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4 6 ). This illumination (0w7-tcr/t6s) came first to the
apostles with the purpose of being conveyed by
them to others who were in ignorance. Thus the
object that is made known to all Christians is the
glory of God as revealed in the person, character,
and work of Jesus Christ, so that what was only
dimly discerned before is now clearly seen. This
is the open secret that believers in Christ have dis-
covered and delight to make known. This is the
pvo-rripiov that was hidden for long ages but is now
revealed, so that the Divine plan of redemption is
no longer a secret but is heralded forth in Jesus
Christ (Ro 16 25 , 1 Co 2 7 ). Thus St. Paul conceives
of the glory of God as having been long concealed
by the clouds of earth, but at last having shone
forth in undimmed splendour ; and those who
believe that Jesus is the Lord receive a vision of
God's glory that illuminates all life, history, and

To St. John also Jesus Christ is the source of
light on all the great matters of life. Through
Him we know God (1 Jn 2 3 ), and this provides the
key to all knowledge.

The other apostles agree in the central place in
their teaching being given to the knowledge of
God in Christ, and the Epistle to the Hebrews
(8 11 ), in announcing that under the New Covenant
there has come a universal knowledge of God, not
only embodies the hopes of the OT prophets but
also declares the faith of the NT teachers.

3. Implications of knowledge. This Christian
knowledge sheds its light on all the facts and aims
of life. Thus individuals learn the outstanding
features of their own characters (Ja I 23 ), the
sanctity of their lives as being the temples of God
( 1 Co 3* 6 ), the value of their bodies as members of
Christ (6 18 ), and the consecration of all the powers
of body and mind as an acceptable service to God
(Ro 12 1 ). Christian knowledge leads to a better
understanding of all the experiences of life, and to
a conviction that in and through every event God
is making all things to work together for good to
them that love Him (Ro 8 s8 ), and especially to a
conviction that the trials of life do not come with-
out Divine planning but are appointed by the will
of God (1 Th 3 3 ). Through Christ there comes
likewise a better knowledge of social duties, 4.g.
in the relation of masters and servants. Servants
are expected to render a whole-hearted service
because they know that their real master is Jesus
Christ, by whom they are to be recompensed.

Masters are required to carry out all their duties
with justice and fairness, for they know that they
have to account to their Unseen Master, the Lord
in heaven (Col 3 220 -). Even minor social problems
like those of eating and drinking have new light'
cast upon them (Ro 14 14 ), for the light of Jesus
Christ has illuminated all life and brought know-
ledge where formerly there was doubt or ignorance.

In the Epistles of St. John this Christian gnosis
has a predominant place, and it is interesting to
note how wide and vital this knowledge becomes
according to the Apostle. The knowledge of God
is at the centre, and it radiates forth in every direc-
tion to a wide circumference, for it includes the
knowledge of truth (1 Jn 2 21 ), of righteousness (2 s9 ),
of love (3 16 ), of spiritual life and inspiration (3 24 4 2 ),
and of the state of those beyond the grave (3 2 ). In
the light of God Christians possess a light that
brings enlightenment to them on many problems
of experience, perplexities of the present time, and
mysteries of the future life.

4. Complements of knowledge. The apostles
uniformly recognize that knowledge of itself is im-
perfect and must be always associated with other
Christian gifts. To reach its fullness it must be ac-
companied by abnegation (Ph 3 8 ), by fellowship
with God and with brethren (1 Jn I 3 ), by obedience
to God's commands (2 3 ), by attention to apostolic
teaching (4 6 ), and by faith, virtue, temperance,
patience, godliness, love of the brethren, and love
(2 P I 6 ).

Special notice should be taken of the connexion
of knowledge and faith, and of knowledge and
love. The apostles do not recognize any essential
antagonism between faith and knowledge. Faith
does not arise from ignorance but from knowledge
(Ro 10 17 ), and knowledge does not supersede faith
but includes it (2 P I 6 ). The knowledge of God in
Christ is synonymous with faith in Him, and in
their essence the two are closely inter-related. In
knowledge there is the recognition of the Divine
by our spiritual nature, in faith there is the action
of the will in virtue of this insight, so that the
highest knowledge and the humblest faith go
together. There is a kind of knowledge, however,
that puffs up (1 Co 8 1 ), and so far from its leading
to faith it begets a self-sufficiency and pride that
strike at the very foundations of all Christian

At their best there is also no antagonism between
knowledge and love. To know God is to love
Him, and to reach the highest knowledge love is
necessary. ' Every one that loveth is begotten of
God and knowetn him' (1 Jn 4 7 ). Christian
knowledge is not a matter of the intellect but of
the deeper moral and spiritual faculties that find
their true expression in love. Still knowledge and
love may come into conflict, and in the solution of
many practical problems love is even more neces-
sary than knowledge. St. Paul deals with this
relation especially in his discussion of the attitude
to be adopted to things sacrificed to idols. For
his generation the difficulty was intense, as some
Christians dreaded the slightest approval being
given to idol-worship, while others were so con-
vinced that idolatry was false that they considered
it a negligible quantity. Among the latter were
many Corinthian Christians, who had announced
to the Apostle their conviction that the whole
system of idolatry seemed so false that they could
eat any food irrespective of its being associated
with idol-worship. But St. Paul in his reply
(1 Co 8 lflr> ) argues that a mere intellectual convic-
tion is not the only or the best guide in such a
matter. In theory the Corinthians might be right,
but in practice they must not be guided by know-
ledge alone. ' Knowledge pufieth up, but love edi-
fieth,' and in matters that are intimately concerned



with the feelings and prejudices of others love is
the safer guide. To a Christian even more than
to a philosopher the saying of Aristotle must
apply : TO rt\os tvriv 06 yvuffis dXXct TTpa^is (Nic, Eth.
I. Hi. 6).

5. Philosophy and theosophy. The relation of
Christian knowledge to philosophy and theosophy is
discussed by St. Paul. The Apostle expounds the
gospel as being not only ' power' but also ' wisdom,'
yet he refuses to establish this wisdom by any of the
current arguments or by the conclusions of Greek
philosophy (1 Co 2 lff- ). He is proclaiming a gospel
that is folly in the eyes of many, and yet it is the
true wisdom to those who understand it. This
higher philosophy has been hidden from the sight
of men, otherwise they would not have crucified
the Lord Jesus Christ. It comes through the in-
dAvelling of the Spirit of God, who alone can reveal
it. Just as the spirit of man alone can understand
the things of a man, so the Spirit of God in man
alone can understand the Divine philosophy. ' The
merely intellectual man ' rejects this philosophy,
as he does not possess the spiritual insight to dis-
cern its Divine wisdom. Even Christian people
may be mere children in this respect, not able to
understand this teaching ; and among other indica-
tions of this childish mind was the party spirit
by which so many were impelled. Thus St. Paul
argues that the initiated Christians find in Christ
a philosophy as well as a gospel.

Christian knowledge came into conflict with the
theosophical tendencies that were so prevalent in
many ancient schools of thought. In this con-
nexion St. Paul's Epistle to the Colossians is of
chief importance. The Apostle deals in this Epistle
with claims that had been made by certain Chris-

tians to a higher Christian life through means that
involved ascetic and ritual practices, and from
arguments that rested on speculative and theo-
sophic principles. It is unnecessary for the present
purpose to decide whether these heresies arose
from a latent Gnosticism or from certain features
of Judaism ; but, if Judaism was the source, it was
a Judaism influenced by the thought and spirit of
the Diaspora. This may be judged by the kind
of speculations in which they indulge, especially
in the cosmical dualism that they shadow forth
and in the belief in an endless series of angelic
beings as mediators between God and men. St.
Paul does not denounce all speculative knowledge,
but opposes it by a higher knowledge of Jesus
Christ. He develops the teaching about Christ so
that He is presented not only as a full and perfect
Saviour for men, but also as the Lord -of the
Universe, in whom all things, even angels, were
created, and as the fullness of all things, by whom
both men and angels were made at one with God.
This insistence on the cosmical value of Christ
carries with it the best refutation of all extra-
Christian theosophical teaching.

LITERATURE. H. J. Holtzmann, NT Theologie, 1896, i. 476-
486 ; A. E. Garvie, in Mansfield College Essays, 1909, p. 161 ;
J. Y. Simpson, The Spiritual Interpretation of Nature, 1912,
p. 11 ; J. R. Illingworth, Reason and Revelation, 1902, p. 44 ;
A. Chandler, Faith and Experience, 1911 ; W. P. DuBose,
The Reason of Life, 1911, p. 198 ; J. Denney, The Way Ever-
lasting, 1911, p. 26 ; W. M. Macgregor, Jesus Christ the Son
of God, 1907, p. 175 ; W. G. Rutherford, The Key of Know-
ledge, 1901, p. 1 ; artt. in HDB (J. Denney), SDB (J. H.
Maude), and CE (A. J. Maas) ; see also art. IGNORANCE.


KORAH (Kopi, hence called Core in the AV).
His rebellion and punishment (Nu 16) are alluded
to by Jude (v. 11 ).

LABOUR. Greek and Roman thought regarded
those who lived by labour as indispensable but
contemptible necessities. Jewish teaching stood
in strong contrast to this. ' Hate not laborious
work ' (Sir 7 15 ) was accepted as a rule of life. Even
the scholar was to spend some of his time in
manual work (Schiirer, HJP II. i. [Edinburgh,
1885] 25). The apostolic writers repeat and
emphasize this principle. A man who does no
work is to them a parasite (2 Th 3 10 ). In the
Thessalonian Church the expectation of the speedy
return of the Lord had been made an excuse by
many for the abandonment of their daily work.
St. Paul meets this by reminding his converts
how, when he had preached to them, he had taught
them to welcome a life of labour. It brings with
it three good effects quietness of spirit, honour-
able standing among neighbours, and independ-
ence of other men's alms (1 Th 4 nf -, 2 Th 3 12 ).
To these he adds in Eph 4 s8 the ability to help
those who are in need. It is possible, as von
Dobschiitz suggests, that this had been forgotten
not only at Thessalonica, but also at Jerusalem,
and that that fact was one of the causes of the
distress among Christians there.

St. Paul enforced his teaching by his own exam pie.
He had been taught at Tarsus the local trade
of tent-making, and by practising this (cf. Ac 18 3 )
maintained himself while evangelizing. That he
might be no burden to others, he willingly worked
overtime ('night and day,' !Th2 9 ). His roughened
hands showed the severity of his toil (Ac 20 i>3 ' 35 ).
In 1 Co 9 6 he mentions Barnabas as another who

lived by the same rule a striking instance of self-
discipline in view of his past history (cf. Ac 4 s6 ).

The justification of this high view of labour
can be seen in St. Paul's treatment of the position
of slaves (Eph 6 5 ' 9 , Col S 22 ^ 1 ). There was a
danger that slaves might suppose that, as in the
eyes of God they were of equal value with their
masters, they need not do their work very care-
fully. But St. Paul forbids all scamping of work
(' not in the way of eyeservice'). It is to be done
thoroughly, because they are servants not so much
of earthly masters as of Christ, who has an absolute
claim on their best, and will see to their reward.

It was the custom among Jewish artisans to
maintain anyone of their own craft who was seek-
ing work until his search was successful. In the
Didache (xii. ) a similar rule is laid down for Chris-
tians. But such help is to be given for two or
three days only, to avoid imposture. If a man
does not know a trade, he is to learn one. Similar
advice is given in Ep. Barn. (x. ), where Christians
are forbidden to keep company with the idle.

Modern conditions call for a renewed emphasis
on the apostolic teaching about labour. The
principles which it embodies are a warning, to the
wealthy not to consider themselves exempt from
labour, if they would be accounted Christians, and
to the workman not to be content with less than
the best in his work, because anything less is un-
worthy of the Heavenly Master.

LITERATURE. E. von Dobschiitz, Christian Life in tht
Primitive Church, Eng. tr., London and N.Y., 1904 ; W.
Rauschenbusch, Christianity and the Social Crisis, N.Y.,



1907, ch. Hi. ; F. Delitzsch, Jewish Artisan Life in the Time
of Christ, London, 1902, ch. ix. 3 ; A. B. D. Alexander, The
Kthics of St. Paul, Glasgow, 1910. For Greek view of labour :
E. Barker, Political Thought of Plato and Aristotle, London,
1906, ch. viii. 1. For Roman : W. Warde Fowler, Social Life
<tt Rome, do. 1908, ch. ii. For Jewish : Pirqe Aboth, ed.
Taylor, do. 1877, p. 18 ; cf. Delitzsch, op. cit. ch. ii.



LAKE OF FIRE. That particular conception
of future punishment represented as ' the Lake of
Fire ' is found only in the Apocalypse of St. John
among the Christian writings of the Apostolic Age.
For a fuller account of the early history of the
conception see ' Introductory ' and ' Christian '
sections of ' Cosmology and Cosmogony' in ERE,
and ' Hinnom, Valley of,' in HDB ; and, for the
fuller discussion of the general subject, artt. HELL
and FlRE in the present work. It will be sufficient
to sum up briefly here the facts concerning the
origin of the conception.

Both the Babylonian and the Persian cosmogonies
contain the conception of the future destruction of
the world by fire, closing an aeon or period in the
history of the world. But, while Persian escha-
tology shows the presence of the conception of penal
fire (cf. SEE v. 125ft'.), there is, according to H.
Zimmern (KAT 3 , 1902-03, p. 643), no trace of the
conception in early Babylonian religion. Hence
the presence of the idea in Jewish prophetic es-
chatplogy is held by many scholars to t>e due to
Persian rather than to Babylonian influence.

1. In Jewish eschatology we. find three related
conceptions, each possibly a different topographical
setting of the same central idea :

(1) The conception of the Valley of Hinnom ('3
Dian) as a place of fiery torment for the wicked
during the Messianic Age ; cf. Is 6G 23 - 24 , where the
proximity of the place of punishment to Jerusalem
shows that the Valley of Hinnom is intended.

(2) The conception of a fiery stream issuing from
Jahiveh, or from His throne ; cf. Is 30 33 , Dn 7 10 .
This form may possibly have links of connexion with
the ancient conception of Jahweh as a volcano-god.

(3) The conception of a valley or sea of fire and
sulphur ; cf. Is 34 9 , where the topographical setting
is in Edom. This conception goes back to the
story of Sodom and Gomorrah, which again is con-
nected by Gunkel (Schopfung und Chaos) and
Jeremias with the Babylonian cosmology (cf. A.
Jeremias, The OT in the Light of the Ancient East,
Eng. tr., 1911, ii. 40 f . ; M. Jastrow, The Bel. of
Bab. and Assyr., 1898, p. 507). The whole valley
of the Dead Sea is still called by the Arabs Wddy
en-Ndr, ' Valley of Fire.'

The conception as it appears in the Apocalypse is
related rather to the forms (2) and (3) than to the
Gehenna conception.

2. In the Apocalypse we have again three distinct

(1) Hades (see artt. HADES, HELL), an inter-
mediate place or state whose existence ends at the
close of the millennial kingdom. Death and Hades
are cast into the Lake of Fire (Rev 20 14 ). Hades
is not connected distinctly with the idea of punish-
ment in the Apocalypse.

(2) The Abyss (20 1 ), in which the dragon is bound
during the millennial reign (cf. 9 11 and Lk 8 31 ).

(3) The Lake of Fire, mentioned as existing
before the beginning of the millennial kingdom
(19 20 ), the place into which the beast and the false
prophet are cast after their defeat by the Lamb.
It is also the place into which the devil is cast
after the defeat of Gog and Magog (20 10 ). Then,
at the close of the Final Judgment, death and
Hades are cast into the Lake of Fire (20 M ) ; and,
lastly, everyone not found written in the Lamb's
Book of Life is cast into the Lake of Fire (20 15 ). An

additional statement (21 8 ) describes those who have
their part in the Lake of Fire ; cf. the description
of those who are without the city (22 18 ).

3. The relevant passages in the contemporary
apocalyptic literature are: 2 Bar. xliv. 15 ('the
dwelling of the rest who are many shall be in the
fire,' in contrast to the blessing of the righteous in
the new age [xliv. 12]), xlviii. 39, 43, lix. 2, Ixiv. 7
(of Manasseh), Ixxxv. 13 ; 2 Es. vii. 36 ('the pit of
torment' and 'the furnace of Gehenna,' as the
abode of the wicked after the 400 years' Messianic
kingdom) ; Ass. Mos. x. 10 (the enemies of Israel
are seen in Gehenna). Hence in the apocalyptic
literature contemporary with the Apocalypse the
precise form of the conception does not appear.

4. In the same way the passages in the Pauline
Epistles, Hebrews, 2 Peter, and the Apostolic
Fathers are all vague and general. Fire is one
of the accompanying features of the Parousia ; it is
the real or metaphorical agent of punishment for
the wicked, and only in 2 Peter do we find the
definite conception of a final conflagration which
will destroy the old heavens and earth.

The principal question then arising from the use
of the conception in the Apocalypse is as to its
relation to the future state.

(1) The Lake of Fire may be regarded as a place
of the final annihilation of evil. The force of the
expression ' second death ' determines the writer's
use of the conception. The 'second death' is a
Jewish theologoumenon, e.g. in the well-known
passage in the Jerus. Targum on Dt 33 6 , ' Let
Reuben live in this age and not die the second

In Jewish Rabbinical theology the expression
seems to imply a non-participation in the life of
the age to come ; cf. the discussion in Sanh. 11 as
to those who shall share the life of the coming age.
Hence the meaning of annihilation is possible.
Those who are not raised to the life of the world
to come cease to exist. On the other hand, the
writer of the Apocalypse holds the doctrine of a
general resurrection to judgment at the close of
the Messianic Kingdom. Hence it is also possible
that he has given the Jewish phrase a new mean-
ing. But for a fuller discussion of this point see

(2) The writer's conception of the Lake of Fire
may be penal. The beast and the false prophet
are said to be tormented there day and night, and
the unrighteous have ' their part ' in the Lake of
Fire, an expression which is most naturally inter-
preted in a penal sense. In the light of contem-
porary apocalyptic literature the penal sense would
seem to be the most natural one.

(3) It is possible to maintain a purgative mean-
ing for the conception, but this view finds no
support in the NT literature itself.

LITERATURE. Art. ' Fire ' in DCG ; S. D. F. Salmond, The
Christian Doctrine of Immortality*, 1901; R. H. Charles,
Eschatology: Hebrew, Jewish, and Christian?, 1913 ; W. O. E.
Oesterley, The Doctrine of the Last Things, 1908 ; C. Clemen,
Primitive Christianity and its non-Jeivish Sources, Eng. tr.,
1912 ; H. B. Swete, The Apocalypse of St. John*, 1907 ; P.
Volz, Jud. Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba, 1903.


LAMB. The point of view for this subject is
suggested by Delitzsch : ' All the utterances in the
New Testament regarding the Lamb of God are
derived from this prophecy [Is 53 7 ], in which the
dumb type of the Passover now finds a tongue '
(Com. on Isaiah, Eng. tr., 1890, ii. 297). (1) In
Philip's interpretation of this passage to the eunuch
who questioned him concerning its meaning, he
showed that its fulfilment was found in Jesus (Ac
8 s2 ). (2) In 1 P I 19 , Christ is compared with a
sacrificial lamb ; as an offering on behalf of sin He
gave Himself (1 Co 5 7 ), without blemish and with-
out spot (cf. Lv 23 11 ). If the allusion here is first




to the descriptive terms of Isaiah, yet there is in-
cluded an association derived from the Levitical
ritual. Christ was not only a quiet, unresisting
sufferer, but also a sacrificial ottering for sin. (3)
The main use of the term ' Lamb ' in the NT is in
Revelation, where it occurs 28 times. The word
of which it is a translation is a diminutive, and
is peculiar to the Apocalypse. Many surprises
await one who, familiar only with the significance
of the Lamb in the Levitical sacrifices, traces the
new forms in which the figure made itself at home
in the visions of the Seer of Patmos. It is evident
that the writer had been fascinated by the sug-
gestion on account of which he first employed the
term to designate the Exalted Christ (5 6 ), and
he \vas afterward conscious of no incongruity or
embarrassment in continuing to use the title when
he referred to Christ, even when he associated the
most incompatible qualities, relations, and activi-
ties with it. In the interest of clearness and con-
sistency one may try to substitute ' Christ ' for
' Lamb ' wherever the latter term occurs in this
book, but it will be found that then something
almost indefinable but very real has fallen out and
that nothing of equal worth has taken its place.
We move here in a region of prophecy, of symbol-
ism, and of spiritual values, where the imagination
supplies itself with wings, and where exact logical
thought has to plod along as best it can afoot.
According to Rev 5 6 , in the central place before the
throne, in the midst of the four and twenty elders,
and the four living creatures, the Revelationist
turned to see a Lion, symbol of majesty and over-
mastering power, when lo ! instead of a lion he be-
held a Lamb, standing, bearing still the wound by
which He was slain in sacrifice, yet with the em-
blems of power and wisdom in the highest degree.
' He looked to see power and force, whereby the
foes of his faith should be destroyed, and he saw
love and gentleness by which they should be con-
quered ' (G. B. Stevens, The Theology of the NT,
1899, p. 542). The reason Hofmann offers why the
Lion which has conquered appears as a Lamb is
that He has gained His victory in that form ( Weis-
sagung und Erfullung, 1841-44, ii. 328 ; cf. Is
53 12 ). Attempts to trace the symbolism to astro-
theology (cf. A. Jeremias, Babylonisches im NT,
1905) or to a Babylonian source discover a single
reference to the blood of a lamb substituted as a
sacrificial offering for men ; but no influence of this
on pre-Christian Messianism, or of contemporary
cults on this particular symbolism, has been found
(cf. J. Moffatt, EGT, Revelation,' 1910, p. 385).
But always at the heart of every picture of the
Lamb throughout this book is the never-to-be-for-
gotten fact of His sacrifice and victorious power,
and all the properties and functions of the Exalted
Christ take their rise from this fact. Among the
functions assigned to Him is : (a) that of loosing
the seals of the Divine judgments, i.e. of carrying
history through its successive stages to its ultimate
goal. Henceforth the life of the world must be
dominated by the ideal which He has realized, and
the power for its fulfilment must proceed from
Him. (b) At the very centre of the heavenly host,
together with God He receive* universal homage
from the highest beings in heaven innumerable
angels and the en tire animated creation (Rev 5 8 ' 13
7 9 " 10 ). The significance of this worship, springing as
it does from a convinced monotheistic faith on the
part of the writer, is not to be mistaken. Not a
higher and a lower worship are here, but the two
are of the same order and unite in one stream.
The Lamb does indeed share the throne of God

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