sin which keeps them far
from God has been removed ; the experience of the
old and the strength of the young have secured
victory (vv. 12 - 13a ). This explains how he could
write as he has written. Their knowledge and
strength made it possible for him to use the words
he has penned (vv. 13b - 14 ). But there is need of
hard striving. Love of the world may soon destroy
all that they have gained. The world is passing ;
only that which is done according to God's will
abides (vv. 16 - 17 ).

(b) So he passes to the first statement of the
christological thesis (vv. 18 ' 27 ). Faith in Jesus as
the Christ is the test of fellowship with God. The
passing of the transitory suggests the signs of the
times. The last hour has struck. The saying
' Antichrist cometh ' is being fulfilled in the many
false teachers who have appeared. The Faith had
gained a decisive victory, in the unmasking of the
traitors, who had to go. The crisis had shown
that all such false teachers, however they differed
among themselves, were aliens, and no true mem-
bers of the Body. This the readers knew, if they
would use their knowledge. Their anointing had
given to all of them knowledge to detect falsehood.
Falsehood culminates in the denial that Jesus is
the Messiah. This denial includes denial of the
Father, in spite of Gnostic claims to superior
knowledge. All true knowledge of the Father
comes through the Son. It is gained in living and
abiding union, the eternal life which He has pro-
mised (vv. 18 ' 26 ). This much he must write about
the deceivers. If his readers had used their know-
ledge, he need not have written it (vv. 27 - w ). Let
them abide, and confidence will be theirs when
' He ' appears (v. 28 ). Who can have this confidence ?
Those who know that God is just, and who there-
fore learn in the experience of Christian life that
the doing of righteousness is the true test of the
birth from God (v. 29 ).

2 28 -4 6 . (a) We pass to the second statement of
the ethical thesis (2 28 <>-3 24 ) : the doing of righteous-
ness, i.e. love of the brethren, shown in active ser-
vice, is the sign by which we may know that we
are ' loving God.' In 3 1 ' 6 thesis and warning are con-
sidered in the light of the duty of self-purification,
laid upon us by the gift of sonship and the hope of
its consummation. Everyone who has this nope
nvust of necessity purify himself here and now.
Lawlessness does not consist only in disobeying
the injunctions of a definite code. There is a
higher Law which is broken by eveiy act of d/ia/m'a,
of failure to realize in life the ideal set before men
in the human life of Jesus Christ. This is further
explained in vv. 7 ' 18 , introduced by an earnest warn-
ing against deceivers. The doer of righteousness
alone has attained to Christ-like righteousness.
The doer of sin still belongs to the Devil, who has
been working for sin throughout human history.
So, if we realize that for us righteousness finds its
clearest expression in love of the brethren, we gain
a clear contrast : God's children, always striving
to realize the ideal of sinless love, and the children
of the Devil, striving after, or drifting towards,
their own ideal of sinful hate and selfish greed.
Sinlessness, i.e. righteousness, is not the monopoly
of a chosen race, or section of men. It is the
natural outcome of the new life which every man
may have, if he will take it and use it, to follow
Christ, not Cain, whose evil life found its natural
expression in the final issue of hatred murder
with violence (v. 12 ). Verses 13-18 contain varia-
tions on the same theme. The world's hatred
should not surprise them ; it is the natural atti-
tude of those who cannot stand the sight of good.

They really ought to know that love and death,
murder and eternal life, have nothing in common.
And Christ's example has shown what love is. At
least they can show their love in helping their
brethren. He who has not even got so far as that
need not talk of God's love. With an exhortation
to sincerity in loving service (v. 18 ) the meditation
passes over once more to the tests of truth. How
can we know that we are on the side of truth, and
still the accusations of our consciences ? By throw-
ing ourselves on God's omniscience. When a man
feels confidence towards God and finds that his
prayers are answered that he wishes for and does
the things that God wills his conscience ceases to
accuse (vv. 19 - 22 ). God's will is shown in His com-
mand which is more than a series of precepts :
He bids men have faith in Christ and love like
His. These lead to fellowship with Him. Men
know that they have it by their possession of the
Spirit which He has given (vv. 23 - 24 ).

(b) Thus the .interlacing of Faith and Love leads
on to the second presentation of the christological
thesis (4 1 ' 6 ), in such a way as to show its vital con-
nexion with the ethical. The mention of the
Spirit suggests the form of the new statement.
All spiritual phenomena could not be regarded as
the work of God's Spirit. The spirits must be

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